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M101 howitzer

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M101 105mm Light Howitzer, Towed
United States Marines fire a M101A1 during a ceremony in 2005
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1941–present
Production history
ManufacturerRock Island Arsenal
Kia Machine Tool
No. built10,200
Mass4,980 lb (2,260 kg)
Length19 ft 6 in (5.94 m)
Barrel length7 ft 7 in (2.31 m) L/22
Width7 ft 3 in (2.21 m)
Height5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)

Shell105×372 mm R
Caliber105 mm (4.1 in)
RecoilHydro-pneumatic, constant, 42 in (110 cm)
Carriagesplit trail
Elevation−5° (−89 mils) to
65° (1,156 mils)
Traverse±23° (±409 mils)
Muzzle velocity1,550 ft/s (472 m/s)
Maximum firing range7.00 mi (11,270 m)

The M101A1 (previously designated M2A1) howitzer is an artillery piece developed and used by the United States. It was the standard U.S. light field howitzer in World War II and saw action in both the European and Pacific theaters and during the Korean War. Entering production in 1941, it quickly gained a reputation for accuracy and a powerful punch. The M101A1 fires 105 mm high explosive (HE) semi-fixed ammunition and has a range of 12,330 yards (11,270 m), making it suitable for supporting infantry.


Development and designation[edit]

After World War I, the U.S. Army Ordnance Department studied various captured German 105 mm-caliber howitzers and developed the 105 mm Howitzer M1920 by using the Carriage M1920. A box trail carriage design (the M1925E carriage) and two other split trail designs (the T1 and T2) were also developed, but the original split trail design was found superior after testing. After being selected, the piece was standardized in December 1927, as the 105 mm howitzer M1 on carriage M1. The Army had an intention to replace all 75 mm gun-howitzers in its divisional and non-divisional field artillery regiments with 105 mm pieces, but a lack of appropriations stalled the idea and eventually forced it to be completely abandoned by 1929; a limited plan developed in 1925 envisioned re-equipping three regiments, but by 1933, only 14 M1 howitzers had been manufactured.

A modified version of the M1 was trialed in 1932 which used semi-fixed ammunition instead of separate-loading ammunition. Since this development required a different breech block, the new piece was designated the 105 mm howitzer M2 on carriage M1. 48 pieces were manufactured in 1939. The original M1 carriage had been designed for towing using horses rather than trucks, and a new carriage, the T5 (M2), was developed in 1939 and standardized in February 1940. The breech ring of the howitzer M2 was modified in March 1940 before large-scale production began, creating the 105 mm howitzer M2A1 on carriage M2.[1]

In 1939, the new howitzer cost $25,000, which was three times more than a 75 mm Field Gun M1897 on M2 Carriage, and its adoption required procurement of a colossal amount of new ammunition (War Department estimate of $26 million).[2]

The weapon was heavy for its calibre, but this was because the gun was designed to be very durable. Thus the barrel and carriage could see great use and remain functional without wearing out.[3]

The U.S. military artillery designation system was changed in 1962, redesignating the M2A1 howitzer the M101A1. The gun continued to see service in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Though a similar model, the M102 howitzer, shared the same roles in battle, it never fully replaced the M101A1. Today, the M101A1 has been retired by the U.S. military, though it continues to see service with many other countries. By the end of World War II, 8,536 105 mm towed howitzers had been built and post-war production continued at Rock Island Arsenal until 1953, by which time 10,202 had been built.


M2 Howitzers are still in limited service in the Australian Army Reserve, but are being replaced with 81-millimetre (3.2 in) mortars with an emphasis on the retention of indirect fire support skills.[4] In regular service they were replaced by the 105 mm L119 Hamel gun and the 155-millimetre (6.1 in) M198 howitzers.


The Canadian Forces procured at least 60 US made M2A1 howitzers beginning in 1952, and starting in 1955, had Sorel Industries of Canada produce 232 of a slightly modified M2A2 version. The Canadian produced guns were later designated C1, while the US produced guns were designated C2. These continued in service until the early 2000s. In the late 1990s, ninety-six C1 guns were selected and sent to RDM in the Netherlands to extend their service life. These guns were re-designated as the C3. The changes include a longer barrel, a muzzle brake, reinforced trails and the removal of shield flaps. It remains the standard light howitzer of Canadian Forces Reserve units. The C3 is used by 1RCHA in Glacier National Park in British Columbia as a means of avalanche control. As well, the C3 is used to train Regular Force Artillery in Shilo MB. The modified 105mm C3 howitzer has a range of 18km.[5]


A number of M2/M101 howitzers were used by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and approximately 50 were inherited by Croatia, of which four are still in use for training with the Croatian Army.[citation needed]


French artillerymen of the 65th Artillery Regiment being instructed on 105mm M2 Howitzer in Morocco, December 1943.

The French Army used the M2 howitzer, designated HM2, during World War II,[6] in the Algerian War[7] and during the Opération Tacaud in Chad.[8] France later supplied a battery of HM2 to the Rwandan Armed Forces during the Rwandan Civil War that led into the Rwandan genocide.[9]


Several M101 howitzers are still in use with the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is normally used to battle rebels in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. It was also used in direct fire against Islamic militants during the Battle of Marawi.

South Korea[edit]

Starting on 6 July 1950, South Korea received a total of 1,127 M2A1s until the end of the Korean War to supplement and replace the M1 75 mm howitzer and the M3 105 mm howitzer.[10]

In the early 1970s, the ROK Armed Forces needed to replace these old howitzers due to the maintenance burden. To match North Korea's artillery capability, South Korea invested in the domestic arms industry to equip its large military cost efficiently. After completion of Project Thunder I, supported by the U.S. Department of Defense, for infantry weapons, in April 1972, the South Korean president Park Chung Hee ordered Project Thunder II for artillery weapons. The U.S. refused to cooperate due to the then diplomatic overtures to the People's Republic of China. The U.S. Embassy in South Korea ordered its technical team to withdraw, believing that South Korea lacked the tooling and knowledge to develop the weapons by itself. The Agency for Defense Development however, reverse engineered the M2A1 (M101A1), and prototype production began in March 1973.[11][12]

On 25 June 1973, three prototypes were demonstrated publicly. After the test, the U.S. ambassador Philip Habib arranged the meeting of South Korean chief secretary O Won-cheol and colonel Montgomery from the Joint U.S. Military Affairs Group-Korea. The colonel provided technical review of the howitzer, and recommended purchasing of the U.S. equipment for logistics issues because the howitzer was not compatible with the U.S. standard. South Korea refused and pursued domestic design, but the two nations eventually signed an agreement for technology transfer in September 1973. It was the first weapons research cooperation between the two nations, and the South Korean defense industry began to form with guidance from the U.S.[11][12]

In February 1974, hostilities grew after North Korea sunk a South Korean fishing boat and kidnapped fishermen near Baengnyeong Island. As a response, 10 howitzers crafted prior to the research cooperation were sent to the island, but pulled out after having severe malfunctions during operations. In November 1975, the reinforced variant experienced barrel breakdown; the failure led to the invitation of American engineers in January 1976 for an overview. After 1.5 months of inspection, the engineers suggested the Eighth United States Army replace South Korean copy with the original M101A1 design. The U.S. then provided its technical data package to South Korea, which quickly readied mass production of the howitzer before the year ended. Production began in 1977 as KM101A1 by Kia Machine Tool (now Hyundai Wia) in Changwon.[13][14]

In 1978, South Korea restarted domestic howitzer program based on M101A1. The howitzer applied 38 calibers barrel for extending the maximum range to 18 km using RAP ammunition. Only 18 howitzers saw service with South Korean military in favor of mass-producing KH179 155 mm towed howitzer.[14]

As of 2021, South Korea is the largest operator of the M101 howitzer with about 2,000 pieces in active service. It is planned to convert 1/3 of its inventory to K105A1 self-propelled howitzer.[15]


France and the State of Vietnam used M2A1 howitzers during the First Indochina War, as did the Viet Minh guerilla forces they fought against, who were supplied with at least 24 by the People's Republic of China, along with other captured American artillery pieces and mortars formerly operated by both Nationalist Chinese forces (the Kuomintang military) and US troops fighting in Korea.[citation needed] Today upgraded M2A1 howitzers (some of which have been mounted on trucks and employed as self-propelled artillery) are still being used by the People's Army of Vietnam (the PAVN).[16]

Other uses[edit]

In addition, the M101 has found a second use in the U.S. as an avalanche control gun, supervised by the US Forest Service and the US Army TACOM's cooperative effort in the Avalanche Artillery Users of North America Committee (AAUNAC). The M101 is used by a number of ski areas and state departments of transportation for long-range control work. Under the designation of M2A2, the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Field Artillery Regiment, 428th Field Artillery Brigade performs salutes with 7 guns with World War II Medal of Honor recipient names on their barrels.[17]


Gun variants:

  • M1920 – prototype.[18]
  • M1925E – prototype.[18]
  • T2 prototype, standardized as M1.[18]
  • M2 (1934) – minor changes to the chamber to allow the use of fixed ammunition.[18]
  • M2A1 (1940) – modified breech ring.[19]
  • M3 – lightweight howitzer, with barrel shortened by 27 inches (69 cm) with carriage of M116 howitzer.
  • T8 prototype (standardized as 105 mm M4 Howitzer in September, 1943) – vehicle-mounted variant with modified breech and with cylindrical recoil surface.[20]
  • M101 – post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A1
  • M101A1 – post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A2
  • M2A1 modernized L33 variant by Yugoimport SDPR with max range of 15 km (9.3 mi)/18.1 km (11.2 mi) (boat tail shell/base bleed shell)[21]
  • C3 – Canadian C1 (M2A1) with lengthened, 33-caliber barrel
  • KM101A1 – South Korean license of M101A1, 1977
  • KH178 105 mm Towed Howitzer – South Korean 38 calibers variant, 1983

Carriage variants:

  • M1920E – prototype, split trail.[18]
  • M1921E – prototype, box trail.[18]
  • M1925E – prototype, box trail.[18]
  • T2, standardized as M1 – split trail, wooden wheels.[18]
  • M1A1 – M1 carriages rebuilt with new wheels, brakes and other parts.[19]
  • T3 – prototype.[18]
  • T4 – prototype.[18]
  • T5, standardized as M2 (1940) – split trail, steel wheels with pneumatic tires.[18]
  • M2A1 – electric brakes removed.[22]
  • M2A2 – modified shield.[22]
  • XM124 & XM124E1 Light Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer – prototype (1962–1965) – produced by Sundstrand Aviation Corporation, who added an auxiliary drive system for local maneuverability (See also similar XM123 Medium Auxiliary Propelled 155 mm Howitzer with similar configuration). The base XM124 provided two 20 horsepower (15 kW), air-cooled engines, while the XM124E1 provided a single 20 horsepower (15 kW) engine and electric steering.
  • M2A2 Terra Star Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer – prototype (1969–1977) – Lockheed Aircraft Service Company added an auxiliary drive system and a tri-star wheel system to the carriage of an M2A2 105 mm Light Howitzer to provide local maneuverability. The last surviving example is at the Rock Island Arsenal Museum.

Self-propelled mounts[edit]


The gun fired semi-fixed ammunition, with 105 mm Cartridge Case M14. The propelling charge consisted of a base charge and six incremental charges, forming seven charges from 1 (the smallest) to 7 (the largest). Use of M1 HE rounds prepared for the 105 mm howitzer M3 (same projectile and cartridge, but different propelling charge) was authorized.[30]

HEAT M67 Shell was originally designed as fixed round, with Cartridge Case M14 type II. It was later changed to semi-fixed type with the standard cartridge, but with non-adjustable propelling charge. For blank ammunition, a shorter Cartridge Case M15 with black powder charge was used.[30]

Type Model Weight
Complete / Projectile
Filler Muzzle velocity Range
Available ammunition[27][30][31]
HE HE M1 Shell 19.08 kg (42 lb) 14.97 kg (33 lb) TNT or 50/50 amatol, 2.18 kg (5 lb) 472 m/s
(1,550 ft/s)
11,160 m
(36,610 ft)
HE-AT HE-AT M67 Shell 16.71 kg (37 lb) 13.25 kg (29 lb) Pentolite, 1.33 kg (3 lb) 381 m/s
(1,250 ft/s)
7,854 m
(25,768 ft)
Smoke HC BE M84 Shell 19.02 kg (42 lb) 14.91 kg (33 lb) Zinc chloride (HC) 472 m/s
(1,550 ft/s)
11,160 m
(36,610 ft)
Smoke, colored BE M84 Shell 17.86–18.04 kg (39–40 lb) Smoke mixture
Smoke WP M60 Shell 19.85 kg (44 lb) 15.56 kg (34 lb) White phosphorus, 1.84 kg (4 lb) 472 m/s
(1,550 ft/s)
11,110 m
(36,450 ft)
Smoke FS M60 Shell 20.09 kg (44 lb) Sulfur trioxide in chlorosulfonic acid, 2.09 kg (5 lb)
Chemical H M60 Shell 19.43 kg (43 lb) Mustard gas, 1.44 kg (3 lb)
Practice Empty M1 Shell 472 m/s
(1,550 ft/s)
11,160 m
(36,610 ft)
Drill Drill Cartridge M14 - -
Blank - -
Armor penetration[27][32][33]
Ammunition \ Distance 0 457 m (500 yd) 914 m (1,000 yd) 1,828 m (1,999 yd)
HEAT M67 Shell (meet angle 0°) 102–183 mm (4–7 in)
Concrete penetration[27]
HE M1 Shell (meet angle 0°) 457 mm (1 ft 6 in) 427 mm (1 ft 5 in) 396 mm (1 ft 4 in) 335 mm (1 ft 1 in)
Different methods of measurement were used in different countries / periods. Therefore, direct comparison is often impossible.


Royal Thai Army firing extended range ammunition from M101 modified with LG1 L/33 cal barrel.

See also[edit]


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  • Hogg, Ian V. (1998). Allied Artillery of World War Two. Crowood Press, Ramsbury. ISBN 1-86126-165-9.
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1971). Pershing: A History of the Medium Tank T20 Series. Feist Publications.
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1992). Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2.
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1994). Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-080-5.
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (2001). Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-742-7.
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1325, 105 mm Howitzers M2 and M2A1; Carriages M2A1 and M2A2; and Combat Vehicle Mounts M3 and M4. War Department, 1944.
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1901, Artillery Ammunition. War Department, 1944.
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1904, Ammunition Inspection Guide. War Department, 1944.
  • Technical Manual TM 9-2005 volume 3, Infantry and Cavalry Accompanying Weapons. War Department, 1942.
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2016). The Military Balance 2016. Vol. 116. Routlegde. ISBN 978-1-85743-835-2.

External links[edit]