M23 offensive (2022)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
M23 offensive
Part of the Kivu conflict
Mutwanga, Nord-Kivu, PHOTO DU JOUR DU JEUDI 28 AVRIL 2022.jpg
MONUSCO peacekeepers on patrol near Mutwanga, North Kivu, 28 April 2022
Date27 March 2022 – present
Location
Status

Ongoing

Territorial
changes
M23 takes Bunagana and several other settlements
Belligerents

March 23 Movement
 Rwanda[a]
Supported by:
 Uganda (June 2022; alleged by DR Congo)[4][5]


Jean-Marie Nyatura's militia[6]

 DR Congo
United Nations MONUSCO

 Uganda (March 2022)[11][5]
FDLR[3][12][13]
 Burundi (from August 2022)[14]
 Kenya (from November 2022)[15]

Nyatura rebels[16][17]
Commanders and leaders
Bertrand Bisimwa[18][19]
Sultani Makenga (WIA)[11][20]
Yusuf Mboneza [20]
Léon Kanyamibwa[21]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Félix Tshisekedi[13]
(President of DR Congo)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Peter Cirimwami Nkuba[21]
("Sokola 2/Nord-Kivu" commander until 6 July)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Clément Bitangalo Bulime[21]
("Sokola 2/Nord-Kivu" commander from 6 July)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Philémon Yav Irung[21]
(32nd Military Region commander)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Constant Ndima Kongba[22]
(North Kivu military governor)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Muhindo Lwanzo[23]
(Rutshuru Territory military chief aide)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Francois-Xavier Aba van Ang[13]
(North Kivu deputy police commander)
Units involved

M23 forces

  • Bisimwa faction[18] (Revolutionary Army of Congo)[24]
  • Makenga faction[25]
Rwanda Defence Force (denied by Rwanda)[3][26]

DR Congo forces

United Nations Force Intervention Brigade
Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF)[11]

  • 25th Battalion[5]
  • 35th Battalion[5]
East African Community (EAC) peacekeepers[14]
Strength
Rebels:
100–200+ (March 2022)[24]
400+ (May 2022)[24]
Rwanda:
c. 500–1,000+[3][30]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Unknown
Kenya 900+[15]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Democratic Republic of the Congo 1 helicopter shot down
United Nations 1 helicopter shot down,[1] 9 killed[b]

In late March 2022, the March 23 Movement (M23) launched an offensive in North Kivu, clashing with the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and MONUSCO. The fighting displaced tens of thousands of civilians and caused renewed tensions between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, as the latter was accused of supporting the rebel offensive.

Background[edit]

M23 rebels in Goma, November 2012

The March 23 Movement waged a rebellion in the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from 2012 to 2013. M23 was formed by deserters of the DRC Armed Forces (FARDC) who had previously been members of the CNDP rebel group and been dissatisfied with the conditions of their service. Both the CNDP as well as the March 23 Movement's first rebellion were supported by Rwanda and Uganda.[1][13][34] The uprising was defeated by a joint campaign of the DRC and MONUSCO, the local United Nations peacekeeping force. After agreeing to a peace deal, M23 was largely dismantled, its fighters disarmed and moved into refugee camps in Uganda.[1]

Despite the agreement, hostilities between M23 and the DR Congo continued. In 2017, M23 commander Sultani Makenga and about 100 to 200 of his followers fled from Uganda to resume their insurgency, setting up camp at Mount Mikeno in the border area between Rwanda, Uganda, and the DR Congo.[11][35] Makenga's force launched a minor offensive against the FARDC in 2021;[11][34] however, this operation achieved little, as M23 no longer enjoyed significant international support. Uganda and the DR Congo had greatly improved their relations, cooperating against a common enemy, the Allied Democratic Forces,[11] during Operation Shujaa.[28] In early 2022, a growing number of M23 combatants began leaving their camps and move back to the DR Congo;[1] the rebel movement launched more attacks in February 2022, but these were repelled.[11] The M23 leadership argued that parts of their movement had resumed the insurgency because the conditions of the 2013 peace deal were not being honored by the DRC government.[1][34] The rebels also argued that they were attempting to defend Kivu's Tutsi minority from attacks by Hutu militants such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR).[12]

The situation was further complicated by the factionalism within M23, as the movement was split into rival groups, namely the "Alliance for the Salvation of the People" headed by Jean-Marie Runiga, and the "Revolutionary Army of Congo" of Bertrand Bisimwa respectively.[18][24] In addition, Makenga's group was de facto separate from the other M23 forces which were still mainly based in Uganda.[25] Later research organized by the United Nations Security Council suggested that Makenga's return to an insurgency had started the gradual rearmament and restoration of M23, with Bisimwa's "Revolutionary Army of Congo" joining these efforts in late 2021 by reorganizing its remaining fighters and recruiting new ones in cooperation with Makenga. The headquarters of the restored M23 is believed to be located at Mount Sabyinyo.[24]

By 2022, M23 was just one of 120 armed groups that operate in the eastern DR Congo.[28] Before March 2022, the Congoloese government made attempts to reinforce its position against the resurgent M23 by sending more troops. However, such measures weakened its presence in other areas, such as those affected by the Allied Democratic Forces insurgency.[24]

Offensive[edit]

Initial rebel attacks[edit]

In the night of 27 March 2022, M23 rebels launched a new offensive in North Kivu,[36] first attacking the villages of Tshanzu and Runyoni in the Rutshuru Territory[37] from their strongholds at the surrounding hills.[34] The two villages had been important strongholds of the M23 Movement during the 2012–13 rebellion.[37] The rebel attack was reportedly led by Sultani Makenga.[11] The DRC government claimed that Rwanda supported the insurgent operation, a claim which was denied by the Rwandan government[1] and the rebels.[34] International Crisis Group researcher Onesphore Sematumba argued that claims about Rwandan aid were believable. He suggested that the resurgence of M23 was probably influenced by Rwanda's wish to stop an infrastructure project which would link the DR Congo and Uganda.[34]

On 29 March, the FARDC was able to repel a rebel attack against the border town of Bunagana, but M23 captured several villages, including Mugingo, Gasiza, Chengerero, Rugamba, Kibote, Baseke and Kabindi.[36] In addition, a UN helicopter crashed at Tshanzu, killing eight MONUSCO peacekeepers (six Pakistanis, a Russian, and a Serbian). The FARDC blamed M23 rebels for shooting down the aircraft.[1][38] At Bunagana, the FARDC received support by the Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF). UPDF ground forces crossed the border, while Ugandan aircraft bombed the rebels.[11][5] By 1 April, the clashes at Rutshuru had displaced 46,000 locals according to UNHCR.[39] Meanwhile, the M23 fighters temporarily retreated back to their mountain bases, with their first attacks being regarded as a failure.[11] They proclaimed a unilateral ceasefire.[38][40] One ex-M23 officer told the newspaper taz that it was entirely unclear what the rebel offensive was trying to achieve, with him speculating that Makenga was possibly hoping for one last battle to die in his homeland.[11]

Failure of peace talks and resumption of fighting[edit]

On 6 April, the FARDC rejected any negotiations with the M23 forces based in the DR Congo, and started a counter-attack.[38] Four days later, M23 announced that it would withdrew its troops from any villages captured during the earlier clashes.[40] However, as the fighting raged on, FARDC increasingly lost ground to the insurgents.[38] In late April, the DRC government and a number of rebel groups held peace talks in Nairobi,[13] but the Bisimwa faction of M23 voluntarily left[18] or was expelled from the negotiations due to the ongoing clashes in North Kivu.[13][12]

M23 forces, reportedly led by Makenga[13] and including the Bisimwa faction,[18] restarted their offensive in May.[13] This operation was reportedly supported by at least 1,000 Rwandan soldiers.[3] According to a local, M23 overran Kibumba on 18 May.[29] On 19 May, M23 rebels attacked MONUSCO peacekeepers at Shangi, Rutshuru Territory, as the latter joined the FARDC in counter-insurgency operations. The rebel leadership declared that the attack was in response to a previous joint FARDC-FDLR operation.[12][c] From 22 May, the rebels attempted to advance on North Kivu's provincial capital, Goma,[13] displacing 70,000 people.[41] From 22 to 23 May, a battle raged at Kibumba, while the insurgents temporarily seized Rumangabo before it was retaken by the FARDC.[29] According to independent researchers, the insurgents were supported by Rwandan soldiers during the battle for Rumangabo.[3]

On 25 May, M23 reached Goma's outskirts,[13] but were repelled by MONUSCO, FARDC,[41] and the FDLR[3] after heavy fighting. The insurgents subsequently retreated, and there was a pause in fighting for the rest of the month.[41] At this point, the FARDC accused the Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) of fighting directly alongside the rebels, claiming that local vigilantes had captured two Rwandan soldiers. On the other side, Rwanda claimed that the DR Congo had fired rockets into its territory, was aided by the FDLR,[13] and had "abducted" the two RDF soldiers.[8] The fighting also stoked local ethnic tensions; North Kivu's deputy police commander, Francois-Xavier Aba van Ang, released a video urging civilians to organize as militiamen to combat M23 in a "people's war".[13] The FARDC also armed existing local militias so that they could assist in the campaign against M23.[3]

Fall of Bunagana, further rebel advances, and pro-government counter-attacks[edit]

Maps showing the armed groups in North Kivu from October 2020 to June 2022. M23 control is marked in dark red at the border to Rwanda.

By early June, clashes again took place at Bunagana.[26][42] M23 militants reportedly attacked a MONUSCO force at Muhati, Rutshuru Territory, on 8 June.[8] On 12 June, the FARDC repelled another M23 attack on Bunagana, coinciding with the visit of King Philippe of Belgium at Bukavu to the south.[43] Unlike the previous attack on Bunagana, however, the Ugandan security forces across the border did not intervene and instead retreated from the hills overlooking the town.[5] M23 captured Bunagana on the following day, reportedly after encircling it and thus forcing the local garrison[4] of 137 soldiers and 37 police officers to retreat to Kisoro in Uganda.[28][44] There, they surrendered to the local Ugandan security forces. Many civilians also fled across the border.[28] North Kivu's military governor Constant Ndima Kongba initially denied that the FARDC had lost the city,[4] but the FARDC spokesman Sylvain Ekenge later declared that the fall of Bunagana constituted "no less than an invasion" by Rwanda.[45] Tensions between Rwanda and the DR Congo consequently continued to escalate, as the latter suspended "all agreements" with the former.[46] At this point, two senior Congolese security sources[4] and members of the Congolese parliament also accused Uganda of supporting the rebel offensive. The Congolese parliamentarians claimed that the Ugandan retreat before the rebel attack had facilitated the takeover, and specifically singled out Muhoozi Kainerugaba, head of the Ugandan troops involved in Operation Shujaa, for supporting M23. The DR Congo proceeded to terminate the military cooperation with Uganda.[5] The Ugandan government subsequently halted Operation Shujaa, while the Ugandan military claimed that M23's latest attacks did not pose a threat to Ugandan citizens and equipment, making an intervention on their part unnecessary.[46] The local MONUSCO leadership stated that the claims about the Ugandan support for M23 were "nonsense" and called for calm and cooperation.[47]

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta reacted to the fall of Bunagana and the growing regional tensions by calling for the East African Community (EAC) to "immediate[ly]" organize a new peacekeeping mission called the "East African Regional Force" to restore security in the eastern DR Congo.[48] Meanwhile, MONUSCO began to prepare its local troops to support the efforts of the Congoloese security forces to retake the city.[49] FARDC troops belonging to operations sector "Sokola 2" launched an attack from Kabindi on 16 June,[50] and later claimed that they had recaptured Bunagana.[51] However, the city was reportedly still in rebel hands on the following day, with heavy fighting taking place to its west.[5][52] M23 reportedly counter-attacked, capturing the town of Tshengerero[53] and the villages of Bugusa, Kabindi and Rangira. The insurgents were advancing on Rutshuru, and shot down a FARDC helicopter.[54] Fighting had also spread into the Virunga National Park. Environmentalists pointed out that this threatened the survival of the local mountain gorillas.[55]

The renewed advances of M23 were reportedly part of a plan by Sultani Makenga to cut off and eventually capture Goma, hoping to extract political concessions from the Congolese government in this way.[56] By 18–19 June, the frontline had stabilized along the Rutshuru-Bunagana axis. Combined FARDC-MONUSCO forces still held settlements in the direct vicinity of Tshengerero such as Ntamugenga and Rwanguba, including the latter's important bridge.[57][58] Fighting shifted to the Runyoni-Rumangabo axis, where clashes were reported at the villages of Kavumu and Bikenge.[58] Meanwhile, an EAC meeting was organized in Nairobi to discuss the diplomatic tensions between the DR Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda as well as the deployment of a new peacekeeping force in reaction to the M23 attacks. The DRC government declared that it would welcome an EAC peacekeeping mission, but only under the condition of Rwanda's exclusion from the operation.[59][60] The EAC subsequently called on M23 to retreat from Bunagana[61] as precondition for a casefire, but the insurgents rejected the order.[62] Instead, M23 reopened the Bunagana border post under its own administration,[63] whereupon North Kivu's government forbid the import and export of goods through rebel-held territory.[64]

Pro-government forces retake territory and stalemate[edit]

Moroccan MONUSCO peacekeepers on a long-range patrol to protect civilians from M23 rebels in Rutshuru Territory.

From 19 to 22 June, clashes continued as M23 attempted to break through FARDC defense positions. At first, the rebels assaulted villages along the southern axis, but were repelled at Karambi, Kitagoma and Kitovu, Bweza, and Busanza. They subsequently focused on Bikenge, Ruvumu, Shangi, and Bukima, overrunning the villages before the FARDC organized a counter-attack. The military was able to retake most of these settlements, though Ruvumu, Buharo, and Rutokara reportedly remained rebel-held. Overall, the pro-government forces generally held their positions, but the rebel assaults increasingly threatened the Matebe-Rwanguba axis.[65][66] Human Rights Watch reported that 17 civilians, including two children, had been summarily executed on 21 June by the M23 for suspected collaboration with the FARDC.[67] According to the newspaper Eco News, the FARDC reportedly inflicted a defeat on M23 at the Runyoni frontline around this time, wounding Sultani Makenga and killing another rebel commander, Colonel Yusuf Mboneza.[20] There was a lull in fighting from 24 to 27 June.[68] Combat resumed on 28 June, as rebels attacked FARDC positions at Bushandaba, Ruseke and the strategic hill of Bikona.[69] Pro-government forces, consisting of the military and police, counter-attacked, and retook the villages of Nkokwe, Ruvumu, Rugarama, Rutakara, Ntamugenga and Rutsiro.[70] On 29 June, the FARDC continued its advance, capturing Kabindi and Chengerero, though M23 militants countered by attacking Rutsiro.[71]

On 1 July, the FARDC claimed to had won a major victory over M23 and allied Rwandan troops after heavy fighting at Rutsiro, Ntamugenga and Nyabikona,[72] completely evicting the insurgents from the Bweza grouping (groupement) in Rutshuru.[73] Clashes continued at Bikenge and Ruseke on 4 July, as the FARDC repelled M23 assaults.[74] On 6 July, the FARDC reorganized the leadership of the forces opposing M23 to improve their efficiency;[21] in addition, Rwandan President Paul Kagame and the Congolese President Félix Tshisekedi held a meeting on the same day. According to the Congolese side, a ceasefire and the withdrawal of M23 from Congoloese soil was agreed upon. Instead of adhering to this agreement, the rebels attacked Kanyabusoro and Rwanguba on the following day.[75] Over the next days, clashes continued at various villages in the Bweza and Jomba groupements, as M23 attempted to retake territory.[76][77] At the same time, however, combat died down along other parts of the frontline.[78]

In the following days, combat largely ceased in the Bweza and Jomba groupements, but fighting erupted in the Kisigari groupement and at two important hills near Rumangabo.[79] Heavy fighting also took place in the Bashali Mukoto groupement, Masisi Territory, as two "Nyatura" factions clashed. One of them was a "dissident" group led by Jean-Marie Nyatura who was considered close to M23; Jean-Marie Nyatura's force attempted to capture several villages before being evicted from most of them by its local rivals.[6] After this point, there was again a lull in fighting.[80] Negotiations continued between Rwanda and the DR Congo under international mediation, though little progress was made.[81] On 14 July, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni made another attempt at convincing M23 and the Congolese government to organize a ceasefire.[82] Meanwhile, MONUSCO and the FARDC announced that they were shifting forces from other areas to prepare for an operation to fully push M23 back.[83] On 18 July, Congolese government spokesman Patrick Muyaya Katembwe reaffirmed that any negotiations with the rebels depended on M23 retreating from its occupied territory beforehand.[84]

By the end of July, M23 was installing its own officials in the occupied territories and raised a tax.[85] Violent protests also erupted in Goma and other eastern Congolese cities, with civilians attacking MONUSCO members and buildings, accusing the organization of inaction in the face of the ongoing regional rebellions. Protesters, MONUSCO peacekeepers, and bystanders were killed during the clashes.[86] The North Africa Post alleged that the rebels had used the protests as cover for attacks, and had been involved in an attack on Morroccan peacekeepers at Nyamilima.[87] One MONUSCO soldier was killed in a direct clash with M23 at Bunagana.[88] On 27 July, fighting between M23 and FARDC resumed at Kabingo, Rutshuru, as the rebels attempted to harvest the crops planted by locals but were confronted by government soldiers.[89] On 2 August, the rebels and FARDC fought at five villages in Rutshuru.[90] In the following weeks, however, a truce held along the frontline. This was condemned by many local civilians who argued that it allowed the rebels to consolidate their territorial gains.[91]

On 15 August, the first contingent of East African Community peacekeepers arrived in Kivu.[92] This group, consisting of Burundian soldiers, pleged to assist in the campaign against M23 and other insurgent factions.[14] The arrival of the Burundian peacekeepers received mixed reactions by local civil groups; some welcomed them, some considered the Burundians to be exploitative foreigners, and some took a more neutral stance.[93] Sporadic clashes restarted on 16 August, when rebels, allegedly supported by Rwandan troops, attacked Rwanguba, Rangira, and Muhibira in Rutshuru.[94][95] The M23 leadership claimed that these operations were in response to FARDC aggression, and declared that it wanted a "dialogue" with the government.[96] On 19 August, M23 shelled FARDC positions at Jomba, Bweza and Busanza.[97]

Renewed offensive[edit]

Fighting renewed on 20 October after according to the FARDC, M23 attacked a military post. on 23 October M23 group captured the town of Ntamugenga killing five soldiers, fighting soon spread to the strategic RN2, four civilians were killed and 40 were injured in the fighting. By 24 October fighting caused more than 23,000 people to flee their homes.[98][99] the offensive continued along the RN2 highway leading to M23 capturing the towns of Rubare, Kalengera, and Kako.[100] On 29 October M23 rebels took control of Rutshuru and Kiwanja.[101] In response to the offensive, the government of the DRC ordered the Rwandan Ambassador to the country, Vincent Karega, to leave within the next 48 hours.[102]

Anti-Rwandan protests broke out on 31 October in Goma, demanding that the DRC leave the East African Community and that Russia intervene in the conflict. Government spokesman Patrick Muyaya said that the DRC would not negotiate with M23.[103] On 2 November, Kenya announced that it would send 900 soldiers to fight against the M23.[15] Riots broke out in Goma after rumors of the UN transporting M23, and several UN vehicles were burned by rioting civilians. The UN accounted a "strategic and tactical withdrawal" from the Rumangabo military base.[104] On November 7, the Congolese military said they are training 3,000 new recruits to go and fight M23.[105]

By 15 November 2022, M23 had pushed to the towns of Rugari and Tongo clashing with the army with the M23 attack on Kibumba being repelled.[106] By 17 November, M23 claimed to have captured the towns of Kibumba, Ruhunda, Buhumba, Kabuhanga, Tongo, and Mulimbi from the FDLR who they accuse of working with the Congolese army.[107] The Ugandan military said that they would participate in the fight against the M23 joining Kenyan troops.[108]

Analysis[edit]

As a result of the M23 advances in 2022, Bintou Keita, top UN official for the DRC, described the group as having "conducted itself as a conventional army, rather than an armed group," and warned that the group's capabilities exceeded that of MONUSCO.[109] According to United Nations Security Council researchers, the presence of individuals in Rwandan uniforms among the rebels has been proven through photos and drone footage, partially explaining the M23 forces' increased professionalism.[21] Congolese researcher Josaphat Musamba concurred, arguing that it was "clear that there is support" behind M23's resurgence. Congo Research Group director Jason Stearns stated that, though there was "no certainty" about Rwanda backing the M23 offensive, the rebels' firepower and various frontline reports made Rwandan involvement "very likely". Regardless of Rwanda's possible role in the offensive, analysts cautioned that M23 had never been just a Rwandan pawn, and always maintained its own agenda.[110] In early August, a report for the UN by independent researchers provided further evidence about Rwandan support for M23, including photos and videos showcasing Rwandan soldiers moving into Congolese territory and M23 troops armed with Rwandan weaponry.[2][111]

Stearns argued that the new M23 offensive was possibly aimed at enforcing the group's inclusion in a disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR) programme. Previous attempts of M23 at becoming part of this process, including after the 2013 agreement, failed due to consiberable opposition by the Congolese public. One of the issues hampering any attempts to achieve M23's complete demobilisation is the fact that several members of the rebel group are known to have committed various war crimes over several years of involvement in insurgencies, even before M23 itself had emerged. This makes their integration into the Congolese security forces or rewarding them with amnesties difficult to justify in the DR Congo.[110]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rwandan involvement was first alleged by the DR Congo,[1] a claim which was later substantiated by the findings of researchers tasked by the United Nations.[2][3] Rwanda has denied its support for M23.[1]
  2. ^ 8 killed (6 Pakistanis, 1 Russian, 1 Serbian) during helicopter crash,[1] 1 Moroccan killed in ground combat with M23.[10]
  3. ^ It has been reported that some FARDC soldiers who operate in North Kivu are former FDLR members.[19] A later report for the United Nations by independent researchers stated that the FDLR had begun to fight alongside the FARDC in May, responding to the M23 offensive.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "M23 rebels in DR Congo deny shooting down UN helicopter". BBC. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Tempête des tropiques : « Soutien militaire au M23, l'ONU enfonce le Rwanda »". RadioOkapi. 5 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rwanda Inside DRC, Aiding M23 - Report". VOA. 4 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d Djaffar Sabiti (13 June 2022). "Congo rebels seize eastern border town, local activists say". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Robert Muhereza (17 June 2022). "Fresh fighting erupts in Bunagana". Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Masisi : déplacement de la population à la suite des affrontements entre deux factions de Nyatura à Bashali Mukoto". RadioOkapi. 16 July 2022. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  7. ^ "U.N. official praises Indian peacekeepers for thwarting attack in Congo". The Hindu. 27 May 2022. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  8. ^ a b c "DR Congo army accuses Rwanda of deploying soldiers 'to defend M23'". Daily Monitor. The East African. 9 June 2022. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  9. ^ "PHOTO DU JOUR DU SAMEDI 3 JUILLET 2022". MONUSCO. 3 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Goma : dernier hommage de la MONUSCO aux casques bleus tués au front". RadioOkapi. 1 August 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Simone Schlindwein (30 March 2022). "Neue Kämpfe im Osten Kongos: UN-Blauhelme sterben". taz (in German). Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d "DR Congo: UN condemns M23 rebel attacks on peacekeeping force in North Kivu". Africa News. 23 May 2022. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "DR Congo: Civilians at Risk Amid Resurgence of M23 Rebels". HRW. 1 June 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  14. ^ a b c "Le Potentiel : « EAC : Des soldats burundais entrent officiellement en RDC »". RadioOkapi. 16 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  15. ^ a b c "Kenya to deploy army to eastern DRC to fight M23 rebels". news24. 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  16. ^ https://humanglemedia.com/rwandan-soldier-surrenders-to-un-in-dr-congo/
  17. ^ https://allafrica.com/stories/202211240059.html
  18. ^ a b c d e James Karuhanga (26 May 2022). "Rwanda Will Not Be Drawn Into Intra-Congo Conflict - Govt Spokesperson". The New Times. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  19. ^ a b Bisong Etahoben (15 April 2022). "M23 Rebel Movement Hands Over Captured DR Congo Soldiers To Red Cross". HumAngle. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  20. ^ a b c "Le Potentiel : « Paix durable dans l'Est : Félix Tshisekedi : « La voie diplomatique demeure l'option idéale et privilégiée »". RadioOkapi. 27 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "RDC : changement à la tête du commandement militaire au Nord-Kivu et en Ituri". RadioOkapi. 7 July 2022. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  22. ^ "The military governor receives food from the FEC/North Kivu for the FARDC". APC. 1 June 2022. Archived from the original on 9 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  23. ^ "Fresh Clashes Between Army, M23 Rebels in DR Congo's East". Defense Post. 6 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g "RDC : Recrutement, réarmement et réorganisation du M23, l'Ouganda et le Rwanda ont servi de base arrière". politico.cd. 22 June 2022. Archived from the original on 11 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  25. ^ a b ICG 2022, pp. 10, 15.
  26. ^ a b "Congo Says Rwandan Forces Supported Latest Rebel Attacks as Thousands Flee". Reuters. VOA. 12 June 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  27. ^ "Nord-Kivu : reprise des combats entre FARDC et M23 à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 6 June 2022. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  28. ^ a b c d e Robert Muhereza (14 June 2022). "Congolese soldiers flee as M23 rebels take over town". Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 15 June 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  29. ^ a b c Djaffar Al Katanty (26 May 2022). "Heavy fighting as Congo tries to fend off resurgent M23 rebels". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  30. ^ "DR Congo Says Rwanda Operating 500 Troops Over Border". Defense Post. 9 June 2022. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  31. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "DR Congo accuses Rwanda of 'invasion' as rebels attack town | DW | 14.06.2022". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 2022-06-15. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  32. ^ AfricaNews. "Refugees fleeing DRC fighting arrive in Uganda | Africanews". www.euronews.com. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  33. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2022-05-27/resurgent-east-congo-violence-displaces-72-000-in-one-week Archived 2022-06-16 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL]
  34. ^ a b c d e f Martina Schwikowski (8 April 2022). "M23 rebels resurface in DR Congo". DW. Archived from the original on 9 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  35. ^ ICG 2022, p. 10.
  36. ^ a b Bisong Etahoben (31 March 2022). "5 DR Congo Chiefs Flee Chiefdoms, Take Refuge In Goma After Persistent M23 Rebel Attacks". HumAngle. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  37. ^ a b "M23 rebels attack military positions in eastern DR Congo". aljazeera.com. 28 March 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  38. ^ a b c d ICG 2022, p. 11.
  39. ^ Lisa Schlein (1 April 2022). "Thousands Fleeing Violent Clashes in DRC in Need of Emergency Aid". VOA. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  40. ^ a b Bisong Etahoben (11 April 2022). "M23 Rebels Withdraw From Villages Captured In DR Congo". HumAngle. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  41. ^ a b c Mohammed Yusuf (31 May 2022). "DRC Army: M23 Rebels Kill Two Congo Soldiers as Fighting Resumes". VOA. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  42. ^ "DRC Army: M23 Rebels Kill Two Congo Soldiers as Fighting Resumes". Reuters. VOA. 6 June 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  43. ^ "Belgian King Ends DR Congo Tour on Visit to Volatile East". Agence France-Presse. VOA. 12 June 2022. Archived from the original on 13 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  44. ^ Bisong Etahoben (14 April 2022). "M23 Rebels Reclaim DR Congo Region After Military Takeover". HumAngle. Archived from the original on 14 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  45. ^ Al-Hadji Kudra Maliro; Justin Kabumba (13 June 2022). "Congo military accuses Rwanda of invasion; rebels seize town". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  46. ^ a b Robert Muhereza (14 June 2022). "Uganda halts Congo military operations". Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  47. ^ "Prise de Bunagana : " Nous n'avons rien vu, ni entendu que les Ougandais auraient trahi leurs alliées FARDC " (MONUSCO)". RadioOkapi. 15 June 2022. Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  48. ^ "Kenya calls for immediate deployment of regional force to eastern Congo". Reuters. 2022-06-16. Archived from the original on 2022-06-15. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  49. ^ "RDC: les troupes de la MONUSCO "en position défensive" près de Bunagana". RadioOkapi. 15 June 2022. Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  50. ^ "Nord-Kivu : les FARDC lancent l'assaut contre le M23 près de Bunagana". RadioOkapi. 16 June 2022. Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  51. ^ "Rutshuru : les FARDC reprennent le contrôlent de la cité de Bunagana". agoragrandslacs. Reuters. 16 June 2022. Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  52. ^ "Nord-Kivu : reprise des combats entre FARDC et M23 autour de Bunagana". RadioOkapi. 17 June 2022. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  53. ^ Sabiti, Djaffar; Bujakera, Stanis (2022-06-17). "Congo soldier shot dead in Rwanda, rebels make gains in east". National Post. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  54. ^ "Nord-Kivu : la situation militaire demeure tendue à Jomba". RadioOkapi. 17 June 2022. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  55. ^ "RDC-Rwanda : les acteurs de la société civile environnementale préoccupés par le sort des gorilles de montagne". RadioOkapi. 17 June 2022. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  56. ^ "UN report on DR Congo says M23 rebels plan to capture key city". Daily Monitor. AFP. 17 June 2022. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  57. ^ "Nord-Kivu : Calme précaire à Rutshuru sur la ligne de front entre l'armée et le M23". RadioOkapi. 18 June 2022. Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  58. ^ a b "Nord-Kivu : nouveaux affrontements entre FARDC et M23 dans le groupement Bweza". RadioOkapi. 20 June 2022. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  59. ^ "DR Congo agrees to EAC force deployment without Rwandan army". Daily Monitor. The East African. 19 June 2022. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  60. ^ "Museveni in Kenya for EAC meeting to discuss DR Congo conflict". Daily Monitor. 20 June 2022. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  61. ^ Andrew Bagala (21 June 2022). "EAC leaders order M23 rebels out of Bunagana". Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  62. ^ Andrew Bagala; Robert Muhereza (22 June 2022). "Congo-M23 ceasefire fails". Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  63. ^ "DR Congo rebels reopen border post with Uganda". Daily Monitor. AFP. 20 June 2022. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  64. ^ "Nord-Kivu : interdiction d'importer et d'exporter les marchandises via Bunagana". RadioOkapi. 21 June 2022. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  65. ^ "Nord-Kivu : les combats s'intensifient entre les FARDC et M23 à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 21 June 2022. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  66. ^ "Nord-Kivu : 13 civils tués par les bombes lancées par le M23 à Kisigari". RadioOkapi. 22 June 2022. Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  67. ^ "DR Congo: Resurgent M23 Rebels Target Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 2022-07-25. Archived from the original on 2022-07-25. Retrieved 2022-07-25.
  68. ^ "Nord-Kivu : trois jours d'accalmie sur les lignes de front à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 27 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  69. ^ "RDC : nouveaux affrontements entre l'armée et le M23 à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 28 June 2022. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  70. ^ "Rutshuru : les FARDC reprennent le contrôle de 4 villages jadis occupés par le M23". RadioOkapi. 29 June 2022. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  71. ^ "Nord-Kivu : deux villages de Jomba sous contrôle des FARDC". RadioOkapi. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  72. ^ "Nord-Kivu : les FARDC affirment avoir « neutralisé 27 rebelles M23 » à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 1 July 2022. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  73. ^ "RDC : reprise des combats entre les FARDC et le M23 à Kisigari". RadioOkapi. 4 July 2022. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  74. ^ "Nord-Kivu : calme précaire dans les zones de Bikenke et Ruseke". RadioOkapi. 4 July 2022. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  75. ^ "RDC : reprise des combats entre les FARDC et le M23". RadioOkapi. 7 July 2022. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  76. ^ "Nord-Kivu : poursuite des combats entre FARDC et M23 à Ntamugenga". RadioOkapi. 8 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  77. ^ "Combats FARDC-M23 : environ 2 600 ménages des déplacés recensés au village Buhiri". RadioOkapi. 9 July 2022. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  78. ^ "Nord-Kivu : afflux de déplacés à Nyirangongo à la suite des combats entre FARDC et M23". RadioOkapi. 10 July 2022. Archived from the original on 10 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  79. ^ "Nord-Kivu : 5ème jour d'accalmie sur les lignes de fronts à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 15 July 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  80. ^ "Nord-Kivu : des dizaine de familles continuent d'affluer vers Nyirangongo". RadioOkapi. 21 July 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  81. ^ "La République : « Guerre Rwanda – RDC. Luanda, échec ! »". RadioOkapi. 13 July 2022. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  82. ^ "Combats FARDC-M23 : Yoweri Museveri préconise un cessez-le-feu sur la ligne de front". RadioOkapi. 16 July 2022. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  83. ^ "RDC : la MONUSCO dément avoir fait un aveu d'impuissance face aux rebelles". RadioOkapi. 15 July 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  84. ^ "Patrick Muyaya : « Il faut que le M23 retourne à ses positions initiales »". RadioOkapi. 19 July 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  85. ^ "Nord-Kivu : le M23 installe une administration parallèle à Jomba". RadioOkapi. 26 July 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  86. ^ "At Least 15 Killed as Anti-UN Protests Spread in Eastern DR Congo". Al Jazeera. 26 July 2022. Archived from the original on 26 July 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  87. ^ "UN Chief offers condolences to Morocco following death of Moroccan Blue Helmet in DRC". The North Africa Post. 27 July 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  88. ^ "UN honors five peacekeepers killed in eastern DRC". Africa News. 1 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  89. ^ "Nord-Kivu: reprise des combats entre FARDC et M23 à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 27 July 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  90. ^ "Affrontements FARDC-M23 : au moins 5 villages vidés de leurs populations à Rutshuru". RadioOkapi. 3 August 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  91. ^ "Rutshuru : la société civile déplore la trêve des FARDC engagées aux combats contre le M23". RadioOkapi. 11 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  92. ^ "Mutualisation des forces de l'EAC : les groupes armés ciblés par la force militaire régionale". RadioOkapi. 16 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  93. ^ "Burundi Troops Split DRC Opinions". VOA. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  94. ^ "Nord-Kivu : l'armée dénonce de graves violations des droits humains lors des attaques du M23 le 16 août". RadioOkapi. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  95. ^ "Nord-Kivu : reprise des combats entre FARDC et M23". RadioOkapi. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  96. ^ Bisong Etahoben (17 August 2022). "M23 Rebels Want Dialogue With DR Congo Government". HumAngle. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  97. ^ "Rusthuru: le M23 accusé de bombarder ce vendredi les positions des FARDC à Rwanguba". RadioOkapi. 19 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  98. ^ "Congo fighting flares as hundreds shelter in convent - army, MSF". Reuters. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  99. ^ "DR Congo troops clash with M23 rebels". France24. 23 October 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  100. ^ "DR Congo Army Clashes With M23 Rebels Around Strategic Eastern Highway". The Defense Post. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  101. ^ Rebels makes new advance, and Congo expels Rwandan envoy, 30 October 2022
  102. ^ "DR Congo expels Rwandan ambassador as M23 rebels seize towns". aljazeera. 30 October 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  103. ^ "drc rules out talks with terrorist-m23 as tensions worsen". chimpreports. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  104. ^ "Protesters in DRC set fire to UN vehicles in Goma". africanews. 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  105. ^ "Congo trains 3,000 new army recruits amid Rwanda tensions". greenwich time. 7 November 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  106. ^ "Thousands displaced as M23 rebels near key DRC city of Goma". Al Jazeera. 15 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  107. ^ "M23 claims capture of FDLR strongholds". The New Times. 17 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  108. ^ "Uganda Readies Strike Force to Counter M23 Rebels". Chimp Reports. 17 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  109. ^ Besheer, Margaret (July 2, 2022), UN: Well-Armed M23 Rebels Resurgent in DRC, Voice of America (published June 29, 2022), archived from the original on August 7, 2022, retrieved August 9, 2022
  110. ^ a b Claude Sengenya; Patricia Huon (7 July 2022). "Revived M23 rebellion worsens DR Congo's security troubles". The New Humanitarian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  111. ^ "RDC : le gouvernement salue le rapport de l'ONU sur le soutien du Rwanda au M23". RadioOkapi. 5 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]