M40 recoilless rifle

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M40 Recoilless Rifle
Rcl106lat2.jpg
Greek infantrymen with an M40
TypeRecoilless rifle
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In serviceMid-1950s – present
Used bySee Users
Wars
Production history
ManufacturerWatervliet Arsenal
Specifications
Mass209.5 kg (462 lb)
Length3.404 m (11 ft 2 in)
Height1.12 m (3 ft 8 in)

Shell105×607mmR (HEAT, HEP, HEAP, Canister)
Caliber105 mm (4.1 in)
RecoilRecoilless
CarriageTripod
Elevation−17° to +65° (between mount legs)
−17° to +27° (over mount leg)[12]
Traverse360°
Muzzle velocity503 m/s (1,650 ft/s)[12] (M344 HEAT)
Effective firing range1,350 m (1,480 yd)
Maximum firing range6,870 m (M346A1 HEP-T)[13]

The M40 recoilless rifle[14][15][16][17] is a lightweight,[18] portable, crew-served 105 mm weapon intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon made in the United States. The weapon is commonly described as being 106 mm, but it is in fact 105 mm; the 106 mm designation was intended to prevent confusion with the incompatible 105 mm ammunition from the failed M27.[19] It could also be employed in an antipersonnel role with the use of the antipersonnel-tracer flechette round. It can be fired primarily from a wheeled ground mount. The air-cooled, breech-loaded, single-shot rifle fired fixed ammunition. It was designed for direct firing only, and sighting equipment for this purpose was furnished with each weapon.

Replacing the M27 recoilless rifle, the M40 primarily saw action during the Vietnam War and was widely used during various conflicts thereafter in Africa or in the Middle East. It was replaced by the BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile system in the US armed forces.

Design history[edit]

The earlier M27 recoilless rifle was a 105-mm weapon developed in the early 1950s and fielded in the Korean War. Although a recoilless rifle of this caliber had been a concept since the Second World War, the weapon was hurriedly produced with the onset of the Korean War. The speed with which it was developed and fielded resulted in problems with reliability caused by trunnions that were mounted too far to the rear. The M27 was also considered too heavy by the U.S. Army and had a disappointing effective range due to the lack of a spotting rifle. Taking the M27 as the basis for a new design, the Army developed an improved version of the M27 that was type-designated the M40 106-mm recoilless rifle in 1955.[20] Although unsuitable for military purposes, M27 recoilless rifles were used to trigger controlled avalanches at ski resorts and mountain passes in the United States.[21]

Description[edit]

The M40 is shaped like a long tube with an M8C .50 cal spotting rifle above. The spotting rifle fires a round whose trajectory closely matches that of the 105 mm round and gives off a puff of smoke on impact with the target. On the left side, there is an elevating wheel, in the center of which is the trigger wheel used to fine adjust the elevation and at the same time firing the spotting rifle when pulled, and the gun when pushed. The mounting is a tripod, but the front leg has a castering wheel. On top of the mount is a traverse wheel. On the center of the traverse wheel is a locking wheel, when the wheel is down, the rifle is locked in traverse, and can only be moved right and left with the traverse wheel. When the wheel is raised, the rifle can be traversed by hand. Austria produced a two-wheeled mount for the M40.

The whole mounting can be placed on an M151 Jeep for mobile use. It has also been mounted on M38A1 Willys Jeep, Land Rover Defenders, M113s, Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen, HMMWVs, Hotchkiss M201 jeeps, Toyota Land Cruisers, AIL Storms and M274 Mechanical Mules. They were also used on US Navy minesweepers (MSO) during Operation Market Time in Vietnam.

A special vehicle called the Ontos carried six M40s. A version specific to the T195E5 mount, the M40A1C, was used. It was used only by the U.S. Marine Corps. Japan produced a self-propelled gun called the Type 60, which carried two side by side. Some Pakistani M113s have a dual mounting. Three Panagopoulos coastal patrol boats class of the Hellenic Coast Guard and the Hellenic Navy in service of 1976-2003 was armed with two sextuples M40.[22]

The M40 was a very successful export item and continues to be used by South Korea, Ecuador, Estonia, Greece, Honduras, Iran, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Taiwan, Turkey, Colombia, Venezuela and many others, as well as anti-government forces in the Libyan Civil War and Syrian civil war.[8]

It is manufactured in Iran by Defense Industries Organization.[23] The M40A1 was also copied in China as Type 75.[24]

Ammunition[edit]

Ammunition for the 105 mm rifle was issued as one-piece fixed cartridges. The term "fixed" means that the projectile and the cartridge case are crimped together. This ensures correct alignment of the projectile and the cartridge case. It also permits faster loading because the projectile and the cartridge case are loaded as one unit. The rear end of the cartridge case is perforated, to allow the propellant gas to escape through the vented breech, thus neutralizing recoil. Most projectiles (except HEAT) used are pre-engraved, that is, the rotating bands are cut to engage the rifled bore.[25] If the round was not rotated slightly when loading the M40 it could result in jamming in the breech.

Types of ammunition included HEAT, High Explosive Plastic-Tracer (HEP-T), canister, High Explosive Anti Personnel, and the M368 dummy round which could not be fired and was used for crew drill. The original U.S. HEAT round penetrated more than 400 mm of armor. Near the end of the M40's service life, both Austria and Sweden produced HEAT rounds for the weapon capable of penetrating more than 700 mm of armor.[26]

Producer Round
name
Type Proj
Weight
Proj
Filler
Filler
weight
Armor
penetration
Effective
range
 United States M581 APERS 9.89 kg flechettes 4.94 kg N/A 300 m
 Spain M-DN11 HEAP 3.6 kg Hexogen 0.77 kg N/A 1500 m
 France NR 160 HEAT-T N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 France NR 483 APERS N/A flechettes N/A N/A N/A
 France NR 601 HESH-T 7.8 kg Comp. A3 N/A N/A N/A
 Italy PFF HE 9.89 kg Comp. B N/A N/A N/A
 United States M346A1 HEP-T 7.96 kg Comp. A3 3.5 kg N/A[27] N/A
 United States M344A1 HEAT 7.96 kg Comp. B 1.27 kg over 400 mm[28] 1350 m
 Sweden 106 3A HEAT-T 5.5 kg Octol 1.0 kg over 700 mm[29] 2000 m
 Austria RAT 700 HEAT 5.0 kg N/A 1.1 kg over 700 mm N/A

Spotting Rifle[edit]

The ammunition for the M8C spotting rifle is not .50 BMG, but a round often refereed to as .50 BAT (Battalion Anti Tank), which is 12.7x77mm. .50 BAT was developed to replicate the trajectory of the 106 mm ammunition, and features a tracer element and a point-detonating incendiary filler to create a puff of smoke at the impact point.

Although the spotting rifle could conceivably be used in an antipersonnel role, historic U.S. military doctrine strongly discouraged this use, for a purely tactical reason—to conceal the vulnerable M40 and its crew from the enemy until the main rifle was ready to fire. However, this restriction is believed to be the source of a long-standing misconception that the laws of war restrict the use of .50-caliber projectiles against enemy personnel more generally.[30]

Users[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Dunstan, Simon (10 Oct 2009). The Six Day War 1967: Sinai. Campaign 212. Osprey Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 9781846033636.
  3. ^ a b Neville 2018, p. 20.
  4. ^ a b Neville 2018, p. 15.
  5. ^ a b Neville 2018, p. 16.
  6. ^ Neville 2018, p. 21.
  7. ^ Neville 2018, pp. 40, 42.
  8. ^ a b c d e f McNally, Brendan (May 31, 2013). "Ancient U.S. Weapon Makes a Surprise Reappearance in Syria". Wired.
  9. ^ a b Neville 2018, pp. 12, 34-35.
  10. ^ "La 52ème brigade de la mobilisation populaire chiite, milice turkmène pro-iranienne en Irak". France Soir (in French). 16 August 2017.
  11. ^ a b Neville 2018, p. 38.
  12. ^ a b c "Anti Tank weapons". official web site of the South African army. Retrieved 2011-05-08.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ U.S. Army Technical Manual 43-0001-28, p. 5-27, April 1994.
  14. ^ "M40 - Weaponsystems.net". weaponsystems.net.
  15. ^ "M40 RR 106mm Recoilless Rifle - United States".
  16. ^ Pike, John. "M40 106mm Recoilless Rifle". www.globalsecurity.org.
  17. ^ http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-55.pdf
  18. ^ Bob Stoner GMCM (SW) Ret. (2005). "M40A1 106MM Recoilless Rifle with M8C Spotting Rifle". Archived from the original on 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
  19. ^ "M40 106mm Recoilless Rifle". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  20. ^ John Weeks, Men against tanks, New York: Mason/Charter, 1975.
  21. ^ Comment by Ken Estes at tanknet.org Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ WARSHIPS OF THE PAST: Panagopoulos class coastal patrol boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard and the Hellenic Navy, 18 January 2016
  23. ^ "Armament Industries Group". diomil.ir. 2006. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20.
  24. ^ a b Neville 2018, p. 12.
  25. ^ "M40 106mm recoilless Rifle". M40 106mm Recoilless Rifle. Global Security. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  26. ^ JAH, pp. 140-141.
  27. ^ Probably defeats ~ 200 mm of armor.
  28. ^ JIW.
  29. ^ After penetrating explosive reactive armor.
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  34. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 322.
  35. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 236.
  36. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 380.
  37. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 383.
  38. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 434.
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  42. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 437.
  43. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 387.
  44. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 390.
  45. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 441.
  46. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 85.
  47. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 442.
  48. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 394.
  49. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 396.
  50. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 398.
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  53. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 446.
  54. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 399.
  55. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 104.
  56. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 402.
  57. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 251.
  58. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 257.
  59. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 328.
  60. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 492.
  61. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 439.
  62. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 271.
  63. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 340.
  64. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 452.
  65. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 454.
  66. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 272.
  67. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 343.
  68. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 404-405.
  69. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 345.
  70. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 276.
  71. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 460.
  72. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 461.
  73. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 280.
  74. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 410-411.
  75. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 284.
  76. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 130.
  77. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 351-353.
  78. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 287.
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  81. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 268.
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  93. ^ Military Balance 2016, p. 358.
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]