M41 Walker Bulldog
The M41 Walker Bulldog was an American light tank developed to replace the M24 Chaffee. It was named for General Walton Walker who died in a jeep accident in Korea. On 7 November 1950, the US Ordnance Committee Minutes (OCM) issued item #33476, redesignating the heavy, medium, and light tank, according to the main armament; the 120mm and 105mm caliber (heavy, larger-than-100mm) Gun Tanks, 90mm (medium) Gun Tanks, and the 76mm (light) Gun Tanks.
While the M24 Chaffee was a successful design, its main gun was not effective enough against well armored opponents. Although the primary mission of a light tank was scouting, the U.S. Army wanted one with more powerful armament. The development of the new tank, T37, began in 1947. The vehicle was designed to be air-transportable, and the desired anti-tank capabilities were provided by installing a long 76 mm gun with an advanced rangefinder. In 1949, with the adoption of a less ambitious rangefinder, the project's designation was changed to T41. Production started in 1951 at Cleveland's Cadillac Tank Plant, and by 1953 the new tank completely replaced the M24 in the United States Army. Initially it was nicknamed "Little Bulldog", then renamed "Walker Bulldog" after General Walton Walker, who was killed in a jeep accident in Korea in 1950.
The M41 was an agile and well armed vehicle. However, it was also noisy, fuel-hungry and heavy enough to cause problems with air transport. In 1952 work began on lighter designs (T71, T92), but those projects came to naught and were eventually abandoned.
The Walker Bulldog saw limited combat with the U.S. Army during the Korean War, but for the most part, the conflict served as a testing ground to work out the tank's deficiencies, especially with its rangefinder. At the time, it was designated as the T41, and was rushed to the battlefield even before its first test run. This was due to the fact that the North Koreans were supplied with Soviet T-34 tanks, which were superior to the M24. By 1961, 150 were delivered to the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force to supplement their Type 61 medium tanks.
In 1964 the M41 light tank was selected to replace the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) M24 Chaffee light tank, which they had inherited from the French, who in turn had received them from the United States during the First Indochina War. The first M41A3s arrived in January 1965, equipping five ARVN squadrons by the end of the year. The M41 was an instant success with South Vietnamese armor crewmen, who found its interior to be just perfect for their smaller statures, which had been a principal criticism by US armor crewmen who had been assigned to the vehicle. This, combined with the tank's "mechanical reliability, simplicity, and excellent handling" made the Bulldog a worthy war machine.
In 1971, the ARVN and US forces commenced Operation Lam Son 719, a disruption of North Vietnamese Army (NVA) supply lines in neighboring Laos; a combination of armor and airmobile attacks on three axes into enemy held territory. The ARVN 1st Armor Brigade, accompanied by two airborne battalions and two cavalry regiments penetrated approximately 4 miles into Laos on 8 February, enemy reaction was swift, with this first engagement between NVA and ARVN tanks, the 17 M41s knocked out six T-54 tanks and sixteen lightly armored PT-76 amphibious tanks. Friendly units lost 5 M41s and 25 APCs. After this battle the South Vietnamese began their withdrawal and lost all tanks.
By 1973, over 200 M41 light tanks remained in service with the ARVN. US units in Europe and CONUS equipped with the M41 Walker Bulldog eventually transitioned to the M48 Patton medium tank. During 1975 offensive all 210 ARVN M41s were destroyed or captured.
The M41 was exported to Brazil (340), Spain (180) Chile (60), Dominican Republic (12), Guatemala (10), New Zealand (10), The Philippines (7) Somalia (10), Taiwan (675), Thailand (200), Tunisia (10), Lebanon (20) and other countries. Many of these tanks were upgraded to prolong their life. Some are still in service.
In 1969 the US Army began replacing the M41 with the advanced, but troublesome, aluminum hulled M551 Sheridan Armored Airborne Reconnaissance Assault Vehicle (not officially listed as a light tank due to Army policy at the time). The Sheridan's main gun could fire conventional 152 mm tank shells and gun-launched missiles; the weapon could knock out main battle tanks. In addition, the M551 could swim and be air dropped.
The chassis of the M41 was used for the M42 Duster, which mounted two 40 mm anti-aircraft guns. It was also built up into the M75 armored personnel carrier, one of the first enclosed box-shaped personnel carriers; that vehicle in turn was the pattern for the M113 APC, which later became the most widely produced US armored combat vehicle in history.
- M41 (1953).
- M41A1 (1954): Electrical turret traverse instead of the hydraulic one. The more compact system allowed to increase 76 mm ammunition stowage from 57 to 65 rounds.
- M41A2 (1956): Production tanks with fuel injected Continental AOS 895-3 6-cylinder gasoline engine replacing the earlier carburetor fuel system. This designation also applied to earlier M41s that had their engines upgraded to the fuel injection system.
- M41A3: M41A1 tanks that had their engines upgraded to fuel injection.
- M41 DK-1: Danish upgrade. New engine, thermal sights, NBC protection, side skirts.
- Type 64 (Experimental): Taiwanese development modified to local manufacturing techniques with improved fire controls, a 520hp diesel engine, co-axial machine gun replaced with T57 7.62mm GPMG, and appliqué turret armors and side skirts. Did not enter mass production and is not to be confused with another M42-based light tank conversion bearing the same designation.
- M41C: Brazilian upgrade. In its final version, original gasoline engine replaced with Brazilian build Saab-Scania DS-14A O4 eight cylinder diesel engine with modifications to the rear hull and electrical system. Upgrade of the transmission package allowing for a top road speed of 70 km/hour. Night vision and a laser range finder added to the gunsight. Additional spaced armor added to the forward part of the hull, glacis plate and turret. Four smoke grenade dischargers were added to each side of the turret. Replacing the original 76 mm M32 gun with a 90 mm Ca 76/90 M32 BR3 gun with thermal sleeve and muzzle brake made in Brazil.
- M41D: Republic of China Army upgrade. New locally produced gun, new targeting systems, Detroit Diesel 8V-71T diesel engine, reactive armor. The D in its name stands for the M41D's diesel engine.
- M42 Duster (1952): Self-propelled anti-aircraft defense weapon system based on the M41 chassis. Two Bofors 40 mm guns were mounted in the turret.
Also Brazilian, German, Spanish, Uruguayan upgraded variants, usually with a larger gun and/or a diesel engine.
Another upgrade package for the M41 was developed by the Nimda Group, Israel, solely for export. Includes a new fire control system for the main gun, diesel engine/transmission power pack and cooling system.
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- Dominican Republic: 10 M41B tanks (12 originally).
- Guatemala: 12 M41DK.
- Somalia: 10
- Republic of China (Taiwan): 50 M41D vehicles in service with Republic of China Army
- Uruguay: 22 M41UR tanks. Modifications include a 90 mm Cockerill Mk 7 high velocity cannon and a Scania DS-14 diesel engine + 24 ex-Brazilian Army
- Vietnam: 30 M41s captured from the ARVN
- Austria: 42 M41 (1960–79).
- Belgium: 135 M41 (1958–74).
- Brazil: 340 M41B and M41C Retired.
- Chile: 60 M41 Retired
- Denmark: 53 M41DKs (used between 1953–98).
- Japan: 147 M41 (1961–81).
- Jordan: Retired
- Lebanon: 20 M41A3 in service with the Lebanese Army (1958–84), passed on to the Army of Free Lebanon, Lebanese Arab Army, Tigers Militia, Kataeb Regulatory Forces, Lebanese Forces.
- New Zealand: 10 Retired
- Philippines: 7 M41s used by the Philippine Army. (1965–80s)
- South Africa: Retired
- South Vietnam: Used by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)
- Spain: Retired
- Thailand: 200 M41s Retired
- Tunisia 20 Retired
- United States: Retired
- West Germany: Retired
- The Best Light Tank. Life Magazine. 26 Feb 1951. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Fulgham, David, Terrence Maitland, et al. South Vietnam On Trial: Mid-1970 to 1972. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1984. P.85
- 'Self-Propelled Howitzer Roams Any Terrain a Tank Can Travel." Popular Mechanics, October 1954, p. 104, bottom of page.
- Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, Christopher F. Foss, p. 177, Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 0-684-14113-2
- note - Originally designated M-44 and M-52, but over time re-designated M44 and M55.
- John Pike (2013-04-28). "M41 Walker Bulldog Light Tank". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". SIPRI. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- "What arms embargo?" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- Starry, Donn A. General. Mounted Combat in Vietnam. Vietnam Studies; Department of the Army, first published 1978-CMH Pub 90-17.
- Dunstan, Simon. Vietnam Tracks-Armor In Battle 1945–75. 1982 edition, Osprey Publications; ISBN 0-89141-171-2.
- Hunnicutt, R. P. Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank. 1984 edition, Presidio Press; ISBN 0-89141-230-1 (vol 1).
- Hunnicutt, R.P. Sheridan: A History of the American Light Tank, Volume 2. 1995 edition, Presidio Press; ISBN 978-0-89141-570-1. (This book contains a chapter on the M41).
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