M62 coach bombing
|M62 coach bombing|
|Part of the Troubles|
|Location||Near Oakwell Hall, between junctions 26 and 27, M62 motorway, West Riding of Yorkshire, England|
|Date||4 February 1974|
|Deaths||12 (9 soldiers, 3 civilians)|
|38 (soldiers and civilians)|
The M62 coach bombing occurred on 4 February 1974 on the M62 motorway in northern England, when a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb exploded in a coach carrying off-duty British Armed Forces personnel and their family members. Twelve people (nine soldiers, three civilians) were killed by the bomb, which consisted of 25 pounds (11 kg) of high explosive hidden in a luggage locker on the coach. Later in 1974 Judith Ward was convicted of the crime, but 18 years later the conviction was judged as wrongful and she was released from prison.
The coach had been specially commissioned to carry British Army and Royal Air Force personnel on leave with their families from and to the bases at Catterick and Darlington during a period of railway strike action. The vehicle had departed from Manchester and was making good progress along the motorway. Shortly after midnight, when the bus was between junction 26 and 27, near Oakwell Hall, there was a large explosion on board. Most of those aboard were sleeping at the time. The blast, which could be heard several miles away, reduced the coach to a "tangle of twisted metal" and threw body parts up to 250 yards (230 m).
The explosion killed eleven people outright and wounded over fifty others, one of whom died four days later. Amongst the dead were nine soldiers – two from the Royal Artillery, three from the Royal Corps of Signals and four from the 2nd battalion Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. One of the latter was Corporal Clifford Haughton, whose entire family, consisting of his wife Linda and his sons Lee (5) and Robert (2), also died. Numerous others suffered severe injuries, including a six-year-old boy, who was badly burned.
The driver of the coach, Roland Handley, was injured by flying glass, but was hailed as a hero for bringing the coach safely to a halt. Handley died, aged 76, in January 2011.
Suspicions immediately fell upon the IRA, which was in the midst of an armed campaign in Britain involving numerous operations, later including the Guildford pub bombing and the Birmingham pub bombings.
Reactions in Britain were furious, with senior politicians from all parties calling for immediate action against the perpetrators and the IRA in general. The British media were equally condemnatory; according to The Guardian, it was "the worst IRA outrage on the British mainland" at that time, whilst the BBC has described it as "one of the IRA's worst mainland terror attacks". Irish newspaper The Sunday Business Post later described it as the "worst" of the "awful atrocities perpetrated by the IRA" during this period.
IRA Army Council member Dáithí Ó Conaill was challenged over the bombing and the death of civilians during an interview, and replied that the coach was bombed because IRA intelligence indicated that it was carrying military personnel only.
The attack's most lasting consequence was the adoption of much stricter 'anti-terrorism' laws in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, allowing police to hold those 'suspected of terrorism' for up to seven days without charge, and to deport those 'suspected of terrorism' in Britain or the Republic of Ireland to Northern Ireland to face trial, where special courts judged with separate rules on 'terrorism' suspects.
The entrance hall of the westbound section of the Hartshead Moor service area was used as a first aid station for those wounded in the blast. A memorial to those who were killed was later created there. Following a campaign by relatives of the dead, a larger memorial was later erected, set some yards away from the entrance hall. The site, situated behind four flag poles, includes an English oak tree, a memorial stone, a memorial plaque and a raised marble tablet inscribed with the names of those who died. A memorial plaque engraved with the names of the casualties was also unveiled in Oldham in 2010. The Haughton family are buried in Blackley Cemetery, Manchester.
Prosecution of Judith Ward
Following the explosion, the British public and politicians from all three major parties called for "swift justice". The ensuing police investigation led by Detective Chief Superintendent George Oldfield was rushed, careless and ultimately forged, resulting in the arrest of the mentally ill Judith Ward (born 10 January 1949). Ward claimed to have conducted a string of bombings in Britain in 1973 and 1974 and to have married and had a baby with two separate IRA members. Despite her subsequent retraction of these claims, the lack of any corroborating evidence against her, and serious gaps in her testimony – which was frequently rambling, incoherent and "improbable" – she was wrongfully convicted in November 1974. Following her conviction, the Irish Republican Publicity Bureau issued a statement:
Miss Ward was not a member of Óglaigh na hÉireann and was not used in any capacity by the organisation. She had nothing to do what-so-ever with the military coach bomb (on 4 February 1974), the bombing of Euston Station and the attack on Latimer Military College. Those acts were authorised operations carried out by units of the Irish Republican Army.
The case against her was almost completely based on inaccurate scientific evidence using the Griess test and deliberate manipulation of her confession by some members of the investigating team. The case was similar to those of the Guildford Four, the Birmingham Six and the Maguire Seven, which occurred at the same time and involved similar forged confessions and inaccurate scientific analysis. Ward was finally released in May 1992, when three Appeal Court judges held unanimously that her conviction was "a grave miscarriage of justice", and that it had been "secured by ambush".
- Sutton, Malcolm. "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Also described as a 50lb bomb in Lost Lives 2007 ed, p.434, ISBN 978-1-84018-504-1
- p.240, Williams & Head
- "Tributes Paid to M62 Coach Bomb Victims 40 Years On". The Huddersfield Daily Examiner. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Hero driver of M62 coach bombing honoured with memorial". Manchester Evening News. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- p.241, Williams & Head
- "Miscarriages of justice". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
- "Tragedy on the M62". BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
- "Her body simply disintegrated in our arms . ." Sunday Business Post. 14 December 2003. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
- p.150, McGladdery
- p.245 Williams & Head
- "New tribute to bomb's victims; M62 atrocity recalled after 35 years". Huddersfield Daily Examiner. 2008.
- ""Plans to move bomb blast memorial". BBC News. 29 July 2008.
- "New memorial unveiled to bus bomb victims". Bradford Telegraph and Argus. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Cooper, Louise (1 February 2015). "M62 coach bombing victims remembered 41 years on at memorial service". Huddersfield Examiner. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- Kennedy, Helena (31 March 2011). "Eve Was Framed: Women and British Justice". Random House. Retrieved 17 June 2017 – via Google Books.
- "1974: Soldiers and children killed in coach bombing". BBC On This Day. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- In the words of her barrister Andrew Rankin QC, p.242 Williams & Head
- p.89 McGladdery,
- p.244 Williams & Head
- McGladdery, Gary (2006). The Provisional IRA in England: The Bombing Campaign 1973–1997. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-7165-3374-0.
- Williams, Anne; Head, Vivian (2006). Terror Attacks: The Violent Expression of Desperation – IRA Coach Bomb. Futura. ISBN 0-7088-0783-6.