Mack Rides

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Mack Rides GmbH & Co KG
Private, family-owned
Industry Amusement park
Founded 1780 (1780)
Founder Paul Mack
Headquarters Waldkirch, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Area served
Worldwide
Products Roller coasters, water rides and other amusement rides
Owner Mack family
Subsidiaries Europa-Park
Website www.mack-rides.com

Mack Rides GmbH & Co KG,[1] also known simply as Mack Rides, is a German company that designs and constructs amusement rides. Mack Rides in headquartered in Waldkirch, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Mack Rides is one of the world's oldest amusement industry suppliers and builds all kinds of amusement devices including several types of flat rides, dark rides, log flumes, tow boat rides and roller coasters.[2] The family that owns Mack Rides also owns Europa-Park.[3]

History[edit]

1780s–1950s[edit]

Mack Rides traces its roots back to 1780 when Paul Mack, a young entrepreneur, started building carriages and stagecoaches. The Mack Company began building organ wagons and caravans for traveling showmen in 1880 commencing the company's involvement in the amusement industry. The first wooden roller coaster was built in 1921, the first car ride in 1936 and the first wooden bobsled ride in 1951. By 1952 Mack Rides started increasing its exports of rides into the U.S. market.[2]

1950s–present[edit]

Franz Mack

Europa-Park is run by the Mack family. Franz Mack (1921–2010) in 1958 took over the family firm, Mack GmbH & Co (now Mack Rides), together with his brothers. Together with his son Roland (b. 1949) he visited the United States in 1972 and was inspired to open a theme park in Germany, as an exhibition site for his company's products.[citation needed]

At first the park was planned to be located in Breisach. It was named "Europa-Park" after Breisach's nearby Europaweiher, a small artificial lake which commemorates a historical pilot poll in Breisach held in 1950, in which 95.6% of voters were in favour of European unification. The Breisach site was deemed unsuitable because of flooding hazard, and the project was moved some 30 km further north, where the Macks bought the park of the historical Balthasar castle in Rust.[citation needed]

The park opened in 1975 with an area of 16 hectares. It counted 250,000 visitors in the first year, 700,000 in the second, passing the million mark in 1978.[citation needed]

List of roller coasters[edit]


As of 2018, Mack Rides has built 133 roller coasters around the world.[4]

Name Model Park Country Opened Status Ref
Run A Way Mine Train Powered Coaster Gold Reef City South Africa South Africa Unknown Operating [5]
Turmbahn Unknown Tivoli Gardens Denmark Denmark 1938 Removed [6]
Meteor Unknown Sportland Pier
Freedom Land USA
Sportland Pier
United States United States 1966
1963 to 1965
1960 to 1961
Removed [7]
[8]
[9]
Apache Whirlwind Powered Coaster Frontier Village Amusement Park United States United States 1976 Removed [10]
Wizard's Cavern
Formerly Love Bugs
Formerly Broadway Trip
Unknown Casino Pier
Canadian National Exhibition
Palisades Amusement Park
Cedar Point
Fun Forest Amusement Park
United States United States 1979
1972 to 1978
1966 to 1971
1964 to 1965
1962 to 1962
Removed [11]
[12]
[13] & [14]
[15]
[16]
Blauer Enzian Powered Coaster Gröna Lund Sweden Sweden 1980 Removed [17]
Tokaido Powered Coaster Ankara Luna Park Turkey Turkey 1980 Operating [18]
Thunder Run
Formerly Blauer Enzian
Powered Coaster Canada's Wonderland Canada Canada 1981 Operating [19]
Flying Fish
Formerly Space Station Zero
Powered Coaster Thorpe Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 1983 Operating [20] & [21]
Alpenexpress Enzian
Formerly Grottenblitz
Powered Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 1984 Operating [22]
Schweizer Bobbahn Bobsled Europa-Park Germany Germany 1985 Operating [23]
Grottenblitz Powered Coaster Heide Park Germany Germany 1985 Operating [24]
Odinexpressen Powered Coaster Tivoli Gardens Denmark Denmark 1985 Operating [25]
Little Eagle Unknown Broadway Grand Prix
Myrtle Beach Pavilion
United States United States Unknown
1986 to 2006
Removed [26]
[27]
Scorpion Express
Formerly Runaway Train
Powered Coaster Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 1987 Operating [28]
Gruvbanan
Formerly Berg-o-dal-banan
Powered Coaster Skara Sommarland Sweden Sweden 1987 Operating [29]
Avalanche Bobsled Kings Dominion United States United States 1988 Operating [30]
Capitale Express Unknown Méga Parc Canada Canada 1988 Closed [31]
Avalanche Bobsled Blackpool Pleasure Beach United Kingdom United Kingdom 1988 Operating [32]
Eurosat - CanCan Coaster
Formerly Eurosat
Unknown Europa-Park Germany Germany 1989 Operating [33]
Blauer Enzian Powered Coaster Freizeit-Land Geiselwind Germany Germany 1989 Operating [34]
Idän Pikajuna Powered Coaster Tykkimäki Finland Finland 1989 Operating [35]
Pikajuna
Formerly City Express
Powered Coaster Linnanmäki Finland Finland 1990 Operating [36]
Munich Autobahn Bobsled Kobe Portopialand Japan Japan 1991 Removed [37]
Rexplorer
Formerly Explorer
Powered Coaster Mirabilandia Italy Italy 1992 Operating [38]
Runaway Mine Train Powered Coaster Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 1992 Operating [39]
Gold Mine Train Powered Coaster Nigloland France France 1992 Operating [40]
Spreeblitz
Formerly Le Dragon des Sortilèges
Powered Coaster Spreepark
Mirapolis
Germany Germany 1992 Closed [41]
[42]
Kansas City-Express
Formerly Blauer Enzian
Powered Coaster Fränkisches Wunderland
Movie Park Germany
Tivoli Karolinelund
Germany Germany 1993
1987 to 1991
Unknown
Closed [43]
[44]
[45]
Bobbahn
Formerly Schweizer Bobbahn
Bobsled Heide Park Germany Germany 1994 Operating [46]
Gran Montserrat Unknown Parque Espana-Shima Spain Village Japan Japan 1994 Operating [47]
Wild Mouse Wilde Maus Nagashima Spa Land Japan Japan 1996 Operating [48] & [49]
Wild Mouse Wilde Maus Magic Land Egypt Egypt 1996 Closed [50]
Runaway Train Powered Coaster Elitch Gardens United States United States 1996 Removed [51]
Euro-Mir Spinning Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 1997 Operating [52]
Dragen Powered Coaster Legoland Billund Denmark Denmark 1997 Operating [53]
Blauer Enzian Powered Coaster Toshimaen Japan Japan 1997 Operating [54]
Gletscherblitz Powered Coaster Steinwasen Park Germany Germany 1998 Operating [55]
Journey to Atlantis Water Coaster SeaWorld Orlando United States United States 1998 Operating [56]
Speedy Bob Wilde Maus Bobbejaanland Belgium Belgium 1998 Operating [57] & [58]
Taunusblitz Wilde Maus Taunus Wunderland Germany Germany 1999 Operating [59]
Matterhorn Blitz Wilde Maus Europa-Park Germany Germany 1999 Operating [60]
The Fly Wilde Maus Canada's Wonderland Canada Canada 1999 Operating [61]
Wild Mouse Wilde Maus Hersheypark United States United States 1999 Operating [62]
Ghost Chasers
Formerly Mad Manor
Formerly Tom and Jerry's Mouse in the House
Wilde Maus Movie Park Germany Germany Germany 2000 Operating [63]
Spatiale Expérience Unknown Nigloland France France 2000 Operating [64]
Water Rollercoaster Poseidon Water Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 2000 Operating [65]
Bob Express Powered Coaster Bobbejaanland Belgium Belgium 2000 Operating [66]
Goofy's Sky School
Formerly Mulholland Madness
Wilde Maus Disney California Adventure United States United States 2001 Operating [67]
Trace Du Hourra Bobsled Parc Astérix France France 2001 Operating [68]
Technic Coaster Wilde Maus Legoland California United States United States 2001 Operating [69]
Das Große LEGO Rennen
Formerly Project X - Test Strecke
Wilde Maus Legoland Deutschland Germany Germany 2002 Operating [70]
Ricochet Wilde Maus Carowinds United States United States 2002 Operating [71]
Apple Zapple
Formerly Ricochet
Wilde Maus Kings Dominion United States United States 2002 Operating [72]
X-treme Racers Wilde Maus Legoland Billund Denmark Denmark 2002 Operating [73]
Scooby-Doo Spooky Coaster Wilde Maus Warner Bros. Movie World Australia Australia 2002 Operating [74]
SuperSplash SuperSplash TusenFryd Norway Norway 2003 Operating [75]
Galaxie Express Powered Coaster Space Center Germany Germany 2003 Removed [76]
Sand Serpent
Formerly Cheetah Chase
Formerly Wild Maus
Formerly Izzy
Wilde Maus Busch Gardens Tampa
Busch Gardens Williamsburg
United States United States 2004
1996 to 2003
Operating [77]
[78]
Draak Powered Coaster Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2004 Operating [79]
Tulireki E-Motion Coaster Linnanmäki Finland Finland 2004 Operating [80]
Journey to Atlantis Water Coaster SeaWorld San Diego United States United States 2004 Operating [81]
Atlantica SuperSplash SuperSplash Europa-Park Germany Germany 2005 Operating [82]
Dynamite Express Powered Coaster Drievliet Netherlands Netherlands 2005 Operating [83]
Reaper, Drop ride to doom! E-Motion Coaster Amsterdam Dungeon Netherlands Netherlands 2005 Removed [84]
Montanha Russa Water Coaster Aquashow Family Park Portugal Portugal 2006 Operating [85]
Pegasus - The YoungStar Coaster YoungSTAR Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 2006 Operating [86]
Expreso Minero Powered Coaster Parque Plaza Sesamo Mexico México 2006 Operating [87]
Schlitt'Express Wilde Maus Nigloland France France 2007 Operating [88]
Journey to Atlantis SuperSplash SeaWorld San Antonio United States United States 2007 Operating [89]
Sierra Sidewinder Spinning Coaster Knott's Berry Farm United States United States 2007 Operating [90]
Caribbean Splash SuperSplash Formosan Aboriginal Culture Village Taiwan Taiwan 2008 Operating [91]
Götterblitz YoungSTAR Coaster Familypark Austria Austria 2008 Operating [92]
The Dark Knight Wilde Maus Six Flags Great Adventure United States United States 2008 Operating [93]
The Dark Knight Wilde Maus Six Flags Great America United States United States 2008 Operating [94]
The Dark Knight Wilde Maus Six Flags México
Six Flags New England
Mexico México 2009
2008
Operating [95]
[96]
Eurospeed
Formerly Rothaarblitz
Powered Coaster Europark
Panorama Park
France France 2009
1982 to 2007
Operating [97]
[98]
blue fire Megacoaster powered by GAZPROM Launch Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 2008 Operating [99]
Vértigo
Formerly Speedy Bob
Wilde Maus Parque de Atracciones de Madrid
Bobbejaanland
Spain Spain 2009
1998 to 2008
Operating [100]
[101]
Correcaminos Bip, Bip YoungSTAR Coaster Parque Warner Madrid Spain Spain 2009 Operating [102]
Young Star Coaster YoungSTAR Coaster Chimelong Paradise China China 2010 Operating [103]
Space Fantasy - The Ride
Formerly Kyary Pamyu Pamyu XR Ride
Spinning Coaster Universal Studios Japan Japan Japan 2010 Operating [104]
Twist Spinning Coaster Le Pal France France 2011 Operating [105]
Wilde Maus
Formerly Zig Zag
Wilde Maus Freizeit-Land Geiselwind
Sommerland Syd
Attractiepark Toverland
Walygator Parc
Germany Germany 2011
2010
2004
2003
Removed [106]
[107]
[108]
[109]
Skatteøen Water Coaster Djurs Sommerland Denmark Denmark 2011 Operating [110]
Tiger Express
Formerly Flying Dutchman Gold Mine
Wilde Maus Mer de Sable
Walibi Holland
France France 2011
2000 to 2010
Operating [111]
[112]
Great Lego Race
Formerly Project X
Formerly Jungle Coaster
Wilde Maus Legoland Florida
Legoland Windsor
United States United States 2011
2004 to 2009
Operating [113]
[114]
Vilde Mus Wilde Maus Bakken Denmark Denmark 2012 Operating [115]
Manta Launch Coaster SeaWorld San Diego United States United States 2012 Operating [116]
Arctic Blast Powered Coaster Ocean Park Hong Kong China China
Hong Kong Hong Kong
2012 Operating [117]
Great Lego Race
Formerly Project X
Wilde Maus Legoland Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia 2012 Operating [118]
Dwervelwind
Formerly d'wervelwind
Spinning Coaster Attractiepark Toverland Netherlands Netherlands 2012 Operating [119]
Storm Mega Coaster Etnaland Italy Italy 2013 Operating [120]
Coast Rider Wilde Maus Knott's Berry Farm United States United States 2013 Operating [121]
Storm Coaster Water Coaster Sea World Australia Australia 2013 Operating [122]
Dragon Launch Coaster Sochi Park Adventureland Russia Russia 2014 Operating [123]
Sharolet Wilde Maus Sochi Park Adventureland Russia Russia 2014 Operating [124]
Wild Mouse Wilde Maus Antibes Land
Walygator Parc
Expoland
France France 2014
2008 to 213
1996 to 2007
Operating [125]
[126]
[127]
Walrus Splash SuperSplash Chimelong Ocean Kingdom China China 2014 Operating [128]
Polar Explorer Water Coaster Chimelong Ocean Kingdom China China 2014 Operating [129]
Alpina Blitz Mega Coaster Nigloland France France 2014 Operating [130]
Helix Launch Coaster Liseberg Sweden Sweden 2014 Operating [131]
Battle of Blue Fire Launch Coaster Quancheng Euro Park China China 2014 Operating [132]
ARTHUR Inverted Powered Coaster Europa-Park Germany Germany 2014 Operating [133]
Velikoluksky Miasokombinat Launch Coaster Wonder Island Russia Russia 2015 Operating [134]
Turbulence Spinning Coaster Adventureland United States United States 2015 Operating [135]
Miniwah Powered Coaster Freizeitpark Plohn Germany Germany 2015 Operating [136]
Flash
Formerly Lightning
Hyper Coaster Lewa Adventure China China 2016 Operating [137]
Lost Gravity BigDipper Walibi Holland Netherlands Netherlands 2016 Operating [138]
Flight of the Hippogriff YoungSTAR Coaster Universal Studios Hollywood United States United States 2016 Operating [139]
Dragon Express Spinning Coaster Oriental Neverland China China 2016 Operating [140]
Pulsar PowerSplash Walibi Belgium Belgium Belgium 2016 Operating [141]
Cobra's Curse Spinning Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa United States United States 2016 Operating [142]
Ba-a-a-Express Unknown Europa-Park Germany Germany 2016 Operating [143]
Spider-Man Doc Ock's Revenge Spinning Coaster IMG Worlds of Adventure United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2016 Operating [144]
Velociraptor Launch Coaster IMG Worlds of Adventure United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2016 Operating [145]
Capitol Bullet Train Launch Coaster Motiongate United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2017 Operating [146]
Dragon Gliders Inverted Powered Coaster Motiongate United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2017 Operating [147]
Star Trek: Operation Enterprise Launch Coaster Movie Park Germany Germany Germany 2017 Operating [148]
DC Rivals HyperCoaster Hyper Coaster Warner Bros. Movie World Australia Australia 2017 Operating [149]
Dancing Oscar Spinning Coaster Shinhwa Theme Park South Korea South Korea 2017 Operating [150]
Slinky Dog Dash Launch Coaster Disney's Hollywood Studios United States United States 2018 Under construction [151]
Icon Launch Coaster Blackpool Pleasure Beach United Kingdom United Kingdom 2018 Under construction [152]
Time Traveler X-treme Spinning Coaster Silver Dollar City United States United States 2018 Operating [153]
Unknown Hyper Coaster Land of Legends Theme Park Turkey Turkey 2018 Under construction [154]
Unknown Unknown Colourful Yunnan Happy World China China 2018 Under construction [155]
Unknown SuperSplash Colourful Yunnan Happy World China China 2018 Under construction [156]
Unknown Water Coaster Desaru Coast Adventure Waterpark Malaysia Malaysia 2018 Under construction [157]
Unknown PowerSplash Happy Valley Shenzhen China China 2018 Under construction [158]
Dynamite BigDipper Freizeitpark Plohn Germany Germany 2019 Under construction [159]
Unknown Launch Coaster Wanda City Wuxi China China 2019 Under construction [160]
Lego Technic Test Track Wilde Maus Legoland Korea South Korea South Korea 2020 Under construction [161]
Unknown Unknown Europa-Park Germany Germany 2021 Under construction [162]

List of other attractions[edit]

Name Model Park Country Opened Status Ref
Whale Adventures – Northern Lights Interactive Boat Ride Europa-Park Germany Germany 2010 Operating
Tiroler Log Flume Log Flume Europa-Park Germany Germany 1978 Operating
Pirate Adventure Free-Flow Boat Ride Drayton Manor Theme Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 1990 Closed
Atlantis Submarine Voyage Submarine Dark Ride Legoland Windsor United Kingdom United Kingdom 2011 Operating
Around the World in 80 Days Dark Ride Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 1981 Removed
Battle Galleons Interactive Boat Ride Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2008 Operating
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory: The Ride Dark Ride Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2006 Standing but not operating
Duel - The Haunted House Strikes Back! Dark Ride Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2003 Operating
Marauder's Mayhem Tea Cups Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 1986 Operating
In the Night Garden Magical Boat Ride Free-Flow Boat Ride Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2014 Operating
The Flume Log Flume Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2004 Removed
Battle Boats Interactive Boat Ride Sea World Australia Australia 2010 Operating [163]
Loggers Leap Log Flume Thorpe Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 1989 Closed
Rocky Express Sea Storm Ride Thorpe Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 1989 Operating
River Battle Interactive Boat Ride Dollywood United States United States 2008 Removed [164]
Dragon Falls Log Flume Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 1987 Operating [165]
Safari Skyway Monorail Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 1986 Removed
Seastorm Sea Storm Ride Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 1995 Operating
Sea Dragons Spinning Boat Ride Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 2004 Operating
Tomb Blaster Interactive Dark Ride Chessington World of Adventures United Kingdom United Kingdom 2002 Operating
Dudley Do-Right's Ripsaw Falls Log Flume Universal's Islands of Adventure United States United States 1999 Operating [166]
Storm Force Accelatron Tea Cups Islands of Adventure United States United States 2000 Operating [167]
Cannonball Express Musik Express Great Escape United States United States 1974 Operating
Aqua Twist Twist 'n' Splash La Ronde Canada Canada 2013 Operating [168]
Flash: Speed Force Music Express Six Flags Magic Mountain United States United States 2014 Operating
The Penguin Twist 'n' Splash Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States United States 2014 Operating
Tsunami Soaker Twist 'n' Splash Six Flags St. Louis United States United States 2014 Operating
Buccaneer Battle Interactive Boat Ride Six Flags Great America United States United States 2009 Operating
Expreso Musical Music Express Six Flags México Mexico Mexico Unknown Operating
Carnaval Festival Dark Ride Efteling Netherlands Netherlands 1984 Operating
Monsieur Cannaibale Tea Cups Efteling Netherlands Netherlands 1988 Operating
Expedition Nautilus Twist 'n' Splash Attractiepark Slagharen Netherlands Netherlands 2013 Operating
Wild West Adventure Free-Flow Boat Ride Attractiepark Slagharen Netherlands Netherlands 2001 Operating
Wild Waterval Log Flume Avonturenpark Hellendoorn Netherlands Netherlands 1982 Operating
Backstroke Log Flume Attractiepark Toverland Netherlands Netherlands 2004 Operating
Crazy River Log Flume Walibi Holland Netherlands Netherlands 1994 Operating
Rimbula River Free-Flow Boat Ride Wildlands Adventure Zoo Emmen Netherlands Netherlands 2016 Operating
Koffietassen Tea Cups Bellewaerde Belgium Belgium 1989 Operating
De Boomstammetjes Log Flume Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 1989 Operating
Koffiekopjes Tea Cups Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2003 Operating
Kaatje zoekt Eendje Tow Boat Ride Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2001 Operating
Storm op Zee Sea Storm Ride Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2001 Operating
De Tractors Unknown Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2002 Operating
Wickie The Battle Interactive Boat Ride Plopsaland De Panne Belgium Belgium 2013 Operating
Flash Back Log Flume Walibi Belgium Belgium Belgium 1995 Operating
Angkor Interactive Boat Ride PortAventura Park Spain Spain 2014 Operating
Alligator Baie Interactive Boat Ride Le Pal France France 2014 Operating
The Quest for Chi Interactive Boat Ride Legoland Florida United States United States Unknown Operating
Käpt'n Nicks Piratenschlacht Interactive Boat Ride Legoland Deutschland Germany Germany 2007 Operating
Pirate Splash Battle Interactive Boat Ride Legoland Billund Denmark Denmark Unknwon Operating
Tom & Huck's River Blast Interactive Boat Ride Silver Dollar City United States United States 2010 Operating
ToPiLauLa-Schlacht Interactive Boat Ride Heide Park Germany Germany 2010 Operating
The Pirate Revenge Twist 'n' Splash Fantasilandia Chile Chile 2014 Operating
SpongeBob's Splash Bash Twist 'n' Splash Blackpool Pleasure Beach United Kingdom United Kingdom 2011 Operating
Battle of the Pirates Twist 'n' Splash Chimelong Ocean Kingdom China China Unknown Operating
Pirates Attack Interactive Boat Ride Fraispertuis City France France 2011 Operating
Wasserschlacht im Reich des T-Rex Interactive Boat Ride Rasti-Land Germany Germany 2007 Operating

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mack Rides GmbH & Co KG". Mack Rides. October 11, 2004. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Europa-Park Special". Rust, Germany: Mack International. 2012: 36. 
  3. ^ MacDonald, Brady (24 January 2012). "Wing-dipping Manta coaster coming to SeaWorld San Diego in May". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Mack Rides - rcdb.com
  5. ^ Marden, Duane. "Run A Way Mine Train  (Gold Reef City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "Turmbahn  (Tivoli Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  7. ^ Marden, Duane. "Meteor  (Sportland Pier)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  8. ^ Marden, Duane. "Meteor  (Freedom Land USA)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  9. ^ Marden, Duane. "Meteor  (Sportland Pier)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apache Whirlwind  (Frontier Village Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wizard's Cavern  (Casino Pier)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Love Bugs  (Canadian National Exhibition)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Love Bugs  (Palisades Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Broadway Trip  (Palisades Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Broadway Trip  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Broadway Trip  (Fun Forest Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blauer Enzian  (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tokaido  (Ankara Luna Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunder Run  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  20. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Fish  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Fish  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Alpenexpress Enzian  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Schweizer Bobbahn  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Grottenblitz  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Odinexpressen  (Tivoli Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Eagle  (Broadway Grand Prix)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Eagle  (Myrtle Beach Pavilion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Scorpion Express  (Chessington World of Adventures)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gruvbanan  (Skara Sommarland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Avalanche  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "Capitale Express  (Méga Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "Avalanche  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Eurosat - CanCan Coaster  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blauer Enzian  (Freizeit-Land Geiselwind)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Idän Pikajuna  (Tykkimäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Pikajuna  (Linnanmäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Munich Autobahn  (Kobe Portopialand)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rexplorer  (Mirabilandia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Runaway Mine Train  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gold Mine Train  (Nigloland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Spreeblitz  (Spreepark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Le Dragon des Sortilèges  (Mirapolis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kansas City-Express  (Fränkisches Wunderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blauer Enzian  (Movie Park Germany)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blauer Enzian  (Tivoli Karolinelund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bobbahn  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gran Montserrat  (Parque Espana-Shima Spain Village)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  50. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Magic Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  51. ^ Marden, Duane. "Runaway Train  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  52. ^ Marden, Duane. "Euro-Mir  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  53. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragen  (Legoland Billund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  54. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blauer Enzian  (Toshimaen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  55. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gletscherblitz  (Steinwasen Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  56. ^ Marden, Duane. "Journey To Atlantis  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speedy Bob  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speedy Bob  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Taunusblitz  (Taunus Wunderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Matterhorn Blitz  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fly  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ghost Chasers  (Movie Park Germany)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Spatiale Expérience  (Nigloland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Poseidon  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bob Express  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  67. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goofy's Sky School  (Disney California Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  68. ^ Marden, Duane. "Trace Du Hourra  (Parc Astérix)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Technic Coaster  (Legoland California)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  70. ^ Marden, Duane. "Das Große LEGO Rennen  (Legoland Deutschland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  71. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ricochet  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  72. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apple Zapple  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  73. ^ Marden, Duane. "X-treme Racers  (Legoland Billund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  74. ^ Marden, Duane. "Scooby-Doo Spooky Coaster  (Warner Bros. Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  75. ^ Marden, Duane. "SuperSplash  (TusenFryd)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  76. ^ Marden, Duane. "Galaxie Express  (Space Center)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  77. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sand Serpent  (Busch Gardens Tampa)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Maus  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  79. ^ Marden, Duane. "Draak  (Plopsaland De Panne)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  80. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tulireki  (Linnanmäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  81. ^ Marden, Duane. "Journey To Atlantis  (SeaWorld San Diego)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  82. ^ Marden, Duane. "Atlantica SuperSplash  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  83. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dynamite Express  (Drievliet)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  84. ^ Marden, Duane. "Reaper, Drop ride to doom!  (Amsterdam Dungeon)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  85. ^ Marden, Duane. "Montanha Russa  (Aquashow Family Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  86. ^ Marden, Duane. "Pegasus  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  87. ^ Marden, Duane. "Expreso Minero  (Parque Plaza Sesamo)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  88. ^ Marden, Duane. "Schlitt'Express  (Nigloland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  89. ^ Marden, Duane. "Journey to Atlantis  (SeaWorld San Antonio)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  90. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sierra Sidewinder  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  91. ^ Marden, Duane. "Caribbean Splash  (Formosan Aboriginal Culture)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  92. ^ Marden, Duane. "Götterblitz  (Familypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  93. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Dark Knight  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  94. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Dark Knight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  95. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Dark Knight  (Six Flags México)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  96. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Dark Knight  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  97. ^ Marden, Duane. "Eurospeed  (Europark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  98. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rothaarblitz  (Panorama Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  99. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blue Fire  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  100. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vértigo  (Parque de Atracciones de Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  101. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speedy Bob  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  102. ^ Marden, Duane. "Correcaminos Bip, Bip  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  103. ^ Marden, Duane. "Young Star Coaster  (Chimelong Paradise)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  104. ^ Marden, Duane. "Space Fantasy The Ride  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  105. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twist  (Le Pal)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  106. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wilde Maus  (Freizeit-Land Geiselwind)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  107. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wilde Maus  (Sommerland Syd)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  108. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wilde Maus  (Toverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  109. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zig Zag  (Walygator Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  110. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skatteøen  (Djurs Sommerland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  111. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tiger Express  (Mer de Sable)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  112. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Dutchman Gold Mine  (Walibi Holland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  113. ^ Marden, Duane. "Great Lego Race  (Legoland Florida)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  114. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jungle Coaster  (Legoland Windsor)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  115. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vilde Mus  (Bakken)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  116. ^ Marden, Duane. "Manta  (SeaWorld San Diego)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  117. ^ Marden, Duane. "Arctic Blast  (Ocean Park Hong Kong)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  118. ^ Marden, Duane. "Great Lego Race  (Legoland Malaysia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  119. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dwervelwind  (Toverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  120. ^ Marden, Duane. "Storm  (Etnaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  121. ^ Marden, Duane. "Coast Rider  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  122. ^ Marden, Duane. "Storm Coaster  (Sea World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  123. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon  (Sochi Park Adventureland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  124. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sharolet  (Sochi Park Adventureland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  125. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Antibes Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  126. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Walygator Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  127. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Mouse  (Expoland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  128. ^ Marden, Duane. "Walrus Splash  (Chimelong Ocean Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  129. ^ Marden, Duane. "Polar Explorer  (Chimelong Ocean Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  130. ^ Marden, Duane. "Alpina Blitz  (Nigloland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  131. ^ Marden, Duane. "Helix  (Lsieberg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  132. ^ Marden, Duane. "Battle of Blue Fire  (Quancheng Euro Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  133. ^ Marden, Duane. "ARTHUR  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  134. ^ Marden, Duane. "Velikoluksky Miasokombinat  (Wonder Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  135. ^ Marden, Duane. "Turbulence  (Adventureland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  136. ^ Marden, Duane. "Miniwah  (Freizeitpark Plohn)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  137. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flash  (Lewa Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  138. ^ Marden, Duane. "Lost Gravity  (Walibi Holland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  139. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flight of the Hippogriff  (Universal Studios Hollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  140. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon Express  (Oriental Neverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  141. ^ Marden, Duane. "Pulsar  (Walibi Belgium)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  142. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cobra's Curse  (Busch Gardens Tampa)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  143. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ba-a-a-Express  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  144. ^ Marden, Duane. "Spider-Man Doc Ock's Revenge  (IMG Worlds of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  145. ^ Marden, Duane. "Velociraptor  (IMG Worlds of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  146. ^ Marden, Duane. "Capitol Bullet Train  (Motiongate)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  147. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon Gliders  (Motiongate)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  148. ^ Marden, Duane. "Star Trek: Operation Enterprise  (Movie Park Germany)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  149. ^ Marden, Duane. "DC Rivals HyperCoaster  (Warner Bros. Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  150. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dancing Oscar  (Shinhwa Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  151. ^ Marden, Duane. "Slinky Dog  (Disney's Hollywood Studios)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  152. ^ Marden, Duane. "Icon  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  153. ^ Marden, Duane. "Time Traveler  (Silver Dollar City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  154. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Land of Legends Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  155. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Colourful Yunnan Happy World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  156. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Colourful Yunnan Happy World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  157. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Desaru Coast Adventure Waterpark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  158. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Happy Valley Shenzhen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  159. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dynamite  (Freizeitpark Plohn)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  160. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Wanda City Wuxi)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  161. ^ Marden, Duane. "Lego Technic Test Track  (Legoland Korea)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  162. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Europa-Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  163. ^ "Battle Sails (Sea World)". Parkz. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  164. ^ "Let Battle commence!". Park World Online. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  165. ^ "Dragon Falls (Chessington World Of Adventures)". Parkz. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  166. ^ "Dudley Do-Right's Ripsaw Falls (Islands of Adventure)". Parkz. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  167. ^ "Storm Force Accelatron (Islands of Adventure)". Parkz. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  168. ^ Seifert, Jeffrey (2013). "2013 North American Park Preview" (PDF). Amusement Today. 17 (2): 6–7. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 

External links[edit]