MAX IV Laboratory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Max IV–flygbild 06 september 2014-2.jpg
MAX IV aerial photo from 2014
General properties
Accelerator typeSynchrotron light source
Beam typeElectrons
Target typeLight source
Beam properties
Maximum energy3 GeV[1]
Maximum current500 mA[1]
Physical properties
Circumference528 metres (1,732 ft)[1]
LocationLund, Sweden
Coordinates55°43′37″N 13°13′59″E / 55.727°N 13.233°E / 55.727; 13.233Coordinates: 55°43′37″N 13°13′59″E / 55.727°N 13.233°E / 55.727; 13.233
InstitutionLund University
Dates of operation2016 - present[2]
Preceded byMAX III[2]
MAX IV in Lund nearing completion.

MAX IV is a next-generation[3][4] synchrotron radiation facility in Lund, Sweden.[5] Its design[6][7] and planning has been carried out within the Swedish national laboratory, MAX-lab, which up until 2015 operated three accelerators for synchrotron radiation research: MAX I (550 MeV, opened 1986), MAX II (1,5 GeV, opened 1997) and MAX III (700 MeV, opened 2008). MAX-lab supported about 1000 users from over 30 countries annually. The facility operated 14 beamlines with a total of 19 independent experimental stations, supporting a wide range of experimental techniques such as macromolecular crystallography, electron spectroscopy, nanolithography and production of tagged photons for photo-nuclear experiments. The facility closed on 13 December (St Lucia dagen) 2015 in preparation for MAX IV.

On 27 April 2009 the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, Swedish Research Council, Lund University, Region Skåne and Vinnova, a Swedish government funding agency, decided to fund the research center.[8]

The new laboratories, including two storage rings and a full-energy linac is situated in Brunnshög in Lund North East. The inauguration of MAX IV took place 21 June 2016, on the day of summer solstice.[8] The larger of the two storage rings has a circumference of 528 meters, operates at 3 GeV energy, and has been optimized for high-brightness x-rays. The smaller storage ring (circumference 96 meters) is operated at 1.5 GeV energy and has been optimized for UV.[9] There are also plans for a future expansion of the facility that would add a free-electron laser (FEL) to the facility, but is yet to be funded.[8]

There are currently 16 beamlines at the facility with 10 of them located around the 3 GeV ring, 5 around the 1.5 GeV ring and one at the of the linear accelerator.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "3 GeV storage ring". MAX IV. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  2. ^ a b "History". MAX IV. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  3. ^ Einfeld, Dieter (2 November 2014). "Multi-bend Achromat Lattices for Storage Ring Light Sources". Synchrotron Radiation News. 27 (6): 4–7. doi:10.1080/08940886.2014.970929. ISSN 0894-0886.
  4. ^ P.F., Tavares; S.C., Leemann; M., Sjöström; Å., Andersson (1 September 2014). "The MAX IV storage ring project". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 21 (5): 862–77. doi:10.1107/S1600577514011503. ISSN 1600-5775. PMC 4181638. PMID 25177978.
  5. ^ "Världens starkaste synkrotron invigs - Umeå universitet". (in Swedish). 21 June 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  6. ^ M., Johansson; B., Anderberg; L.-J., Lindgren (1 September 2014). "Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 21 (5): 884–903. doi:10.1107/S160057751401666X. ISSN 1600-5775. PMC 4181640. PMID 25177980.
  7. ^ E., Al-Dmour; J., Ahlback; D., Einfeld; P.F., Fernandes Tavares; M., Grabski (1 September 2014). "Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 21 (5): 878–83. doi:10.1107/S1600577514010480. ISSN 1600-5775. PMC 4181639. PMID 25177979.
  8. ^ a b c "History – MAX IV". Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Accelerators – MAX IV". Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  10. ^ Rift, Geer (8 November 2021). "Beamlines & accelerators". MAX IV. Retrieved 16 October 2022.

External links[edit]