MAX Light Rail

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For the planned light rail system in Perth, Western Australia, see Metro Area Express (Perth).
MAX Light Rail
PortlandTriMetMAX.jpg
Overview
Locale Portland metropolitan area, Oregon
Transit type Light rail
Number of lines 4[1]
Number of stations 87[1]
Daily ridership 118,400 (avg. weekday boardings, FY2014)[2]
Annual ridership 38.23 million (boardings, FY2014)[2]
Website MAX Light Rail
Operation
Began operation September 5, 1986
Operator(s) TriMet
Number of vehicles 127[1]
Technical
System length 52 mi (83.7 km)[1]
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
(standard gauge)

MAX Light Rail, or Metropolitan Area Express, is a light rail system consisting of four separate lines (Blue, Green, Red, and Yellow lines) serving 87 stations in the Portland metropolitan area in Oregon. The system has had an average weekday ridership between 115,000 and 130,000 since Fiscal Year 2010.[2] It is owned and operated by TriMet and began service in 1986.

From its inception until 2004, about $3 billion was invested in light rail in Portland.[3]

Early system history[edit]

In the mid-1970s, TriMet (or Tri-Met, as it was known until 2002) began a study for light rail using funds intended for the cancelled Mount Hood Freeway. The light rail project was known as the Banfield Light Rail Project, named for the freeway (I-84) that part of the alignment followed. The TriMet board approved the project in September 1978.[4]

Construction of the 15-mile (24 km) route started in 1982,[5] and the system opened on September 5, 1986.[6] Of the project's total cost of $214 million, 83 percent was funded by the federal Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now known as the Federal Transit Administration).[7] Less than two months before the opening, TriMet adopted the name Metropolitan Area Express, or MAX, for the new system following an employee contest.[8][9]

As planning of a second light rail line, to the west side, gained momentum in the late 1980s, the MAX line came to be referred to as the Eastside MAX line, so as to distinguish it from the Westside MAX project. The 18-mile (29 km) Westside line, to Beaverton and Hillsboro, began construction in 1993 and opened in 1998. Except for a few rush-hour trips, all trips on the now-two light rail lines were connected in downtown. The resulting 33-mile (53 km) east-west line has always been operated as a single, through route, and it became known as the Blue Line in 2001, after TriMet adopted color designations for its separate light rail routes.[10]

Current system[edit]

Lines[edit]

The MAX system currently consists of four lines, each designated by a color.

The MAX system was built in a series of five separate projects, and each line runs over one or more of the previously opened segments. The use of colors to distinguish the separately operated routes was first adopted in 2000[10] and brought into use in 2001. The 2004-opened Yellow Line originally followed the same routing in downtown Portland as the Red and Blue lines, along First Avenue, Morrison Street and Yamhill Street, but it was shifted to a new alignment along the Portland Transit Mall on August 30, 2009, introducing light rail service along the Mall.[15][16] The Green Line began serving the Mall on September 12, 2009.[15]

The system currently has a total of 87 stations.[1] Of these, 51 stations are served by the Blue Line, 28 stations by the Green Line, 29 by the Red Line, and 22 by the Yellow Line, with 40 stations served by two or more lines and 8 by three. The system's central stations are at Pioneer Courthouse Square, on the Portland Transit Mall. All four lines pass through the Rose Quarter and cross the Steel Bridge.

The trains operate on direct current and utilize two voltages, 750V DC nominal on sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street and 825V DC nominal on the remainder. The two systems are electrically isolated.[17]

Since the 2009 rerouting of the Yellow Line to the Portland Transit Mall, the Steel Bridge is the only portion of the MAX Light Rail system that is shared by all four lines.

Trains run every 15 minutes from early in the morning Monday through Friday until late at night, while weekends consists of every 18 minutes. The Blue Line runs every 10 minutes during rush hour. Headways between trains are shorter in the central section of the system, where lines overlap. Actual schedules vary by location and time of day. At many stations, a live readerboard shows the destination and time-to-arrival of the next several trains, using data gathered by a vehicle tracking system.

Arrival information screens are in place at all stations on the Green Line and Transit Mall, with reader boards on the Yellow Line and some Red Line stations. These show arrival countdowns for trains and information about any service disruptions. After a $180,000 grant from the Federal Transit Administration, TriMet began adding digital displays to Blue and Red Line stations in 2013, initially on the west side, and then on the east side.[18] All MAX stations are expected to be fitted with screens by 2016.

Stations[edit]

MAX Light Rail stations vary in size, but are generally simple and austere. There are no faregates or specially segregated areas. Some stations have platforms and entrance halls, while others are little more than streetcar-style stops. Official concessionaires sometimes open coffee shops at stations.

Fares[edit]

TriMet MAX ticket vending machine, older style. Inset is close-up of fare selection (in 2006) and a ticket validator.

MAX uses a proof-of-payment system; riders must carry a valid ticket or pass at all times. Tickets or passes are purchased before boarding and retained as proof of payment. Passengers must board the train before the time on ticket or pass expires, and are allowed to ride past the time on the ticket, provided the train was boarded before the expiration time. After validation, tickets are valid for 2½ hours and passes are valid until end of service day, and can be used an unlimited number of times, for travel in any direction, on MAX, TriMet buses, Portland Streetcar, and C-Tran buses (except express routes).

2-hour (2.5-hour effective 3/1/2015) youth ticket printed from ticket machine. Front (right) and back (left)

TriMet fares (as of September 1, 2014) are:

2½-Hour Ticket 1-Day Pass 7-Day Pass 14-Day Pass 30-Day/
1-Month Pass †
1-Year Pass ‡
Adult $2.50 $5 $26 $51 $100 $1,100
Honored Citizen
(ages 65+/disabled/medicare)
$1 $2 $7 $13.50 $26 $286
Youth
(ages 7–17 or high school/GED students)
$1.25 $2.50 $7.50 $14.50 $28 $308
Children
(ages 0–6)
Free when accompanied by fare-paying passenger
Notes:
  • † 30-day passes are sold at ticket vending machines at MAX stations, while passes valid for a single calendar month are sold at TriMet ticket outlets.[19]
  • ‡ 1-year pass can only be purchased at TriMet's Pioneer Square office.

Most tickets and passes may be purchased from vending machines located on every MAX platform or on TriMet's mobile ticketing app. Passengers can also purchase books of 10 unvalidated 2½-hour tickets, books of 5 unvalidated 1-day passes and 1-month passes on the TriMet website or from a ticket outlet.

The Portland Streetcar ticket vending machines can also issue 2½-hour tickets and 1-day passes that are valid on all TriMet services including MAX,[20] but $1 streetcar-only tickets and the streetcar-only annual pass are not valid on TriMet.[21]

From March to December 2015, card readers are being installed at MAX stations in preparation for TriMet's future e-fare system.[22] They will enable riders to pay their fare by tapping the card reader when boarding and disembarking a MAX train. Additionally, as part of the MAX Orange Line, the first turnstiles on MAX are being installed at the Bybee Boulevard and Park Avenue stations, to be activated with the e-fare system in 2017.[23] This pilot project will determine the feasibility of fare gates at other stations.

History[edit]

From the MAX system's opening until 2012, riding was free in Fareless Square (known as the Free Rail Zone from 2010 to 2012), which included all of downtown and, starting in 2001, part of the Lloyd District. The 37-year-old fare-free zone was discontinued on September 1, 2012, as part of systemwide cost-cutting measures.[24] As part of the same budget cuts, TriMet discontinued its zonal fares, moving to a flat fare system. Zones had been in place since 1986, with higher fares for longer rides, and three fare zones (five until 1988).[24]

Original line and expansions[edit]

Segment description Date opened Line(s) End points New
stations
Length Construction Cost
(mi) (km)
Eastside (Banfield)[25] September 5, 1986 All Lines 31 (27
originally)
15.1 24.3 March 1982 – September 1986 $214 million
Westside[26] September 12, 1998 Blue, Red 20 17.6 28.3 July 1993 – September 1998 $963 million
Airport[27] September 10, 2001 Red 4 5.6 9.0 May 1999 – September 2001 $125 million
Interstate Avenue[28] May 1, 2004 Yellow 10 5.8 9.3 November 2000 – May 2004 $350 million
Portland Transit Mall August 30, 2009 Green, Yellow 14 (7 per direction) 1.8 2.9 February 2007 – September 2009 $575.7 million
I-205[29] September 12, 2009 Green 8 6.5 10.5
Total 87 52.4 84.3  

Future[edit]

Under construction[edit]

Main article: MAX Orange Line
  • Downtown Portland – Milwaukie (PSU South/SW Jackson Street – SE Park Avenue)

Proposed extensions[edit]

A Red Line train on the Banfield Mainline next to Interstate 84

Southwest Corridor[edit]

  • Downtown Portland – Tualatin (Lincoln Street/SW 3rd – Tualatin Station)
    • Projected opening: >2026
    • Route: From PSU to Tualatin via Tigard along dedicated lanes on Barbur Boulevard.[31] A preferred alignment and mode (either MAX Light Rail or bus rapid transit) is scheduled to be chosen in May 2016. Depending on the route, it would cost $680 to $990 million for BRT and $1.9 to 2.1 billion for LRT.[32] Two tunnels in the Tualatin Mountains, a 2.4-mile (3.9 km) deep-bore tunnel under Marquam Hill serving OHSU and Hillsdale, and a .38-mile (0.61 km) cut-and-cover tunnel serving only Hillsdale, were formerly under consideration, but they were dropped from the plan in July 2015 because they would be costly, have severe construction impacts, and attract few new transit riders.[33] Connecting OHSU to a surface transit line though elevators or escalators is being studied.[34] A separate .54-mile (0.87 km) cut-and-cover tunnel to serve PCC-Sylvania is still an option.

Former extensions[edit]

Vancouver[edit]

  • Yellow Line Extension to Vancouver, WA (Expo Center – Marshall Center/Clark College)
    • Former projected opening: 2019; length: 2.9 miles (4.7 km); stations: 5
    • Route: From Expo Center to Clark College in Vancouver. This Yellow Line extension would have served Hayden Island and Vancouver, and initial planning for it took place in conjunction with the Columbia River Crossing project. Tracks in Vancouver would have been laid out as a northbound and southbound couplet on Broadway and Washington, respectively. This couplet would have merged onto 17th before terminating at Clark College. In February 2010, it was projected that construction could begin in 2014 for the Washington segment, 2015 for the Oregon segment.[35] In March 2014, the extension was canceled along with the Columbia River Crossing after the Oregon Legislature voted against funding.[36]

Other extensions[edit]

  • TriMet has indicated that additional extensions have been studied or discussed with Metro and cities in the region.[37][38] These proposed extensions include the following, with light rail being considered along with other alternatives:

Operations[edit]

General description[edit]

In parts of the MAX system, particularly in central Portland and Hillsboro, MAX trains run on surface streets. Except on the Portland Transit Mall, trains run in reserved lanes closed to other motorized vehicles. On the Transit Mall, trains operate on the same lanes as TriMet buses (although MAX trains have traffic priority). Elsewhere, MAX runs within its own exclusive right-of-way, in street medians, alongside freeways, and on former freight railroad lines.

Where the tracks run in a street median, such as the majority of the Yellow Line and the section of the Blue Line along Burnside Avenue between Gateway Transit Center and Ruby Junction, intersections are generally controlled by traffic signals which give trains preemption. Where the tracks occupy a completely separate right-of-way, the tracks are protected by automated grade crossing gates. A three-mile (4.8 km) section consists of two tunnels below Washington Park. While this section has only one station, it is 260 feet (79 m) below ground level, making it the deepest transit station in North America[39] and one of the deepest in the world.

Because of Portland's relatively small 200-foot (61 m) downtown blocks, trains operate with only one or two cars (technically, the single-car "trains" are in fact not trains). The MAX cars are about 90 feet (27.4 m) long, so a stopped train consisting of more than two cars would block intersections. All service is typically operated with two-car trains, except for certain trips during late-night hours. During the first few years of Red Line and Yellow Line service, those lines normally used single cars on a portion of their service, but as ridership has grown and additional light rail cars have been acquired, those lines now normally use all two-car trains. The 2009-introduced MAX Mall Shuttle, which provided supplementary service along the Portland Transit Mall on weekday afternoons only, normally always used a single car;[15] it was discontinued in June 2011.[40]

Rolling stock[edit]

Type 1 (Bombardier, left) and Type 2 (Siemens SD660, right) light rail cars at the Beaverton Transit Center, on the Blue Line and Red Line, respectively

There are currently five models of MAX light rail vehicles, designated by TriMet as "Type 1", "Type 2", "Type 3", "Type 4" and "Type 5". All of the different types are used on all of the MAX lines.

Type 1[edit]

The Type 1 cars were manufactured by a joint venture between La Brugeoise et Nivelles and Bombardier Corporation before the latter acquired the former, and featured a raised floor with steps at the doors. These cars are based on a La Brugeoise et Nivelles design used in Rio de Janeiro Line Line 2.[41] The first vehicle was completed at the factory in late 1983[42] and arrived in Portland in 1984.[43] The Type 1 cars were delivered without air-conditioning, but it was added to all cars during a retrofit between in 1997–98. The Type 1 are the only MAX cars whose rollsign-type destination signs are hand-cranked. Because of the time-consuming process to change the signs, only the sign on the exposed end of the car is changed to the correct destination; the side signs only list the designated route color, and the sign on the coupled end of each car in a two-car train is left blank.

Type 2[edit]

The interior of a Type 2 MAX car, towards middle section

With the partial opening of Westside MAX in 1997, TriMet's "Type 2" light rail vehicle were introduced. The Siemens model SD660 (originally SD600, but retroactively redesignated SD660 in 1998[44]) have a low-floor design, a first for light rail vehicles in North America,[45][46] digital readerboards and a slightly more open floor plan. The floor is nearly level with the platforms, and small ramps called "bridge plates" extend (on request) from two of the four doors, enabling passengers in wheelchairs to roll on and off of the vehicle easily. These permitted the elimination of wheelchair lifts that had been located at every station and were time-consuming to use.[47] High-floor Type 1 cars are now always paired with a low-floor Type 2 or 3 car so that each train is wheelchair-accessible.

The first low-floor light rail vehicle was delivered in 1996[48] and first used in service on August 31, 1997.[47] The new vehicles also came equipped with air-conditioning, a feature originally lacking from the Type 1 vehicles,.[45] The initial order of 39 Type 2 vehicles was expanded, in stages, to a total of 52 vehicles.[49]

Some of the later models of light rail vehicles had automatic passenger counters retrofitted; in these models, they are on the floor of the doorways.

In 2001–02, TriMet modified the interior of the Type 2 cars to add space for bicycles. Eight seats per vehicle were removed and replaced—in four places per car—with hooks from which a bicycle can be hung.[50] All later cars have been delivered from the manufacturer with these bike hooks already installed.

Type 3[edit]

An extended doorway bridge plate, or wheelchair ramp, in a low-floor MAX car

The second series of Siemens SD660 cars, TriMet's "Type 3" MAX light rail vehicle, are outwardly identical to the Type 2 cars in design, the primary difference being various technical upgrades. Siemens installed an improved air-conditioning system, more ergonomic seats and automatic passenger counters using photoelectric sensors above the doorways. The Type 3 cars were the first to wear the transit agency's newer (2002-adopted) paint scheme. Purchased for the opening of the Yellow Line in May 2004, delivery of the Type 3 series began in February 2003, and the vehicles began to enter service in September 2003.[51]

Type 4[edit]

"Type 4" MAX vehicles (Siemens S70) in service on the Blue Line

Twenty-two new Siemens S70 low-floor cars, designated Type 4, were purchased in conjunction with the I-205 and Portland Mall MAX projects. They feature a more streamlined design than previous models, have more seating and are lighter in weight and therefore more energy-efficient. They can only operate in pairs, since each car has just one operator's cab, at the "A" end (the "B" end has additional passenger seating). At about 95 feet (28.96 m) long, they are about three feet longer than Type 2 and Type 3 cars, which were 92 feet (28.04 m).[52] The Type 4 MAX cars began to enter service in August 2009.[53]

The Type 4 cars were the first to use LED-type destination signs. On the rollsign-type destination signs used on the Type 1, 2 and 3 cars the designated route color (blue, green, red, or yellow) is shown as a colored background under white or black text, while in the LED signs the route color is indicated by a colored square at the left end of the display, and all text is orange lettering against a black background.[15] In October 2014, TriMet began a program to gradually replace all rollsigns in its MAX fleet with LED signs, affecting a total of 105 cars (and four signs per car). The program is projected to take until around spring 2016 to complete.[54]

Type 5[edit]

The second series of Siemens S70 cars, TriMet's "Type 5" MAX vehicle, were purchased in conjunction with the Portland–Milwaukie (MAX Orange Line) project, but will be used on all lines in the system. These vehicles include some improvements over the Type 4 cars, including a less-cramped interior seating layout[55] and improvements to the air-conditioning system and wheelchair ramps.[56] TriMet placed the order for the Type 5 cars with Siemens in April 2012 and they began to be delivered in September 2014. The first two cars entered service on April 27, 2015.[57] All 18 are expected to be in service by the time the Orange Line opens in September 2015.[58] The fleet numbers for the Type 5 cars are 521–538[59] (at the time the first cars were built, fleet numbers 511–514 were in use for the Vintage Trolley cars).

Portland MAX Light Rail Vehicles
Image Designation Car numbers Manufacturer Model No. First used No. of Seats/
Overall Capacity
Quantity
MAX train on Yamhill St with Pioneer Place (1991) - Portland, Oregon Type 1 101–126 Bombardier none 1986 76/166 26
MAX Yellow Line leaving Pioneer Square South 2009-05-31 Type 2 201–252 Siemens SD660 1997 64/166 52
MAX train crossing Steel Bridge in 2009 - street view of SD660 LRVs Type 3 301–327 Siemens SD660 2003 64/166 27
MAX Light Rail Car (Multnomah County, Oregon scenic images) (mulDA0008a) Type 4 401–422 Siemens S70 2009 68/172[52] 22
Type 5 LRVs laying over on the Blue Line in Hillsboro, May 2015 Type 5 521–538 Siemens S70 2015 72/186[56] 18

Notes on capacities:

  • The capacities given are for a single car; a two-car train has double the capacity.
  • The Type 2 cars originally had 72 seats, but eight seats were later removed, to make space for bicycles.[50]
  • All of these capacity figures are based on "normal" loading conditions (defined as 4 standing passengers per square meter by industry standards[60]); under so-called "crush" loading conditions (6-8 standees per m2), all of these cars are capable of carrying many more passengers than stated here.

Former Vintage Trolley service[edit]

In addition to regular MAX service, the Portland Vintage Trolley operated on the MAX system from 1991 until 2014, on most weekends, serving the same stops. This service, which operated for the last time in July 2014,[61][62] used 1991-built replicas of 1904 Portland streetcars. Until 2009, the Vintage Trolley service followed a section of the original MAX line, between the Galleria/Library stations and Lloyd Center, but in September 2009 the service moved to the newly opened MAX alignment along the transit mall, running from Union Station to Portland State University,[15][63] and remained on that route in subsequent seasons. In 2011, the service was reduced to only seven or eight Sundays per year,[64] and in July 2014 it was discontinued entirely, with the sale of the two remaining faux-vintage cars to a group planning a streetcar line in St. Louis.[61][62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "TriMet At-a-Glance". TriMet. 2015. p. 6. Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
  2. ^ a b c "TriMet Service and Ridership Information" (PDF). TriMet. October 20, 2014. p. 1. Retrieved April 5, 2015. 
  3. ^ Ozawa, Connie P., ed. (2004). The Portland Edge: Challenges and Successes in Growing Communities. Island Press. p. 19. ISBN 1-55963-695-5. 
  4. ^ Hortsch, Dan (September 27, 1978). "Tri-Met board votes to back Banfield light-rail project". The Oregonian, p. F1.
  5. ^ Federman, Stan (March 27, 1982). "At ground-breaking: Festivities herald transitway". The Oregonian, p. A12.
  6. ^ Koberstein, Paul (September 7, 1986). "Riders swamp light rail as buses go half-full and schedules go by the way". The Oregonian, p. A1.
  7. ^ Federman, Stan (September 5, 1986). "All aboard! MAX on track; ride free". The Oregonian, p. A1.
  8. ^ Tri-Met (July 25, 1986). Light rail name announced. Press release.
  9. ^ Anderson, Jennifer (May 5, 2006). "Stumptown Stumper". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Stewart, Bill (September 21, 2000). "Local colors roll out: Tri-Met designates the Blue, Red and Yellow lines". The Oregonian.
  11. ^ "TriMet - MAX Blue Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  12. ^ "TriMet - MAX Green Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  13. ^ "TriMet - MAX Red Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  14. ^ "TriMet - MAX Yellow Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Morgan, Steve (2010). "Expansion for Portland's MAX: New routes and equipment". Passenger Train Journal (White River Productions, Inc.) 33 (1 – First quarter 2010): 38–40. 
  16. ^ "New MAX line opens downtown". Portland Tribune. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2015. 
  17. ^ "One Breakpoint is Enough: Traction Power Simulation in Portland" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  18. ^ Blevins, Drew (July 23, 2013). "We're adding arrival screens at more Blue and Red Line MAX stations". How We Roll (TriMet). Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  19. ^ "One-month pass". TriMet. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Streetcar Fares". Portland Streetcar Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  21. ^ Mayer, James (August 2, 2012). "New streetcar fares explained". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  22. ^ "E-Fare Card Reader Installation". TriMet. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  23. ^ Rose, Joseph (March 20, 2015). "Fare turnstiles coming to Portland-Milwaukie MAX stations". The Oregonian. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  24. ^ a b Bailey Jr., Everton (August 30, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Eastside MAX Blue Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  26. ^ "Westside MAX Blue Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  27. ^ "Airport MAX Red Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "Interstate MAX Yellow Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  29. ^ "MAX Green Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Project" (PDF). TriMet. June 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Southwest Corridor Plan". Metro. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  32. ^ "Southwest Corridor Plan – Draff Staff Recommendation for July 2015 Decisions" (PDF). Southwest Corridor. Metro. June 12, 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  33. ^ Tims, Dana (July 14, 2015). "No deep tunnel for OHSU: Southwest Corridor plan". The Oregonian. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  34. ^ Beebe, Craig (July 13, 2015). "Southwest Corridor leaders drop Marquam Hill/Hillsdale tunnels, leave door open on Sylvania option". Metro News. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  35. ^ "Columbia River Crossing information packet". ODOT, WSDOT. February 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  36. ^ Manning, Jeff (March 7, 2014). "Columbia River Crossing: ODOT to pull plug, bridge project is dead". The Oregonian. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  37. ^ a b c "Transit Investment Plan FY 2012" (PDF). TriMet. Retrieved December 18, 2012. 
  38. ^ Rivera, Dylan (September 5, 2009). "MAX Green Line signals decades of rail growth". The Oregonian. Retrieved December 18, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Westside Light Rail MAX Blue Line extension (fact sheet)" (PDF). TriMet. November 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  40. ^ Rose, Joseph (June 3, 2011). "TriMet will make several seasonal bus line adjustments Sunday". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 
  41. ^ http://vfco.brazilia.jor.br/TU/MetroRio/Trem-VLT-Cobrasma-Pre-Metro-Rio-RJ.shtml
  42. ^ "‘Roomy, good-looking’ light-rail cars please Tri-Met official" (November 27, 1983). The Sunday Oregonian, p. B5.
  43. ^ "First car for light rail delivered" (April 11, 1984). The Oregonian, p. C4.
  44. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, October 1998, p. 397. UK: Ian Allan Publishing/Light Rail Transit Association. ISSN 1460-8324.
  45. ^ a b Oliver, Gordon (April 15, 1993). "Tri-Met prepares to purchase 37 low-floor light-rail cars". The Oregonian, p. D4.
  46. ^ Vantuono, William C. (July 1993). "Tri-Met goes low-floor: Portland's Tri-Met has broken new ground with a procurement of low-floor light rail vehicles. The cars will be North America's first low-floor LRVs." Railway Age, pp. 49–51.
  47. ^ a b O'Keefe, Mark (September 1, 1997). "New MAX cars smooth the way for wheelchairs". The Oregonian, p. B12.
  48. ^ Oliver, Gordon (August 1, 1996). "MAX takes keys to cool new model". The Oregonian, p. D1.
  49. ^ Oliver, Gordon (September 26, 1997). "Tri-Met expands light-rail car order". The Oregonian, p. B6.
  50. ^ a b Stewart, Bill (August 20, 2001). "MAX will add racks for bikes, not bags". The Oregonian.
  51. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, November 2003, p. 428. UK: Ian Allan Publishing/Light Rail Transit Association.
  52. ^ a b "MAX: The Next Generation". TriMet. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  53. ^ Redden, Jim (August 6, 2009). "TriMet puts new light-rail cars on track". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2015. 
  54. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, March 2015, p. 121. UK: LRTA Publishing.
  55. ^ Rose, Joseph (July 31, 2012). "TriMet asks cramped MAX riders to help design next-generation train's seating". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  56. ^ a b "PMLR Type 5 LRV Fact Sheet" (PDF). TriMet. March 2015. Retrieved May 17, 2015. 
  57. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, July 2015, p. 289. UK: LRTA Publishing. ISSN 1460-8324.
  58. ^ Rose, Joseph (September 30, 2014). "TriMet's first new 'Type 5' MAX light-rail vehicle has rolled into Portland (or has it?)". The Oregonian. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  59. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, June 2012, p. 235. UK: LRTA Publishing. ISSN 1460-8324.
  60. ^ "Glossary section, Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition (TCRP Report 100)" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. October 2003. pp. 9 ("car weight designations"). Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  61. ^ a b "Vintage Trolley Has Ceased Operation". Portland Vintage Trolley website. September 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2015. 
  62. ^ a b "Portland double-track is brought into use". Tramways & Urban Transit (LRTA Publishing). November 2014. p. 454. 
  63. ^ "Vintage Trolley 2012 Schedule on the Portland Mall". Portland Vintage Trolley website. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  64. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit, April 2011, p. 152. LRTA Publishing Ltd.

External links[edit]