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MAX Red Line

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MAX Red Line
Portland July 2017 01 (Portland International Airport MAX Station).jpg
A two-car train at Portland International Airport
Overview
TypeLight rail
SystemMAX Light Rail
StatusOperational
LocalePortland, Oregon, U.S.
TerminiBeaverton Transit Center (west)
Portland International Airport (east)
Stations29
Daily ridership22,770 (as of September 2018)[1]
WebsiteMAX Red Line
Operation
OpenedSeptember 10, 2001 (2001-09-10)
OwnerTriMet
Operator(s)TriMet
CharacterAt-grade, elevated, and underground
Rolling stock
Technical
Line length5.5 mi (8.9 km)[a]
Number of tracks1–2
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC, overhead catenary
Route diagram

Beaverton TC
WES Commuter Rail
Sunset TC
Parking
Washington Park
Goose Hollow/SW Jefferson
Kings Hill/SW Salmon
Providence Park
Stadium - The Noun Project.svg
 B  Loop NS  Line (SW 11th Ave)
 A  Loop NS  Line (SW 10th Ave)
Galleria/SW 10th
Portland Streetcar
Library/SW 9th
Portland Streetcar
Pioneer Square N
Pioneer Square S
to PSU to Milwaukie (SW 5th Ave)
Mall/SW 5th
Mall/SW 4th
Morrison/SW 3rd
Yamhill District
Oak/SW 1st
Skidmore Fountain
Old Town/Chinatown
to PSU
to Union Station
cont. to Milwaukie
Rose Quarter TC
Stadium - The Noun Project.svg
Convention Center
Portland Streetcar
 B  Loop (NE Grand Ave)
 A  Loop (NE 7th Ave)
NE 7th
Portland Streetcar
Lloyd Center/NE 11th
Hollywood/NE 42nd TC
NE 60th
NE 82nd
Gateway/NE 99th TC
Parking
to Gresham to Clackamas
I-84 / I-205 (northbound)
Parkrose/Sumner TC
Parking
I-205 (southbound)
Cascades
Mt Hood
Portland International Airport
Portland International Airport

The MAX Red Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. It serves 29 stations in the cities of Beaverton and Portland, running predominantly east–west. An airport rail link, the line connects central Beaverton, Portland City Center, and Northeast Portland to Portland International Airport. From Beaverton Transit Center to Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center, the Red Line shares all and part of its route with the Blue Line and the Green Line, respectively; it then splits to an exclusive, 5.5-mile (8.9 km) segment, referred to as the Airport MAX extension, to Portland International Airport station. The line runs for 22 hours per day on a headway of at least 15 minutes daily. It is the second-busiest service in the MAX system, carrying an average of 22,770 weekday passengers in September 2018.

Proposals for an airport light rail service surfaced in the mid-1980s and efforts were accelerated following Portland International Airport's rapid expansion in the 1990s. Conceived from an unsolicited proposal from Bechtel in 1997, the Airport MAX project was designed and built under a public–private partnership between a consortium of Bechtel and Trammell Crow, the Port of Portland, and local governments. The extension began construction in 1999 and was completed in just under two years, owing its quickness to the exclusion of federal funding and the utilization of existing public right-of-way. The Red Line commenced service between downtown Portland and the airport on September 10, 2001. Amid strong westside ridership on the Blue Line, Red Line service was extended west to Beaverton Transit Center in 2003. TriMet plans to further extend service west to Fair Complex/Hillsboro Airport station in Hillsboro, among other improvements, by 2023.

History[edit]

Background and partnership agreement[edit]

a road entrance to Cascade Station facing Sports Authority
Cascade Station in 2011

In 1975, during the preliminary design phase of Interstate 205 (I-205), Portland city planners recommended downsizing the freeway and including right-of-way reserved for future transit, which was later realized as the I-205 Transitway.[3] In 1986,[4] regional transit plans began calling for a light rail extension to Portland International Airport,[5] which was then being served by TriMet buses operating from Sandy Boulevard,[6] with construction projected to begin around 2010.[2] Early proposals envisioned a line running from Clackamas County to the airport along I-205 and connecting with the Eastside MAX at Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center.[7][8] The airport expanded rapidly in the following decade, with traffic more than doubling from six to fourteen million passengers between 1990 and 2000.[2][9] Anticipating this growth, the Port of Portland embarked on a 20-year, $300 million phased expansion project in November 1991, which expanded the main passenger terminal, rebuilt an existing concourse, and added a fifth concourse.[10][11] This project also provisioned for a future light rail station near the southern end of the arrivals hall.[12][13] By 1994, parking lots were operating at 90 percent capacity as projections fell short of demand. With heavy vehicular traffic near the terminal entrances further worsening congestion, the Port sought to accelerate regional plans to introduce light rail service to the airport.[14][15]

Meanwhile, TriMet had been preoccupied with the construction of the Westside MAX extension and had plans to pursue its South–North Line proposal before it would consider extending MAX service to the airport.[14][16] The South–North Line, which would have connected Clark County, Washington and Clackamas Town Center to downtown Portland, was subsequently defeated by Clark County voters in 1995.[17][18] In late 1996, Bechtel initiated discussions with the Port regarding the feasibility of an airport MAX line, assigning a former federal transit official employee to develop the project. The Port expressed its support of the unsolicited proposal in January 1997.[15] After long deliberations, agreements were made between Bechtel, the Port, and local governments.[3] Part of the agreements authorized Bechtel to design and build the 5.5-mile-long (8.9 km) extension and to fund a portion of the line in exchange for development rights to the 120-acre (48.6 ha) Portland International Center, an area of undeveloped commercially zoned property situated east of the airport, which it later renamed Cascade Station.[19] The project was accelerated with the establishment of a public–private partnership, which eliminated the need for Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funding.[3] A preliminary engineering study commenced in December 1997.[20] In 1998, eastside community leaders, who feared the proposal would take away service from the Gresham area, protested the line's construction.[21] The following October, the Associated Builders and Contractors filed a petition in Multnomah County circuit court; they claimed that the contract awarded to Bechtel may have violated Oregon procurement laws.[22] A judge ruled in favor of TriMet in December, declaring that the contract was awarded fairly.[23]

Funding and construction[edit]

a Red Line train exiting a tunnel
South portal of the tunnel that was built in the late 1970s as part of a future transitway and was first brought into use by the Red Line

In July 1998, TriMet announced its projected cost of the Airport MAX extension at $125 million (equivalent to $183 million in 2018 dollars). Additional costs raised the total to $182.7 million.[24] Under U.S. federal regulations, the Port of Portland was able to fund only the portion of rail located within its property, with approval from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).[25][26] To solve this, the Port proposed dividing the project's financing into three parts. The Port became responsible for the 1.2-mile (1.9 km) segment within airport property. The next 1.4 miles (2.3 km) of track, which ran through Cascade Station, was funded privately. The final 2.9 miles (4.7 km) along I-205 was covered by local jurisdictions.[25] Funding was divided among five entities, with the Port contributing $28.3 million for construction and an additional $20 million for terminal and road improvements. This was drawn from a $3 ticket fee paid by travelers.[2][24] Delta Airlines, Reno Air, and United Airlines opposed the use of ticket fees; they argued that the extension would only serve a small number of airline passengers.[27] The FAA approved it in May 1999.[28] Cascade Station Development, a private consortium of Bechtel and Trammell Crow, provided $28.2 million for the project and an additional $13.1 million for the construction of the Airport Way interchange.[29] TriMet released $27.5 million for construction, funded by $30 million in bonds,[2][24] and procured 17 new rail cars at a cost of $6 million each.[29][30] Metro allocated $18 million for construction from a regional transportation fund,[2][24] and the remaining $23 million came from tax increment bonds issued by the city of Portland.[3][2]

refer to caption
A curved bridge built as part of the extension, seen over the I-205 exit ramps near Gateway Transit Center

David Evans and Associates served as the project's prime engineer and lead designer.[31] Bechtel began construction in June 1999, on a segment next to I-205 near the Columbia Slough.[29] Bridgework over the freeways commenced the following December.[32] To minimize closures, a cast-in-place concrete pouring method was used to extend the bridges' spans in 16-foot (4.9 m) increments.[33] Work progressed quickly along much of the freeway segment owing to the I-205 Transitway, which had accommodated a tunnel from Gateway Transit Center into the I-205 median in anticipation of a busway. Further contributing to the line's rapid completion, construction did not displace any property owners; the extension was built over public right-of-way and its impact was limited to twenty parking spaces at Gateway Transit Center and several others along Airport Way.[29][34] Track installation, which was contracted to Stacy and Witbeck, started in December 1999.[33][35] To meet the project's deadline, crews placed 3,200 feet (975.4 m) of linear rail per day; tracks from Gateway Transit Center to the bridge over southbound I-205 were laid by July 2000.[36] Hoffman Construction, the company selected by the Port to expand the airport terminal, built the $8.4 million Portland International Airport station. With its glass-roofed shelter, the station was designed to complement the airport terminal's new drop-off canopy. Bechtel began end-to-end testing in March 2001, which was followed by TriMet in July.[35]

Opening and later extension[edit]

TriMet named the new service to the airport the Red Line to differentiate it from the established service between Hillsboro and Gresham, which was renamed the Blue Line.[37] The Airport MAX extension opened on September 10, 2001.[38][39] Celebrations slated for September 15–16 were canceled in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks,[6][40] and the airport was closed for three days as a result of a nation-wide ground stop.[41] The Red Line originally terminated at the Library and Galleria stations in downtown Portland, where its trains turned around at the 11th Avenue loop tracks.[42] It replaced bus route 12–Sandy Boulevard as TriMet's only service to and from the airport from 2001 to 2018,[6][43] after which TriMet introduced 272–PDX Night Bus, which operates in the late night and early morning hours when the Red Line is not operating.[44][45] C-Tran service from Vancouver across the Columbia River was moved from its connection at Gateway Transit Center to Parkrose/Sumner Transit Center.[6] Although tested during trial runs,[35] TriMet opted to omit luggage racks from Red Line trains to maximize rider capacity.[46] By November 2001, ridership averaged at 2,300 riders and peaked at 3,800 a day before Thanksgiving holiday weekend. All service had been using single light rail cars,[47] but this influx of riders prompted TriMet to temporarily deploy two-car consists for the first time, which it had not previously planned to do until 2006.[48] Regular use of two-car trains on the line began in September 2005, when overcrowding prompted TriMet to change most Yellow Line service from two-car consists to single cars in order to convert the Red Line to two-car trains.[49]

Red Line service was extended farther west along the existing Westside MAX tracks to Beaverton Transit Center on September 1, 2003, in an effort increase capacity between Gateway Transit Center and Beaverton, and to provide a no-transfer airport connection for westside riders.[50] On March 2, 2008, three trips in each direction during the morning and evening rush hours began operating between Hatfield Government Center station and Portland International Airport to provide further additional capacity on the Blue Line amid growing ridership.[51]

Future plans[edit]

refer to caption
The single-track segment seen along I-205 in 2018

TriMet announced plans to extend the Red Line from Beaverton Transit Center to Fair Complex/Hillsboro Airport station in Hillsboro in October 2017.[52] The $200 million project would create a one-seat option from Portland International Airport to ten additional stations on the Westside MAX, and a transit link between the Portland and Hillsboro airports. On the east side, TriMet plans to add a second track on existing single-track segments between the Gateway and Parkrose/Sumner transit centers, and between the Mount Hood Avenue and Portland International Airport stations. To accommodate new riders, TriMet would purchase up to eight new light rail vehicles and upgrade the Ruby Junction maintenance facility in Gresham.[53] Preliminary design work began in February 2018.[54] If the project receives final approval, construction is expected to begin in 2021 and be completed in 2023.[53]

In March 2018, Hillsboro City Council authorized funds for a study to determine the effects of the extension on the current at-grade crossing at Southwest 185th Avenue, potentially paving the way for grade separation in the future.[55] TriMet adopted a locally preferred alternative in April 2019, which allows the agency to submit the plan to the FTA for potential funding.[56]

Route[edit]

a Red Line train traversing a snow-covered street
A Red Line train seen along Holladay Street in 2014

The Airport MAX extension is 5.5 miles (8.9 km) long.[2][a] A majority of Red Line service travels along parts of the Eastside MAX and Westside MAX segments, alongside the Blue Line between Beaverton Transit Center and Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center, and the Green Line from Rose Quarter Transit Center to Gateway Transit Center.[57] After Gateway Transit Center, the Red Line branches southwest, makes a 180-degree loop, and heads north along the east side of Interstate 205.[2] Near Rocky Butte, the line enters a tunnel beneath the northbound lanes of the freeway, exiting along the median.[29] Just south of the Columbia Slough, it turns north over southbound I-205 towards Cascade Station and curves northwest along the south side of Northeast Cascade Parkway,[58] which it follows then crosses just before Mount Hood Avenue station.[59] The line proceeds along the south side of Northeast Airport Way until it reaches its terminus at Portland International Airport station.[60]

Although much of the Red Line runs along a double-track railway, there are two segments on the Airport MAX extension that are single-track. The first segment starts near Gateway Transit Center and ends north of Northeast Halsey Street.[61] The other segment runs from south of the Northeast Airport Way and Northeast Airport Way Frontage Road intersection to just before the airport terminus.[62] There are plans to add a second track for both segments by 2023.[53]

A geographic map of the MAX Red Line relative to the rest of the network

Stations[edit]

Stations on the Red Line
the side and island light rail platforms of Beaverton Transit Center; they are adorned with leafless trees and the left most platform consists of a shelter
Beaverton Transit Center, the Red Line's western terminus
the side platforms of Mt. Hood Avenue station; the platforms consists of blue lamps and the left one contains a shelter
Mount Hood Avenue station, one of two stations serving Cascade Station
the platform of Portland International Airport station; a two-car train awaits passengers to board with it doors open
The platform of Portland International Airport station, the Red Line's eastern terminus

The Airport MAX extension, which the Red Line serves exclusively, consists of four stations: Parkrose/Sumner Transit Center, Cascades, Mount Hood Avenue, and Portland International Airport. Red Line trains serve a total of 29 stations, of which 17, from Beaverton Transit Center to Old Town/Chinatown, are shared with the Blue Line. Eight more stations, from Rose Quarter Transit Center to Gateway Transit Center, are shared with both the Blue Line and the Green Line.[2]

On July 24, 2019, TriMet announced the permanent closure of the Mall stations, as well as a one-year pilot closure of Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street station, in an effort to speed up travel times. The closures will take into effect on March 1, 2020.[63]

Transfers to the Yellow Line are available at the Pioneer Square and Mall stations and Rose Quarter Transit Center, while transfers to the Green Line (beyond the shared Eastside MAX alignment) and the Orange Line can be made at the Pioneer Square and Mall stations.[2] Additionally, the Red Line provides connections to local and intercity bus services at various stops across the line, the Portland Streetcar at four stops in and near downtown Portland,[64] and a transfer to WES Commuter Rail, which runs from Beaverton to Wilsonville during the morning and evening commutes on weekdays, at Beaverton Transit Center.[65]

Key
Terminus
Eastbound travel only
Westbound travel only
Parking Park and ride[66]
Bicycle facilities Secure bike parking[67]
Station Location Commenced Line transfers[68] Other connections and notes[68][69][b]
Beaverton Transit Center Beaverton 2003 Mainline rail interchange WES Commuter Rail
Bicycle facilities
Sunset Transit Center 2003 Intercity bus service POINT, TCTD
Parking: 622 spaces; Bicycle facilities
Washington Park Portland 2003 Bicycle facilities
Goose Hollow/Southwest Jefferson Street 2003 Bicycle facilities
Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street[c] 2003
Providence Park 2003
Library/Southwest 9th Avenue 2001 Tram interchange Portland Streetcar
Galleria/Southwest 10th Avenue 2001 Tram interchange Portland Streetcar
Pioneer Square South 2001 Portland Transit Mall
Pioneer Square North 2001
Mall/Southwest 4th Avenue[c] 2001
Mall/Southwest 5th Avenue[c] 2001
Yamhill District 2001
Morrison/Southwest 3rd Avenue 2001
Oak Street/Southwest 1st Avenue 2001
Skidmore Fountain 2001
Old Town/Chinatown 2001
Rose Quarter Transit Center 2001 Intercity bus service C-Tran
Bicycle facilities
Convention Center 2001 Tram interchange Portland Streetcar
Northeast 7th Avenue 2001 Tram interchange Portland Streetcar
Lloyd Center/Northeast 11th Avenue 2001
Hollywood/Northeast 42nd Avenue Transit Center 2001 Bicycle facilities
Northeast 60th Avenue 2001 Bicycle facilities
Northeast 82nd Avenue 2001 Bicycle facilities
Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center 2001 Intercity bus service Columbia Area Transit[70]
Parking: 690 spaces; Bicycle facilities
Parkrose/Sumner Transit Center 2001 Intercity bus service C-Tran
Parking: 193 spaces; Bicycle facilities
Cascades 2007
Mount Hood Avenue 2001
Portland International Airport 2001

Service[edit]

TriMet designates the Red Line as a Frequent Service route; its trains operate for approximately 22 hours per day from a maximum headway of 30 minutes during the early mornings and late evenings to as short as 15 minutes for most of the day.[71] From Monday to Sunday, the first train begins service at approximately 3:30 am going eastbound from Beaverton Transit Center to Portland International Airport station. Travel between the termini takes approximately 65 minutes and the first westbound service departs Portland International Airport station at approximately 4:55 am. In the evenings, select westbound trains travel beyond the line's terminus at Beaverton Transit Center to Hatfield Government Center station in Hillsboro; these trains operate as through services of the Blue Line upon arriving at Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center. The Red Line's last three trains turn into eastbound Blue Line trains at Gateway Transit Center and terminate at Ruby Junction/East 197th Avenue station. The last westbound service departs from Portland International Airport station at approximately 12:30 am and the last Red Line service, which travels eastbound, departs from Portland International Airport station at approximately 1:40 am.[72]

Ridership[edit]

The Red Line is the second-busiest service on the MAX network, averaging 22,770 riders on weekdays in September 2018,[1] up from 21,070 for the same month in 2017.[73] It averaged 2,800 daily riders at the airport in September 2002, ahead of TriMet's first-year projections of 2,300.[74] The line's extension to Beaverton Transit Center in 2003 increased weekday ridership by 49 percent along the westside corridor, as well as six percent system-wide.[75] IKEA's opening in July 2007 helped to attract riders to Cascade Station, which had been considered a failed planned development amid the economic recession that followed the September 11 attacks.[76] In 2008, Cascades station recorded an eight-fold increase in traffic, from 250 passengers per week to 2,000.[77] By 2010, the number had increased to 6,000.[78] The Red Line's yearly ridership peaked at just over nine million passengers in 2009;[79] it has continued to fall as part of a system-wide drop attributed to crime and rising housing costs in the Portland area.[80][81] From 8.2 million boardings in 2012, 7.4 million boardings were recorded in 2015.[82][2]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b TriMet publications only provide the total length of the Airport MAX extension, i.e., the section that was newly built. The total length of the Red Line service, which spans from Portland International Airport station to Beaverton Transit Center, is undetermined.[2]
  2. ^ This list of service connections excludes TriMet bus connections. For a complete list that includes all transfers, see: List of MAX Light Rail stations.
  3. ^ a b c Effective March 1, 2020, the Mall stations will be permanently closed. Additionally, Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street station will be closed for one year, after which TriMet will re-evaluate whether or not it should also close the station permanently.[63]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "September 2018 Monthly Performance Report" (PDF). TriMet. October 17, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Airport MAX Red Line" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Selinger, Philip (2015). "Making History: 45 Years of Transit in the Portland Region" (PDF). TriMet. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  4. ^ Kohler, Vince (March 27, 1986). "Metro study group finds interest in light-rail line along I-205". The Oregonian. p. 1.
  5. ^ Bodine, Harry (September 30, 1987). "Light rail expansion backed by officials". The Oregonian. p. B12.
  6. ^ a b c d Stewart, Bill (August 31, 2001). "Most Tri-Met fares rise Saturday, while route switches start Sept. 9". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  7. ^ Mayer, James (April 9, 1989). "Tri-Met looks to the future: The success of MAX sparks dreams of expanding". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  8. ^ Federman, Stan (September 9, 1988). "Light rail completes two years of success". The Oregonian. p. A16.
  9. ^ Gosling, Geoffrey D. (May 2012). Case Study Report: Portland MAX Airport Extension (PDF) (Report). Mineta Transportation Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  10. ^ Sturtz, Paul (June 3, 1991). "Airport ready to take off on $300 million expansion". Portland Business Journal. p. 1A.
  11. ^ Hamburg, Ken (December 10, 1992). "Port of Portland speeds pace of airport terminal expansion". The Oregonian. p. E10.
  12. ^ Mayes, Steve (April 11, 1991). "Portland's airport for the future only needs a $300 million ticket". The Oregonian. p. A1.
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  14. ^ a b Marks, Anita (February 25, 1994). "Airport struggles with runaway growth". Portland Business Journal. p. 1.
  15. ^ a b Oliver, Gordon (January 22, 1997). "Port wants MAX to run to airport". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  16. ^ Oliver, Gordon (March 11, 1993). "Citizens advisory committee endorses pair of light-rail routes". The Oregonian. p. B3.
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  19. ^ Rose, Michael (December 19, 1997). "PDX light rail may lead to south-north line". Portland Business Journal. p. 1.
  20. ^ Christ, Janet (January 1, 1998). "Portland to help pay for study of airport rail line". The Oregonian. p. D2.
  21. ^ Trevison, Catherine (April 17, 2003). "MAX change angers eastside". The Oregonian. p. 1.
  22. ^ Bjorhus, Jennifer (November 26, 1998). "Contractors battle Tri-Met on bid laws". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  23. ^ Bjorhus, Jennifer (December 5, 1998). "Court tosses out suit against Tri-Met, Bechtel". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  24. ^ a b c d Oliver, Gordon (July 17, 1998). "Tri-Met puts price tag on airport line". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  25. ^ a b Ernico, Sheri (2012). Considering and Evaluating Airport Privatization (Report). 66. Transportation Research Board. ISSN 1935-9802. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  26. ^ Oliver, Gordon (October 9, 1998). "Port of Portland OKs light-rail agreement". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  27. ^ Gordon, Oliver (December 12, 1998). "3 airlines oppose light-rail money". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  28. ^ Stewart, Bill (May 29, 1999). "Ruling: Port ticket fees can finance 'Air MAX'". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  29. ^ a b c d e Stewart, Bill (June 17, 1999). "Light-rail line to PDX starting to take shape". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  30. ^ "TriMet's Rail Vehicle Fleet" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  31. ^ Yee, Roger (2005). Public Transportation: On the Move. 1. Visual Reference Publications. p. 43. ISBN 1584710373.
  32. ^ Tomlinson, Stuart (December 3, 1999). "Construction detours bottleneck I-84 traffic". The Oregonian. p. C3.
  33. ^ a b Stewart, Bill (December 17, 1999). "Don't look up, but MAX bridge going in over I-205; strict safety measures are in place to protect motorists, and as the span is built, tracks will start going in on Airport Way". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  34. ^ Oliver, Gordon (September 10, 1998). "Light rail to airport gets closer to reality". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  35. ^ a b c Stewart, Bill (July 10, 2000). "Airport's MAX station will be special". The Oregonian. p. E4.
  36. ^ Stewart, Bill (June 12, 2000). "Workers are busy making tracks toward Airport MAX 2001 deadline". The Oregonian. p. E4.
  37. ^ Stewart, Bill (September 21, 2000). "Local colors roll out: Tri-Met designates the Blue, Red and Yellow lines". The Oregonian. pp. E1, E10.
  38. ^ Oliver, Gordon (September 11, 2001). "Portland now 'the city that moves', mayor says [opening of MAX Red Line]". The Oregonian. p. 1.
  39. ^ Oliver, Gordon (September 21, 2001). "Unknowns cloud PDX's future". The Oregonian. p. D1.
  40. ^ "History cancels PDX party". The Oregonian. September 15, 2001. p. D8.
  41. ^ Rose, Joseph (September 17, 2001). "Even anti-noise advocates happy to hear airplanes again". The Oregonian. p. E6.
  42. ^ Stewart, Bill (September 7, 2001). "Airport MAX rolls out Monday". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  43. ^ "September 9th – Big Service Improvements". TriMet. September 11, 2001. Archived from the original on October 7, 2001. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  44. ^ Theen, Andrew (August 30, 2018). "New TriMet bus, MAX additions create all-night service to PDX". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018.
  45. ^ "272–PDX Night Bus". TriMet. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  46. ^ "MAX Red Line runs: Every 15 minutes, seven days a week". The Oregonian. September 11, 2001. p. A12.
  47. ^ "Systems News". Tramways & Urban Transit. UK: Ian Allan Publishing. November 2001. p. 430. ISSN 1460-8324.
  48. ^ "About town: Riders keep Airport MAX busy Thanksgiving weekend". The Oregonian. November 27, 2001. p. D2.
  49. ^ "Systems News". Tramways & Urban Transit. UK: Ian Allan Publishing. July 2006. p. 276. ISSN 1460-8324.
  50. ^ Leeson, Fred (August 27, 2003). "MAX fares increase, direct service from Beaverton to PDX starts". The Oregonian. p. D2.
  51. ^ "TriMet extends rush-hour MAX trains between Hillsboro, PDX". Beaverton Valley Times. March 3, 2008. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
  52. ^ Howard, John William (October 25, 2017). "TriMet considering expansion of MAX Red Line to county fairgrounds". Hillsboro Tribune. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  53. ^ a b c "MAX Red Line Improvements Project". TriMet. Archived from the original on August 23, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  54. ^ "Parametrix to complete preliminary design for MAX Red Line extension". Parametrix. February 18, 2018. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  55. ^ Pot, Justin (March 16, 2018). "The MAX Red Line will extend to the Fairgrounds; what's that mean for 185th Avenue traffic?". Hillsboro Signal. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  56. ^ "TriMet moves forward with plan to extend MAX Red Line into Hillsboro". KPTV. April 24, 2019. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019.
  57. ^ TriMet System map (PDF) (Map). TriMet. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  58. ^ "Stop ID 10575 – Cascades MAX Station". TriMet. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  59. ^ "Stop ID 10577 – Mt Hood MAX Station". TriMet. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  60. ^ "Stop ID 10579 – Portland Int'l Airport MAX Station". TriMet. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  61. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors. "Airport MAX single-track segment, Gateway" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  62. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors. "Airport MAX single-track segment, airport" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  63. ^ a b Altstadt, Roberta (July 24, 2019). "TriMet to make MAX service more efficient with closure of three stations in Downtown Portland in March 2020". TriMet. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  64. ^ "Maps + Schedules - Portland Streetcar". Portland Streetcar. Archived from the original on February 10, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  65. ^ "WES Commuter Rail". TriMet. Archived from the original on February 10, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  66. ^ "Park & Ride Locations". TriMet. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
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