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MF59 is an immunologic adjuvant that uses squalene. It is Novartis' proprietary adjuvant that is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human body's immune response through production of CD4 memory cells. [1] [2][3]

MF59 is the first oil-in-water influenza vaccine adjuvant to be commercialized in combination with a seasonal influenza virus vaccine. MF59 is used as an adjuvant in Europe and in the United States.

It was developed in the 1990s by researchers at Chiron Corporation, a Novartis heritage company, acquired by Novartis in 2006.[4]

See also[edit]

  • AS03, another squalene based adjuvant


  1. ^ O’Hagan, Derek T; Ott, Gary S; Nest, Gary Van; Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del (2014). "The history of MF59® adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes". Expert Review of Vaccines. 12 (1): 13–30. doi:10.1586/erv.12.140. 
  2. ^ O’Hagan, Derek T; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Tsai, Theodore; Del Giudice, Giuseppe (2014). "MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity". Expert Review of Vaccines. 10 (4): 447–462. doi:10.1586/erv.11.23. 
  3. ^ Trivedi, B. (2006). "Profile of Rino Rappuoli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (29): 10831–10833. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604892103. PMC 1544134free to read. PMID 16832044. 
  4. ^ MF59 Adjuvant Fact Sheet