MGM Resorts International
|Traded as||NYSE: MGM|
|Industry||Gaming, Hospitality, Tourism|
|Founded||May 31, 2000|
|Headquarters||Paradise, Nevada, USA|
|James J. Murren
Chairman of the Board CEO
|Products||Casinos, Hotels, Entertainment, Resorts|
|Revenue||$9.810 billion (2013) |
|$1.1 billion (2013)|
|$3.114 billion (2013)|
|Total assets||$26.1 billion (2013)|
|Total equity||$7.9 billion (2013)|
Number of employees
|61,396 (December 2011)|
|Subsidiaries||MGM Mirage Vacations,MGM HAKKASAN,Diaoyutai MGM Hospitality|
MGM Resorts International is a Paradise, Nevada based gaming, hospitality and entertainment company. It generated about $9.8 billion in 2013. It owns and operates 15 properties in Nevada, Mississippi, and Michigan, and has 50% investments in four other properties in Nevada, Illinois and Macau, China.
The company began operations in 1987 as MGM Grand, Inc., and became MGM Mirage in 2000, after acquiring Mirage Resorts. In the mid-2000s, growth of its non-gaming (lodging, food, retail) revenue began to outpace gaming receipts and demand for high-rise condominiums was surging, with median property prices in Las Vegas twice the national average. The company shifted its business model from fully owning and operating resorts and casinos, to being more real estate focused—launching the massive CityCenter mixed-use project. However, the latter's development coincided with vast overbuilding on the Strip and a global financial crisis, causing large losses and writedowns in valuation.
In June 2010, the company changed to its present name, to reflect its latest strategy of expanding worldwide, including licensing its brand and expertise to develop non-gaming hotels and residences.
Billionaire investor Kirk Kerkorian and his Tracinda Corporation were, until 2009, the majority shareholders of MGM Mirage; Kerkorian was the former owner of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie studio, from which MGM Grand derived its name. Following a one-billion-dollar stock offering by MGM Mirage amidst the global credit crunch, Tracinda's shares were diluted from 53.8 percent to 39 percent. In May 2010, hedge fund Paulson & Co acquired 40 million shares (about 9%) to become MGM Resorts’s second-largest shareholder. On June 15, 2010, shareholders voted for MGM Mirage to change its name to "MGM Resorts International", which emphasizes the brand's global scope and increased non-gaming strategy.
In 2013, MGM won state licenses to build a $1-billion resort at National Harbor in Maryland and an $800-million resort in downtown Springfield, Massachusetts. In May 2014, MGM broke ground on a $375-million arena on the Las Vegas Strip with sports and entertainment company AEG.
- 1 History
- 2 MGM Resorts International properties
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Background and early ventures (1969-1988)
The company's background can be traced to 1969, when airline and casino tycoon Kirk Kerkorian bought a controlling stake in the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio. In 1970 and 1971, Kerkorian struggled with debt from his acquisitions of MGM and Western Airlines, and was forced to sell a majority of his casino company, International Leisure, to Hilton Hotels at a steep discount. When the Las Vegas Hilton, the casino he had built, subsequently became the most successful hotel in Las Vegas, Kerkorian was inspired to lead the studio into the gambling industry. It opened the original MGM Grand Hotel and Casino (now Bally's Las Vegas) in 1973. The MGM Grand Reno followed in 1978.
By 1979, the two hotel-casinos accounted for most of MGM's income, and the company announced a plan to split itself in two. The next year, the film studio was spun off as a new company, while the original company, renamed as MGM Grand Hotels Inc., retained the two hotel-casinos. Kerkorian held a 47 percent stake in both companies.
In 1985, Kerkorian began seeking a buyer for MGM Grand Hotels, to allow him to concentrate on running United Artists and on developing new properties under the MGM Grand name. A deal was reached for Bally Manufacturing to buy the company; the deal closed in April 1986, and the two casinos were renamed under the Bally's brand. The terms of the sale allowed Kerkorian to retain rights to the MGM Grand name, and plans were announced to offer the stockholders of MGM Grand Hotels shares in a new company that would hold the naming rights.
The company now known as MGM Resorts International was formed in 1986 as Grand Name Co. as a subsidiary of Kerkorian's Tracinda Corporation. It was renamed the following year as MGM Grand, Inc.
The company's first venture was MGM Grand Air, a luxury airline offering service between New York and Los Angeles, which launched in September 1987. The company also made an offer to take over financially struggling Pan American World Airways, but it was rejected by Pan Am's board in November 1987 for being too conditional.
In August 1987, MGM Grand bid $152 million for the bankrupt Dunes Hotel in Las Vegas, but was beat out by Japanese billionaire Masao Nangaku. Instead, the company acquired the Desert Inn and Sands casinos in February 1988 from Summa Corporation for $167 million. The Sands was promptly sold to Sheldon Adelson's Interface Group for $110 million in April 1989.
First casino developments (1989-1999)
In September 1989, the company announced plans for a $700-million Hollywood-themed complex, including a 4,000-room hotel and a theme park. The Desert Inn site was initially considered as a location for the project, but within weeks the location was finalized as the Marina Hotel and the Tropicana Country Club, which MGM Grand acquired for $93 million plus $30 million in stock. The company put the Desert Inn up for sale to focus efforts on the new project, but found no outside bidders, and agreed to sell it to Tracinda for $130 million. Construction on the MGM Grand Las Vegas and the MGM Grand Adventures theme park began in October 1991, and the property opened in December 1993 at a final cost of $1 billion.
The company moved its headquarters from Beverly Hills to Las Vegas in July 1992.
During construction of the MGM Grand, the company acquired an option to buy an 18-acre site across the street from the project. Gary Primm of Primadonna Resorts approached MGM president Bob Maxey in 1994 with an idea for the site: a casino recreating the New York skyline. A joint venture was formed between the two companies, and construction began in March 1995. Completed at a cost of $460 million, the New York-New York Hotel and Casino opened in January 1997.
With New York-New York under development, MGM Grand made moves to expand in several other markets. An exploratory agreement to develop two casinos on the Chinese island of Hainan was announced in August 1994, but came to nothing. In Darwin, Australia, a lucrative market attracting high rollers from Pacific Rim countries, the company considered building a hotel, but instead bought the Diamond Beach Hotel and Casino, renaming it as the MGM Grand Darwin. MGM announced plans for an Atlantic City casino in July 1996. In Michigan, where voters approved casinos in November 1996, MGM made plans for a bid on one of the three available gaming licenses, which would eventually be approved and open in July 1999 as the MGM Grand Detroit.
In South Africa, with casino gambling newly authorized, MGM announced plans in August 1996 to develop 15 properties in conjunction with Tsogo Sun. The first, a temporary casino in Johannesburg's Sundome, opened in October 1998. Three more casinos followed before MGM agreed to sell out its interest in the properties to Tsogo Sun in November 2001.
Since the initiation of New York-New York, analysts had speculated that MGM Grand or Primadonna would buy out the other's interest in the project. Instead of making such a cash-intensive purchase, however, MGM agreed to buy Primadonna outright for $276 million in stock plus $336 million in assumed debt. The merger closed in March 1999, giving MGM ownership of three casinos and two golf courses at the Nevada–California state line, in addition to full control of New York-New York.
Mirage Resorts merger (2000)
In February 2000, MGM Grand made an unsolicited offer of $17 a share to buy Mirage Resorts, which had foundered due to disappointing results at its new Beau Rivage and Bellagio resorts. Analysts expected a protracted battle, with Mirage founder Steve Wynn seen as unwilling to give up control but under pressure from institutional investors. Mirage rejected the offer, but Wynn met with Kerkorian the next day and named a price of $21 a share. The companies agreed on the higher price, for a total of $4.4 billion plus $2 billion in assumed debt. The merger closed in May 2000, giving MGM ownership of the Mirage, Treasure Island, Bellagio, Boardwalk, and Golden Nugget casinos in Las Vegas, the Golden Nugget in Laughlin, and the Beau Rivage in Mississippi, and a half share of the Monte Carlo. The company changed its name to MGM Mirage in August 2000. Mirage had also owned a half stake in the Borgata, a planned casino in Atlantic City, in a joint venture managed by Boyd Gaming. Work on the Borgata continued apace, and it would open in July 2003.
Stalled developments (2001-2004)
In 2001 and 2002, following the merger with Mirage, the company explored options for its next major development project, including opportunities in the Las Vegas, Atlantic City, Chicago, and Macau markets. The 55-acre site of the Boardwalk casino on the Las Vegas Strip was earmarked for a technologically advanced megaresort targeting a Generation X demographic. In Atlantic City, MGM shifted focus from its previously announced boardwalk site to a proposed billion-dollar hotel and casino on a 55-acre tract adjacent to the Borgata, where Wynn had planned to build the Le Jardin casino. In the Chicago market, MGM agreed to pay $600 million to buy the unfinished Emerald Casino in Rosemont, Illinois, whose investors had been accused of ties to organized crime. The deal was rejected, however, by state gaming regulators, and MGM then backed off its effort, saying that Illinois's casino tax was too high. In Macau, where Stanley Ho's 40-year government-granted monopoly on gambling was coming to an end, MGM submitted a bid for one of three available gaming concessions, but it was not selected, losing out to Ho, Las Vegas Sands, and Wynn Resorts.
MGM made moves into the United Kingdom market after a 2001 government report called for loosening of the country's gambling regulations. It opened an online casino, playmgmmirage.com, licensed in the Isle of Man, a British dependency, and it applied for a license to run an online sports betting site in the U.K. It acquired a twenty-five percent stake in a company developing the small Triangle Casino in Bristol, which went on to open its doors in February 2004. It inked deals to build casinos at the Olympia Exhibition Centre in London, St James' Park in Newcastle, Meadowhall Shopping Centre in Sheffield, the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham, Sportcity in Manchester, Glasgow Harbour, King's Waterfront in Liverpool, and at a proposed stadium in Salford. The company also signed a $490-million deal to acquire Wembley plc, owner of seven greyhound tracks in Britain and four in the United States.
The British expansion plans ultimately amounted to nothing. MGM closed its online casino after less than two years, citing uncertainty in American regulations and competition from established British brands. The Wembley acquisition turned into a bidding war, with MGM finally losing out to an investors group including Kerzner International. The Triangle Casino was sold off to Stanley Leisure in 2006. The company's other development plans were scuttled as the government scaled down, and eventually abandoned, the plan to allow large "super-casinos".
In 2004, the company disposed of some of its smaller properties, selling the two Golden Nugget casinos to Poster Financial Group for $215 million, and the MGM Grand Darwin to Skycity Entertainment for $140 million.
Mandalay merger (2004-2005)
MGM entered into quiet merger talks with Mandalay Resort Group in early 2004. The potential acquisition, which would give MGM control of more than half the hotel rooms on the Las Vegas Strip, was seen as a "vote" for Las Vegas as the strongest gambling market in the world. Mandalay assets attractive to MGM included low-end casinos like Excalibur and Circus Circus to broaden MGM's "high roller" appeal; the Mandalay Bay Convention Center, which would allow MGM to compete directly with the Sands Expo center in the convention market; and at least two prime developable sites on the Strip. The talks went public in June, when MGM announced an offer worth $7.65 billion. Mandalay rejected that offer because of a clause allowing MGM to back out if antitrust regulators demanded the sale of any properties. Analysts speculated that another bidder such as Harrah's or Boyd might enter, but none did, and MGM and Mandalay soon agreed on a $7.9 billion deal.
MGM executives were confident that antitrust regulators would not require the sale of any of the two companies' properties. Michigan law, however, forbade one company from owning multiple casinos, requiring the sale of either the MGM Grand Detroit or Mandalay's 54 percent stake in the MotorCity Casino. After some vacillation about which property to sell, Mandalay accepted a $525-million offer for its interest in MotorCity from Marian Ilitch, the casino's second largest shareholder. Meanwhile, in Illinois, where MGM needed regulatory approval to take over Mandalay's 50 percent interest in the Grand Victoria Casino, a lack of quorum on the state Gaming Board threatened to delay the merger. MGM considered a sale to the casino's other owner, the Pritzker family, but ultimately gained approval for a plan to place the property under control of a trustee until completion of the licensing process. The FTC approved the merger as predicted, and MGM obtained a $7 billion line of credit to finance it. The sale closed on April 25, 2005 for a total of $7.9 billion, including $3 billion in assumed debt.
The Mandalay acquisition made MGM Mirage the largest gaming company in the world, but it was surpassed just two months later when Harrah's Entertainment acquired Caesars Entertainment in a deal that had been spurred on by news of the MGM-Mandalay merger.
Later developments (2004-)
Despite MGM's initial failure to win a gaming concession in Macau, the company had remained interested in the burgeoning gaming market. Rumors of a possible partnership with Stanley Ho were reported in 2003, but Nevada gaming regulators informally vetoed the idea because of the alleged involvement of organized crime triads in his casinos. Another possibility emerged when the government allowed the three gaming concessionaires to each sell a sub-concession. In June 2004, MGM formed a joint venture with Pansy Ho, Stanley's daughter, to develop a casino-hotel under a sub-concession from Stanley. Despite initial concerns about whether Pansy Ho was subject to her father's influence, the Nevada Gaming Commission eventually approved the partnership. Construction of the MGM Grand Macau began in June 2005. The property opened in December 2007, completed at a cost of $1.25 billion.
In 2004, MGM solidified its plans for the Boardwalk site on the Strip, announcing Project CityCenter, an $8-billion high-density project including hotels, condominiums, a casino, and a shopping mall. The Boardwalk was closed in January 2006 to make way for the redevelopment, and CityCenter construction began the following June.
Singapore emerged in 2004 as the next major new Asian gaming market, calling for proposals to build two "integrated resort" casinos at Marina Bay and the island of Sentosa. MGM partnered with CapitaLand in an estimated $3 billion bid for the Marina Bay site. Their bid advanced to the final stage against three competitors, and was seen as the favorite to win. The government awarded the license, however, to Las Vegas Sands, citing its strength in the meetings and conventions sector.
On October 16, 2006, MGM Mirage announced that it planned to sell the Colorado Belle Hotel & Casino and Edgewater Hotel and Casino to a partnership of Anthony Marnell III and Sher Gaming. The sale price was $200 million. The sale closed on June 1, 2007.
On October 31, 2006, MGM Mirage announced plans to sell Primm Valley Resorts to Herbst Gaming for $400 million. The proposed sale would not include the Primm Valley Golf Club. The sale closed on April 10, 2007.
On April 19, 2007 the company announced that it planned to purchase a 7.6-acre (31,000 m2) site from Concord Wilshire Partners for $130 million and a 25.8-acre (104,000 m2) site from Gordon Gaming for $444 million. The two parcels give the company complete control of the southwest corner of the Sahara and Las Vegas Boulevard intersection. When combined with underused parts of the Circus Circus site, the company will have a 68-acre (280,000 m2) site for future development. The Concord site had been the proposed location for the Maxim Casino.
On August 22, 2007, Dubai World said it will buy a 9.5 percent stake in MGM for about $2.4 billion. It will also invest about $2.7 billion to acquire a 50 percent stake in MGM's CityCenter project, a $7.4 billion, 76 acres (31 ha) Las Vegas development of hotels, condos and retail outlets due to open in 2009. Dubai World will pay MGM Mirage an additional $100 million if the project opens on time and on budget. The investment firm will buy 14.2 million shares from MGM Mirage at $84 each, a premium of about 13 percent over Tuesday's closing price. The firm will also issue a public tender for an additional 14.2 million shares at the same price. The public tender is due to begin during the week of August 27, 2007.
On October 29, 2008, MGM Mirage halted a $5 billion Atlantic City project on land next to the Borgata Hotel and Casino, which it shared effective half-ownership with Boyd Gaming at that time. The announcement came on the same day MGM Mirage reported a 67 percent plunge in third-quarter earnings, largely because of sluggish revenue from its properties on the Las Vegas Strip.
At about the same time, New Jersey gambling regulators were evaluating MGM Mirage's suitability to operate casinos in New Jersey, and were unconvinced that MGM Mirage's Macau partner, Pansy Ho, could operate independently from influence of her father, Stanley Ho. The latter is often accused of ties with Chinese organized crime and letting the gangs operate in his casinos' VIP rooms. Faced with not complying with New Jersey gaming regulations, MGM Mirage decided to sell its highly profitable Borgata hotel casino in Atlantic City in order to continue pursuing the even more lucrative Chinese market. MGM Mirage subsequently transferred its 50% share in the Borgata to a divestiture trust through which it receives all benefit of the ownership. The trust will be responsible for selling MGM's interest within 30 months, although MGM will have the right to direct the trustee during the first 18 months.
On December 16, 2008, MGM Mirage announced the sale of its Las Vegas Treasure Island resort and casino to billionaire Phil Ruffin. The sale was completed on March 20, 2009, where Ruffin took possession of the property and its operations. $600 million in cash was wired to MGM Mirage with a $175 million secured note bearing interest at 10% payable not later than 36 months after closing, for a total sale price of $775 million.
On March 23, 2009 Dubai World the United Arab Emirates domestic and international investment arm of the Dubai emirate government announced that it and a wholly owned subsidiary Infinity World have filed a lawsuit in the Delaware Chancery Court claiming that MGM Mirage breached its CityCenter joint venture agreement after the company filed its 10-K report with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission which states in part "There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern." and "it cannot provide assurance that its business would generate sufficient cash flow from operation." Dubai World through Infinity World owns 9.5% of MGM Mirage's stock and has invested a significant amount of funding into CityCenter giving it part ownership of the project are asking the court to relieve it of any obligations under the agreement.
Starting on April 6, 2009 news reports began to surface that MGM Mirage hired investment firm Morgan Stanley to assist the company in finding possible buyers for the MGM Grand in Detroit, Michigan and the Beau Rivage in Biloxi, Mississippi.
On June 15, 2010, shareholders voted for MGM Mirage to change its name to "MGM Resorts International", which emphasize the brand's global scope and increased non-gaming strategy. Chief Executive Officer Jim Murren said that hedge fund Paulson & Co had acquired 40 million shares (about 9%) to become MGM Resorts’s second-largest shareholder.
On April 18, 2011 an Initial Public Offering was announced for the MGM Macau property. Under the agreement, Pansy Ho Chiu-king, would receive a 29 percent stake in the company, MGM China Holdings Ltd, which has been created as a listing vehicle for the IPO. MGM Resorts would hold 51 percent and the public would receive 20 percent. MGM Macau casino operator raised $1.5 billion from its Initial Public Offering on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
On 9 January 2013, MGM China Holdings Ltd received formal government approval to build its second resort in Macau. The venture will pay a land premium of 1.29 billion patacas ($162 million) and annual rent of 2.15 million patacas to develop a five-star hotel and a casino resort. The new project will give MGM China its first resort in Macau’s Cotai area. The casino resort, which will include 1,600 hotel rooms, 500 gaming tables and 2,500 slots, will take as long as 36 months to build. It will cost about $2.5 billion.
On Dec. 20, 2013, a state commission awarded a casino license to MGM Resorts to build a $1 billion resort at National Harbor in Prince George's County, Maryland. Throughout 2013, MGM Resorts conducted a significant refinancing of company debt, and by March 2014 the debt load was reduced to $13.4 billion.
In late 2013, Foxwoods split up with MGM Grand for private reasons. The new building is called The Fox Tower.
In October 2014, the company announced completion of one of the largest rooftop solar photovoltaic arrays in the world at the Mandalay Bay Resort Convention Center in Las Vegas. The 6.4-megawatt installation is MGM Resorts' first commercial solar project in the United States and will generate enough electricity to power the equivalent of 1,000 homes. In mid-2013, the Company also embarked on a remodeling and rebranding of THEhotel at Mandalay Bay into Delano Las Vegas. Delano opened in September 2014. On May 1, 2014, the company broke ground on a $375 million entertainment and sports arena located behind New-New York Hotel and Casino. The privately funded project is in partnership with entertainment promoter AEG. In November 2014, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission unanimously approved a gaming license for MGM Springfield, a resort creating 2,000 construction jobs and at least 3,000 permanent jobs. The approval came after voters resoundingly reject a referendum that would have repealed 2011 legislation allowing casino gambling. 
In July 2015, MGM agreed to sell its properties in Reno (Circus Circus Reno and a 50 percent stake in the Silver Legacy) to Eldorado Resorts for $72.5 million. In October, MGM announced plans to spin off MGM Resorts Growth Properties, a real estate investment trust that would own ten of the company's casinos; the parent company would continue to operate the casinos under a lease agreement.
The Company’s top executives include; James Murren, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer; Bill Hornbuckle, President and Chief Marketing Officer; Corey I. Sanders, Chief Operating Officer and John McManus, Executive Vice President and General Counsel.
In 2007, MGM Hospitality was established to operate hotels, resorts and residences in key destinations around the globe using the iconic brands of Bellagio, MGM Grand and SKYLOFTS.
The mission of this strategic division is to become the world leader in experiential hospitality by conceiving, designing, building and operating destination hotels, resorts and residences that are unparalleled in innovation, attention and service.
In 2009, the Company formed Diaoyutai MGM Hospitality, a joint venture between Diaoyutai State Guesthouse of China, the Chinese Foreign Ministry’s venue known for its highest standard of service for hosting world leaders and heads of state, and MGM Resorts International. This joint venture is strategically developing and operating 5-star hotels and resorts in China.
On April 15, 2014, MGM Resorts International and Hakkasan Group announced the formation of a joint venture hotel management company, to be named MGM HAKKASAN Hospitality. The strategic alliance focuses on the design, development and management of luxury and upper upscale non-gaming hotels, resorts and residential offerings under the Bellagio, Hakkasan, MGM Grand and SKYLOFTS brands in key international gateway cities and prime resort destinations across the globe. All of the hotel and resort projects currently under development by each group will be contributed to the joint venture, including MGM projects in the Americas, Middle East, and Asia, and Hakkasan projects in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Projects in China will continue to be developed and operated by Diaoyutai MGM Hospitality.
MGM Resorts International properties
All properties are wholly owned by MGM Resorts International except where indicated.
Las Vegas Strip
- CityCenter (50% joint venture with Dubai World)
- The Mirage
- Mandalay Bay
- MGM Grand Las Vegas
- The Signature at MGM Grand
- Skylofts at MGM Grand
- The Mansion at MGM Grand
- Monte Carlo
- Hotel 32
- New York-New York
- Circus Circus Las Vegas
- Slots-A-Fun Casino
Elsewhere in Nevada
- Nevada Landing Hotel and Casino - Jean, Nevada (closed March 20, 2007)
- Shadow Creek Golf Course - North Las Vegas, Nevada
- Beau Rivage Hotel and Casino - Biloxi, Mississippi (Designer Steve Wynn)
- Borgata - Atlantic City, New Jersey (owned by Marina District Development in which MGM has a 50% interest)
- Fallen Oak Golf Course
- Gold Strike Casino Resort - Tunica Resorts, Mississippi
- Grand Victoria - Elgin, Illinois (50% owned and operated by RBG, LLP, a subsidiary of Hyatt)
- MGM Grand Detroit - Detroit, Michigan (98% owner in partnership with Partners Detroit, L.L.C.)
- MGM Macau - Macau, China (50% joint venture with Pansy Ho, opened 2007) (51% after IPO)
- MGM Springfield - Springfield, Massachusetts (opening 2018)
- Primm Valley Golf Club - Nipton, California
- MGM National Harbor - National Harbor, Maryland (opening 2016)
- MGM Mirage Vacations, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
- MGM HAKKASAN 
- Projects in the Americas, Middle East, Asia, Abu Dhabi
- Diaoyutai MGM Hospitality
- "U.S. Securities Exchange Commission Form 10-K - March 3, 2014.". secdatabase.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- "Fire Strikes Las Vegas Hotel-casino". Reuters. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- MGM MIRAGE Shareholders Approve Name Change to MGM Resorts Bloomberg
- Rodkin, Dennis (2004-04-02). "HAVENS; Condo Hotels Move Beyond Resort Towns". New York Times.
- Walshe, Sadhbh (2009-07-29). "In Las Vegas, the house loses". London: Guardian.
- A. Eugene Kohn; John D. Macomber; Ben Creo (2009-01-12). "CityCenter (A): Vision and Design". Harvard Business Review: 3–4.
- A. Eugene Kohn; John D. Macomber; Ben Creo (2009-01-13). "CityCenter (B): Economics and Delivery". Harvard Business Review: 2.
- MGM Mirage to Take More Than $1 Billion in Write-Downs Wall Street Journal
- MGM Mirage changes name, now MGM Resorts Int'l
- "MGM Mirage shareholders approve name change". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 2010-06-15.
- "MGM Mirage exports its brand to foreign lands". Las Vegas Sun. 2010-06-06.
- Kerkorian Stake in MGM Mirage Shrinks Wall Street Journal
- MGM To Pay Back $825.6 Million In Debt Following Stock, Note Sales CNN
- Finnegan, Amanda. "MGM Mirage changes name, now MGM Resorts International", "The Las Vegas Sun", Las Vegas, 15 June 2010. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
- Freedom du Lac, J. and Wagner, John. "MGM gets the nod to build Maryland’s sixth casino at National Harbor in Prince George’s", "The Washington Post", National, Harbor, MD. 20 December 2013. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
- "MGM Springfield to get state’s 1st casino license". Boston Globe Media. June 11, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-03.[dead link]
- "MGM selects Whiting-Turner to build $1B National Harbor casino-resort (Video)". Washington Business Journal. June 24, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
- Stutz, Howard. "Massachusetts voters approve MGM Resorts' casino plan", "The Las Vegas Review-Journal", Las Vegas, NV. 18 July 2013. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
- Snell, Alan. "Shovels in the ground, confetti in the air", "The Las Vegas Review-Journal", Las Vegas, NV. 1 May 2014. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
- "MGM/UA under Kerkorian meant 20 years of change". Los Angeles Times. March 8, 1990. Retrieved 2013-08-17.
- Leroy F. Aarons (December 9, 1973). "MGM's tale of woe and wizardry". Washington Post. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Paul E. Steiger (March 12, 1971). "Hilton to buy 6% more of International Leisure". Los Angeles Times. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Leroy F. Aarons (December 7, 1973). "Flat opening for a Grand hotel". Washington Post. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Lou Cannon (May 6, 1978). "High rolling in Reno". Washington Post. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Al Delugach (November 15, 1979). "MGM may split, become movie-TV, casino firms". Los Angeles Times. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Pamela G. Hollie (June 3, 1980). "MGM Film offer made, withdrawn". New York Times. – via ProQuest (subscription required)
- Richard W. Stevenson (November 18, 1985). "Bally-MGM Grand deal announced". New York Times. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Bally completes purchase of MGM Grand Hotels". Wall Street Journal. April 28, 1986. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Lewis Lazare (May 18, 1987). "Bally Plays Nevada Game Before Rolling Dice Again". Crain's Chicago Business. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Grand holders will be offered stock in new company". Dow Jones News Service. December 30, 1985. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Form 10-K (Report). MGM Grand Inc. March 29, 1994. p. 1.
- Roy J. Harris, Jr. (July 29, 1987). "Tracinda names new president, unveils MGM unit". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Gellene, Denise (September 7, 1987). "MGM Grand Air takes a flier in luxury service". Los Angeles Times.
- "Kerkorian drops bid for Pan American, but Braniff continues to show interest". Wall Street Journal. November 20, 1987. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Japanese bid wins Las Vegas casino". New York Times. AP. August 5, 1987. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Tracinda unit completes buy". Wall Street Journal. February 3, 1988. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Grand's sale of Sands". Wall Street Journal. May 1, 1989. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Turner, Richard (September 20, 1989). "Kerkorian plans movie theme park, hotel in Las Vegas". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jefferson, David J. (October 4, 1989). "MGM Grand expands its plan to build Las Vegas studio theme park and hotel". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jefferson, David J. (October 26, 1989). "MGM Grand to pay $93 million, stock for resort site". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Grand seeks a buyer for hotel". New York Times. August 29, 1990. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Desert Inn bought by Tracinda". Las Vegas Review-Journal. July 24, 1991. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Dye, Tom (October 8, 1991). "MGM park officially under way". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Palermo, Dave (December 19, 1993). "MGM draws glittering reviews". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM to move headquarters". Las Vegas Review-Journal. June 4, 1992. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Burbank, Jeff (November 14, 1992). "Kerkorian to buy corner of Tropicana, Strip". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Palermo, Dave (August 5, 1994). "New resort to join Strip lineup". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Green, Marian (March 31, 1995). "Las Vegas gets taste of Big Apple". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Berns, Dave (January 4, 1997). "Visitors rush to see little Big Apple". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Vegas gaming company considering projects in China". Associated Press. August 9, 1994. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Palermo, Dave (March 18, 1995). "MGM Grand shows interest in buying Australian casino". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Smith, Fiona (March 7, 1995). "MGM Grand project joins rush to end Darwin hotel squeeze". Australian Financial Review. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Gambling concern acquires Australian casino, hotel". Wall Street Journal. 8 September 1995. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Orwall, Bruce (July 10, 1996). "MGM to Build Atlantic City casino, joining others heading for resort area". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Tourtellotte, Bob (January 10, 1997). "MGM Grand plans aggressive move in Detroit". Reuters. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Meredith, Robyn (July 30, 1999). "Detroit, still blighted, puts hopes in casinos". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Orwall, Bruce (August 1, 1996). "MGM Grand to seek casino licenses in South Africa". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Grand, Inc. opens casino in Johannesburg, South Africa" (Press release). MGM Grand. October 2, 1998. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Ritter, Ken (November 8, 2001). "MGM Mirage selling management operations in South Africa". Associated Press. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Smith, Hubble (November 10, 1998). "MGM makes $600 million offer to buy Primadonna". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Berns, Dave (October 15, 1998). "Primadonna declines MGM buyout". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
- "MGM Grand agrees to buy Primadonna in $276.1 million deal". Wall Street Journal. November 10, 1998.
- "MGM Grand/Primadonna Resorts Buy -2: In Stock Swap". Dow Jones News Service. March 1, 1999. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Pollack, Andrew (February 24, 2000). "MGM Grand makes $3.3 billion unsolicited offer for Mirage". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
- "Severance Package Set for Mirage Chief". The New York Times. March 14, 2000. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
- Brinkley, Christina; Deogun, Nikhil (February 24, 2000). "Playing in Vegas: two titans in takeover drama". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Simpson, Jeff (March 1, 2000). "Mirage rejects MGM Grand bid". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Berns, Dave (March 27, 2000). "Wynn pushed Mirage price up". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Gogoi, Pailavi; Calamba, Shella (March 6, 2000). "Financing, Wynn role seen keys in Mirage-MGM merger". Capital Markets Report. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Macy, Robert (May 30, 2000). "Stockholders, Nevada regulators approve $6.4 billion merger". Associated Press Newswires. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Stock listing changes". Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2000. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Berns, Dave; Simpson, Jeff (September 21, 2000). "Joint Jersey project to start". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- Batt, Tony (July 3, 2003). "Borgata opens doors". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- "MGM Mirage sees Atlantic City as next big project". Reuters News. February 12, 2002. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Dave Berns (January 18, 2001). "MGM Mirage shifts gears, will delay Strip development". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Judy DeHaven (November 12, 2000). "MGM Grand plans second Atlantic City, N.J., casino". Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jeff Simpson (July 26, 2003). "MGM Mirage chief patient on development". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Patricia Richardson (January 21, 2002). "MGM rolling dice on Rosemont". Crain's Chicago Business. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Shamus Toomey; Cass Cliatt (March 23, 2002). "State kills MGM, Emerald casino deal". Chicago Daily Herald. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Douglas Holt (June 5, 2002). "Casino buyout off the table". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "Macau draws 21 bids for casino licences". Reuters News. December 7, 2001. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Elaine Kurtenbach (February 9, 2002). "U.S. casinos break monopoly in Macau". Honolulu Advertiser. AP. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Liz Benston (May 27, 2003). "MGM Mirage entering U.K.'s casino market". Las Vegas Sun. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jeff Simpson (October 2, 2002). "New Web casino taking bets". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Mirage moves in on UK bookies with licence request". New Media Age. November 15, 2001. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "500 sign up for casino". Bristol Evening Post. March 10, 2004. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (October 28, 2003). "MGM Mirage in deal for U.K. casino". Las Vegas Sun. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Newcastle United Forms Joint Venture With MGM Mirage". Dow Jones International News. November 15, 2003. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Adam Goldman (February 3, 2004). "MGM Mirage signs deal to build casino in United Kingdom". Associated Press.
- "MGM Mirage chosen for Birmingham, England, casino". Reuters News. December 13, 2005. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Ken Ritter (April 19, 2004). "US casino company, British firm plan projects in four UK cities". Associated Press Newswires. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (January 27, 2004). "MGM Mirage buying track, slot firm for $490 million". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Liz Benston (June 4, 2003). "Casino giant exiting Internet gaming". Las Vegas Sun. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Scott Mayerowitz (May 6, 2004). "MGM Mirage drops bid for Lincoln Park, leaving one bidder". Providence Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Stanley Leisure buys MLG Investments for GBP29.8M". Dow Jones International News. January 25, 2006. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Rod Smith (November 17, 2004). "British government deals losing hand to Harrah's, MGM Mirage". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Arnold M. Knightly (March 30, 2007). "Las Vegas companies undeterred by U.K. vote". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Simpson, Jeff (January 23, 2004). "New owners took over Golden Nugget while you slept". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- "MGM Mirage completes sale of Darwin hotel and casino" (Press release). MGM Mirage. July 23, 2004. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- Ian Mylchreest (June 14, 2004). "Gaming giants come together". Las Vegas Business Press. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Christina Binkley (June 7, 2004). "In bid for Mandalay Resort, MGM Mirage could become biggest casino powerhouse". Wall Street Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Richard N. Velotta (June 7, 2004). "Kerkorian strikes again". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Hubble Smith; Rod Smith (June 6, 2004). "Tale of two companies". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (June 16, 2004). "Combined MGM Mirage, Mandalay vow to grow". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Rod Smith (June 12, 2004). "Casino merger talks fizzle". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Rod Smith (June 15, 2004). "Buyout gets OK". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (June 15, 2004). "MGM Mirage cites 'juggernaut'". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Joel J. Smith (June 17, 2004). "MotorCity Casino to be sold". Detroit News. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Howard Stutz (December 4, 2004). "MGM Mirage changes tactics in Detroit". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- R.J. King; Joel J. Smith (March 16, 2005). "Ilitch sews up deal for MotorCity Casino". Detroit News. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (March 23, 2005). "MGM Mirage delays closing of Mandalay buyout". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Kristina Buchthal (March 28, 2005). "Pritzkers up casino ante". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Howard Stutz (April 22, 2005). "Megadeal close to completion". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston; Richard N. Velotta (February 17, 2005). "FTC signs off on MGM Mirage's buyout of Mandalay Resort Group". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Rod Smith (November 13, 2004). "Credit line OK"d". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Rod Smith (April 26, 2005). "MGM scales top of heap". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Howard Stutz (June 14, 2005). "Gaming goliath springs to life". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Rod Smith (June 14, 2005). "Documents detail how deal came to be". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jeff Simpson (March 5, 2003). "MGM Mirage deal in Macau possible". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Jane Ann Morrison (April 18, 2005). "MGM Mirage partner has familiar last name in Macau gaming circles". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Rose, I. N. (2010). "Victim of Its Own Success". Gaming Law Review and Economics 14 (7): 511–512. doi:10.1089/glre.2010.14701.
- Liz Benston (June 21, 2004). "MGM Mirage in deal to build casino in China". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- Howard Stutz (March 24, 2007). "Commission finds venture suitable". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Howard Stutz (June 1, 2005). "MGM Mirage's project in Macau under way". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Cassie Biggs (December 18, 2007). "MGM to open casino in Macau". USA Today. AP. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
- "MGM makes payment for Vegas CityCenter project". Reuters. March 27, 2009. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
- Hubble Smith (November 10, 2004). "Strip "metropolis" planned". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Howard Stutz (January 10, 2006). "Bye bye, Boardwalk". Las Vegas Review-Journal. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Liz Benston (June 30, 2006). "CityCenter forges ahead". In Business Las Vegas. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Steven Mihailovich (January 31, 2005). "MGM finds partner to dance in Singapore". Las Vegas Business Press. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Singapore officials receive bids for casino licence". Agence France Presse. March 29, 2006. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "Las Vegas giants in tight race for Singapore casino licence". Agence France Presse. March 26, 2006. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- Arti Mulchand (May 27, 2006). "Why Las Vegas Sands won Marina Bay bid". Straits Times. – via Factiva (subscription required)
- "MGM Grand hotel will open at Foxwoods as part of partnership". USA TODAY (Associated Press). 2006-04-25. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- Howard, Stutz (2006-10-17). "MGM Mirage selling two Laughlin casinos". Las Vegas Gaming Wire. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- Stutz, Howard (November 1, 2006). "Herbst Gaming to buy Primm properties". Gaming Wire (Las Vegas Review-Journal). Retrieved 2007-03-13.
- Stutz, Howard (April 19, 2007). "MGM buys parcels for new center". Las Vegas Review-Journal. pp. A1+A8.
- "MGM inks $5B deal with Dubai World". Reuters. August 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.[dead link]
- Asian casino magnate denies organized crime ties (AOL)
- MGM’s plan to exit Borgata is approved Philadelphia Inquirer
- MGM Mirage Chooses Macao Over New Jersey
- "MGM Mirage may leave New Jersey in dispute over Macau partner". Las Vegas Sun. February 8, 2010. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
- "MGM Mirage completes sale of Treasure Island". Forbes. March 20, 2000. Archived from the original on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-03-20.[dead link]
- MGM Mirage 10-K (Annual Report) filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
- Dubai World Says Unit Files Lawsuit Against MGM Mirage (Wall Street Journal)
- Dubai World sues partner MGM MIRAGE (Gaming Today)
- MGM Mirage Said to Hire Morgan Stanley to Evaluate Casino Bids (bloomberg.com)
- With Casino Stocks, Traders Know When to Fold 'Em (Wall Street Journal)
- GARCIA, OSKAR (2010-06-15). "MGM Mirage Changes Name To MGM Resorts Int'l".
- $1.5 billion MGM China IPO
- Vinicy Chan (9 January 2013). "MGM China Gets Formal Approval For New Casino in Macau". Bloomberg.com.
- Wagner, John (8 May 2013). "MGM confirms plans to bid for Prince George’s County casino". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- du Lac, J. Freedom (December 20, 2013). "MGM gets the dealfor Maryland’s sixth casino, at National Harbor in Prince George’s". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
- Stutz, Howard. "Big Rewards in China create flexibility for MGM Resorts", "Las Vegas Review-Journal", Las Vegas, 3 March 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Kaye, Leon ", "sustainablebrands.com", Las Vegas. 27 October 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Stutz, Howard. ", "Las Vegas Review Journal", Las Vegas, September 2, 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Rindels, Michelle. “MGM, AEG break ground on Las Vegas Strip arena”, "Associated Press", Las Vegas, May 1, 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Robbins, Carolyn. "Massachusetts Gaming Commission OKs licenses for MGM Springfield, Wynn Resorts", "masslive.com", Boston, November 6, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- Howard Stutz (July 7, 2015). "MGM sells Reno casino holdings for $72.5 million". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- J.D. Morris (October 29, 2015). "MGM Resorts announces restructuring plan involving 10 properties". Vegas Inc. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
- Milligan, Michael, “MGM Mirage forms subsidiary to develop luxury hotels”, "Travel Weekly", May 29, 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Ti, Zhuan. “Diaoyutai MGM Hospitality Expands Presence in China”, "China Daily", July 22, 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Mac, Ryan. “MGM Joins Venture with Hakkasan to Build Non-Gaming Hotels Worldwide” "Forbes", April 15, 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Mac, Ryan (March 14, 2014). "MGM Resorts Joins Venture with Hakkasan Group to Build Non-Gaming Hotels Worldwide". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-07-07.