Boeing CH-47 Chinook
|A U.S. Army CH-47 departs a landing zone after unloading soldiers|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Boeing Rotorcraft Systems|
|First flight||21 September 1961|
|Primary users||United States Army
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Royal Netherlands Air Force
See CH-47 operators for others
|Number built||Over 1,200 as of 2012|
US$38.55 million (CH-47F, FY13)
|Developed from||Vertol Model 107|
|Variants||Boeing Chinook (UK variants)|
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter. Its primary roles are troop movement, artillery placement, and battlefield resupply. It has a wide loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage and three external ventral cargo hooks. With a top speed of 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h), the helicopter was faster than contemporary 1960s utility helicopters and attack helicopters, and is still one of the fastest helicopters in the US inventory. The CH-47 is among the heaviest lifting Western helicopters. Its name is from the Native American Chinook people. The civilian version of the Chinook is the Boeing Vertol 234.
The Chinook was designed and initially produced by Boeing Vertol in the early 1960s; it is now produced by Boeing Rotorcraft Systems. It is one of the few aircraft of that era – along with the fixed-wing Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft – that remain in production and frontline service, with over 1,200 built to date. The helicopter has been sold to 16 nations with the U.S. Army and the Royal Air Force (see Boeing Chinook (UK variants)) being its largest users.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Notable accidents
- 6 Specifications (CH-47F)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Design and development
In late 1956, the United States Department of the Army announced plans to replace the Sikorsky CH-37 Mojave, which was powered by piston engines, with a new, gas turbine-powered helicopter. Turbine engines were also a key design feature of the smaller UH-1 "Huey" utility helicopter. Following a design competition, in September 1958, a joint Army–Air Force source selection board recommended that the Army procure the Vertol medium transport helicopter. However, funding for full-scale development was not then available, and the Army vacillated on its design requirements. Some in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be a light tactical transport aimed at taking over the missions of the old piston-engined Piasecki H-21 and Sikorsky H-34 helicopters, and be consequently capable of carrying about 15 troops (one squad). Another faction in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be much larger to be able to airlift a large artillery piece, and have enough internal space to carry the new MGM-31 "Pershing" Missile System.
Vertol began work on a new tandem-rotor helicopter designated Vertol Model 107 or V-107 in 1957. In June 1958, the U.S. Army awarded a contract to Vertol for the aircraft under the YHC-1A designation. The YHC-1A had a capacity for 20 troops. Three were tested by the Army for deriving engineering and operational data. However, the YHC-1A was considered by most of the Army users to be too heavy for the assault role and too light for the transport role. The decision was made to procure a heavier transport helicopter and at the same time upgrade the UH-1 "Huey" as a tactical troop transport. The YHC-1A would be improved and adopted by the Marines as the CH-46 Sea Knight in 1962. The Army then ordered the larger Model 114 under the designation HC-1B. The preproduction Boeing Vertol YCH-1B made its initial hovering flight on 21 September 1961. In 1962, the HC-1B was redesignated the CH-47A under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system. It was named "Chinook" for the Chinook people of the Pacific Northwest.
The CH-47 is powered by two Lycoming T55 turboshaft engines, mounted on each side of the helicopter's rear pylon and connected to the rotors by drive shafts. Initial models were fitted with engines rated at 2,200 horsepower each. The counter-rotating rotors eliminate the need for an antitorque vertical rotor, allowing all power to be used for lift and thrust. The ability to adjust lift in either rotor makes it less sensitive to changes in the center of gravity, important for the cargo lifting and dropping. While hovering over a specific location, a twin-rotor helicopter has increased stability over a single rotor when weight is added or removed, for example, when troops drop from or begin climbing up ropes to the aircraft, or when other cargo is dropped. If one engine fails, the other can drive both rotors. The "sizing" of the Chinook was directly related to the growth of the Huey and the Army's tacticians' insistence that initial air assaults be built around the squad. The Army pushed for both the Huey and the Chinook, and this focus was responsible for the acceleration of its air mobility effort.
Improved and later versions
Improved and more powerful versions of the CH-47 have been developed since the helicopter entered service. The U.S. Army's first major design leap was the now-common CH-47D, which entered service in 1982. Improvements from the CH-47C included upgraded engines, composite rotor blades, a redesigned cockpit to reduce pilot workload, improved and redundant electrical systems, an advanced flight control system, and improved avionics. The latest mainstream generation is the CH-47F, which features several major upgrades to reduce maintenance, digitized flight controls, and is powered by two 4,733-horsepower Honeywell engines.
A commercial model of the Chinook, the Boeing-Vertol Model 234, is used worldwide for logging, construction, fighting forest fires, and supporting petroleum extraction operations. In December 2006, Columbia Helicopters Inc purchased the type certificate of the Model 234 from Boeing. The Chinook has also been licensed to be built by companies outside the United States, such as Elicotteri Meridionali (now AgustaWestland) in Italy and Kawasaki in Japan.
The Army finally settled on the larger Chinook as its standard medium-transport helicopter, and as of February 1966, 161 aircraft had been delivered to the Army. The 1st Cavalry Division had brought its organic Chinook battalion when it arrived in 1965 and a separate aviation medium helicopter company, the 147th, had arrived in Vietnam on 29 November 1965. This latter company was initially placed in direct support of the 1st Infantry Division.
The most spectacular mission in Vietnam for the Chinook was the placing of artillery batteries in perilous mountain positions inaccessible by any other means, and then keeping them resupplied with large quantities of ammunition. The 1st Cavalry Division found that its CH-47s were limited to a 7,000-pound (3,200 kg) payload when operating in the mountains, but could carry an additional 1,000 pounds (450 kg) when operating near the coast. The early Chinook design was limited by its rotor system which did not permit full use of the installed power, and users were anxious for an improved version which would upgrade this system.
As with any new piece of equipment, the Chinook presented a major problem of "customer education". Commanders and crew chiefs had to be constantly alert that eager soldiers did not overload the temptingly large cargo compartment. It would be some time before troops would be experts at using sling loads. The Chinook soon proved to be such an invaluable aircraft for artillery movement and heavy logistics that it was seldom used as an assault troop carrier. Some of the Chinook fleet was used for casualty evacuation, and due to the very heavy demand for the helicopters, they were usually overburdened with wounded. Perhaps the most cost effective use of the Chinook was the recovery of other downed aircraft.
The CH-47s are generally armed with a single 7.62-mm M60 machine gun on a pintle mount on either side of the machine for self defense, with stops fitted to keep the gunners from firing into the rotor blades. Dust filters were also added to improve engine reliability. At its peak employment in Vietnam, 22 Chinook units were in operation. Of the nearly 750 Chinook helicopters in the U.S. and South Vietnam fleets, about 200 were lost in combat or wartime operational accidents. The U.S. Army CH-47s supported the 1st Australian Task Force as required.
During the 1970s, the United States and Iran had a strong relationship, in which the Iranian armed forces began to use many American military aircraft, most notably the F-14 Tomcat, as part of a modernization program. After an agreement signed between Boeing and Elicotteri Meridionali, the Imperial Iranian Air Force purchased 20 Elicotteri Meridionali-built CH-47Cs in 1971. The Imperial Iranian Army Aviation purchased 70 CH-47Cs from Elicotteri Meridionali between 1972 and 1976. In late 1978, Iran placed an order for an additional 50 helicopters with Elicotteri Meridionali, but that order was canceled immediately after the revolution; but 11 of them were delivered after multiple requests by Iran.
In the 1978 Iranian Chinook shootdown, four Iranian CH-47Cs penetrated 15–20 km into Soviet airspace in the Turkmenistan Military District. They were intercepted by a MiG-23M which shot down one, killing eight crew members, and forced a second one to land. Chinook helicopters were used in efforts by the Imperial Iranian loyalist forces to resist the 1979 Iranian revolution.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iran made heavy use of its US-bought equipment, and lost at least eight CH-47s during the 1980–1988 period, most notably during a clash on 15 July 1983, when an Iraqi Mirage F1 destroyed three Iranian Chinooks transporting troops to the front line, and on 25–26 February 1984, when Iraqi MiG-21 fighters shot down two examples. On 22 March 1982, in Operation Undeniable Victory, a key operation of the war, Iranian Chinooks were landed behind Iraqi lines, deployed troops that silenced their artillery, and captured an Iraqi headquarter; the attack took the Iraqi forces by surprise.
Despite the arms embargo in place upon Iran, it has managed to keep its Chinook fleet operational. Some of the Chinooks have been rebuilt by Panha. Currently 20 to 45 Chinooks are operational in Iran.
In 1976, the Libyan Air Force purchased 24 Italian-built CH-47C helicopters, 14 of which were transferred to the Libyan Army during the 1990s. The Libyan Air Force recruited Western pilots and technicians to operate the CH-47 fleet.
The Libyan Chinooks flew transport and support missions into Chad to supply Libyan ground forces operating there in the 1980s. Chinooks were occasionally used to transport Libyan special forces in assault missions in northern Chad.
In 2002, Libya sold 16 helicopters to the United Arab Emirates, as due to the Western embargo and lack of funds, maintaining them was difficult. The sale to UAE was a $939 million package that included equipment, parts, and training. How many CH-47s are still in existence or operational during the ongoing Libyan civil wars that started in 2011 is not known.
The Argentine Air Force and the Argentine Army each deployed two CH-47C helicopters, which were widely used in general transport duties. Of the Army's aircraft, one was destroyed on the ground by a Harrier, while the other was captured by the British and reused after the war. Both Argentine Air Force helicopters returned to Argentina and remained in service until 2002.
Three British Chinooks were destroyed on 25 May 1982 when the Atlantic Conveyor was struck by an Exocet sea-skimming missile fired by an Argentine Super Étendard. The sole surviving British Chinook, Bravo November, did outstanding service in the Falklands, even lifting 81 troops on one occasion.
Afghanistan and Iraq wars
The CH-47D has seen wide use in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The Chinook is being used in air assault missions, inserting troops into fire bases, and later bringing food, water, and ammunition. It is also the casualty evacuation aircraft of choice in the British Armed Forces. In combat theaters, it is typically escorted by attack helicopters such as the AH-64 Apache for protection. Its lift capacity has been found of particular value in the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan, where high altitudes and temperatures limit the use of helicopters such as the UH-60 Black Hawk; reportedly, one Chinook can replace up to five UH-60s in the air assault transport role.
The Chinook helicopters of several nations have participated in the Afghanistan War, including aircraft from Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Canada, and Australia. Despite the age of the Chinook, it is still in heavy demand, in part due its proven versatility and ability to operate in demanding environments such as Afghanistan.
On 6 August 2011, a Chinook crashed near Kabul, killing all of the 38 aboard. It was reportedly shot down with a rocket-propelled grenade by the Taliban while attempting to assist a group of U.S. Army Rangers. The 38 were members of NATO and allied forces, including 22 Naval Special Warfare operators, five U.S. Army Aviation soldiers, three U.S. Air Force special operations personnel, and seven Afghan National Army commandos. A civilian translator and a U.S. military working dog were also killed in the crash. The crash was the single deadliest during the entire Operation Enduring Freedom campaign. The previous biggest single-day loss for American forces in Afghanistan involved a Chinook that was shot down near Kabul in Kunar Province in June 2005 with all aboard killed, including a 16-member U.S. Special Operations team.
In May 2011, an Australian Army CH-47D crashed during a resupply mission in Zabul Province, resulting in one fatality and five survivors. The helicopter was unable to be recovered and was destroyed in place. To compensate for the loss, the ADF added two ex-U.S. Army CH-47Ds to the fleet which are expected to be in service until the introduction of the CH-47Fs in 2016.
Disaster relief and other roles
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2013)|
Since the type's inception, the Chinook has carried out secondary missions including medical evacuation, disaster relief, search and rescue, aircraft recovery, fire fighting, and heavy construction assistance. According to Suresh Abraham, the Chinook's ability to carry large, underslung loads has been of significant value in relief operations in the aftermath of natural disasters. Chinooks operators have often deployed their fleets overseas to support humanitarian efforts in stricken nations; Chinooks of the Republic of Singapore Air Force assisted in relief operations in neighboring Indonesia following the 2004 Asian tsunami, and after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the Royal Air Force dispatched Chinooks to Northern Pakistan to assist in recovery efforts.
Three Japanese CH-47s were used to cool Reactors 3 and 4 of the Fukushima Nuclear power plant with sea water after the 9.0 earthquake in 2011; to protect the crew from heightened radiation levels, lead plates were attached to the floor.
The pre-1962 designation for Model 114 development aircraft that would be redesignated CH-47 Chinook
The all-weather, medium-lift CH-47A Chinook was powered initially by Lycoming T55-L-5 engines rated at 2,200 horsepower (1,640 kW), but then replaced by the T55-L-7 rated at 2,650 hp (1,980 kW) engines or T55-L-7C engines rated at 2,850 hp (2,130 kW). The CH-47A had a maximum gross weight of 33,000 lb (15,000 kg), allowing for a maximum payload around 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) Initial delivery of the CH-47A Chinook to the U.S. Army was in August 1962. A total of 349 were built.
The ACH-47A was originally known as the Armed/Armored CH-47A (or A/ACH-47A). It was officially designated ACH-47A as a U.S. Army Attack Cargo Helicopter, and unofficially referred to as Guns A Go-Go. Four CH-47A helicopters were converted to gunships by Boeing Vertol in late 1965. Three were assigned to the 53rd Aviation Detachment in South Vietnam for testing, with the remaining one retained in the U.S. for weapons testing. By 1966, the 53rd was redesignated the 1st Aviation Detachment (Provisional) and attached to the 228th Assault Support Helicopter Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). By 1968, only one gunship remained, and logistical concerns prevented more conversions. It was returned to the United States, and the program stopped.
The ACH-47A carried five M60D 7.62 × 51 mm machine guns or M2HB .50-caliber machine guns, provided by the XM32 and XM33 armament subsystems, two M24A1 20 mm cannons, two XM159B/XM159C 19-Tube 2.75-inch (70 mm) rocket launchers or sometimes two M18/M18A1 7.62 × 51 mm gun pods, and a single M75 40 mm grenade launcher in the XM5/M5 armament subsystem (more commonly seen on the UH-1 series of helicopters). The surviving aircraft, Easy Money, has been restored and is on display at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama.[verification needed]
The CH-47B was an interim solution while Boeing worked on a more substantially improved CH-47C. The CH-47B was powered by two Lycoming T55-L-7C 2,850 shp (2,130 kW) engines. It featured a blunted rear rotor pylon, redesigned asymmetrical rotor blades, and strakes along the rear ramp and fuselage to improve flying characteristics. It could be equipped with two door-mounted M60D 7.62 mm NATO machine guns on the M24 armament subsystem and a ramp-mounted M60D using the M41 armament subsystem. Some CH-47 "bombers" were equipped to drop tear gas or napalm from the rear cargo ramp onto NLF (Việt Cộng) bunkers. The CH-47B could be equipped with a hoist and cargo hook. The Chinook proved especially valuable in "Pipe Smoke" aircraft recovery missions. The "Hook" recovered about 12,000 aircraft valued at over $3.6 billion during the war; 108 were built.
The CH-47C principally featured more powerful engines and transmissions. Three sub-versions were built; the first had Lycoming T55-L-7C engines delivering 2,850 shp (2,130 kW). The "Super C" included Lycoming T55-L-11 engines delivering 3,750 shp (2,800 kW), an upgraded maximum gross weight of 46,000 lb (21,000 kg), and a pitch stability augmentation system. The T55-L-11 engines suffered difficulties, as they had been hurriedly introduced to increase payload; thus, they were temporarily replaced by the more reliable Lycoming T55-L-7C. The type was distinguishable from the standard "C" by the uprated maximum gross weight.
The type was unable to receive FAA certification to engage in civil activities due to the nonredundant hydraulic flight boost system drive. A redesign of the hydraulic boost system drive was incorporated in the succeeding CH-47D, allowing that model to achieve certification as the Boeing Model 234. A total of 233 CH-47Cs was built. Canada bought a total of eight CH-47Cs; deliveries of the type began in 1974. Receiving the Canadian designation "CH-147", these were fitted with a power hoist above the crew door; other changes included a flight engineer station in the rear cabin: Boeing referred to the configuration as the "Super C". The CH-47C was used widely during the Vietnam war, eventually replacing the older H-21 Shawnee in the combat assault support role.
The CH-47D shares the same airframe as earlier models, the main difference being the adoption of more powerful engines. Early CH-47Ds were originally powered by two T55-L-712 engines, the most common engine is the later T55-GA-714A. With its triple-hook cargo system, the CH-47D can carry heavy payloads internally and up to 26,000 pounds (12 t) (such as 40-foot or 12-metre containers) externally. It was first introduced into service in 1979. In air assault operations, it often serves as the principal mover of the 155 mm M198 howitzer, accompanying 30 rounds of ammunition, and an 11-man crew. The CH-47D also has advanced avionics, such as the Global Positioning System. Nearly all US Army CH-47D were conversions from previous A, B, and C models, a total of 472 being converted. The last U.S. Army CH-47D built was delivered to the U.S. Army Reserve, located at Fort Hood, Texas, in 2002.
The Netherlands acquired all seven of the Canadian Forces' surviving CH-147s and upgraded them to CH-47D standard. Six more new-build CH-47Ds were delivered in 1995 for a total of 13. The Dutch CH-47Ds feature a number of improvements over U.S. Army CH-47Ds, including a long nose for Bendix weather radar, a "glass cockpit", and improved T55-L-714 engines. As of 2011, the Netherlands shall upgrade 11 of these which will be updated to the CH-47F standard at a later date. As of 2011, Singapore has 18 CH-47D/SDs, which includes twelve "Super D" Chinooks, in service. In 2008, Canada purchased 6 CH-47Ds from the U.S. for the Canadian Helicopter Force Afghanistan for $252 million. With 1 CH-47D loss, the remaining 5 CH-47D were returned by Canada in 2011 after their mission in Afghanistan was over.[clarification needed]
The MH-47D variant was developed for special forces operations and has inflight refueling capability, a fast rope-rappelling system, and other upgrades. The MH-47D was used by U.S. Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment. 12 MH-47D helicopters were produced. Six were conversions from CH-47A models and six were conversions from CH-47C models.
The MH-47E has been used by U.S. Army Special Operations. Beginning with the E-model prototype manufactured in 1991, a total of 26 Special Operations Aircraft was produced. All aircraft were assigned to 2–160th SOAR(A) "Nightstalkers", home based at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. E models were conversions from existing CH-47C model airframes. The MH-47E has similar capabilities as the MH-47D, but includes an increased fuel capacity similar to the CH-47SD and terrain following/terrain avoidance radar.
In 1995, the Royal Air Force ordered eight Chinook HC3s, effectively a low-cost version of the MH-47E for the special operations role. They were delivered in 2001, but never entered operational service due to technical issues with their avionics fit, unique to the HC3. In 2008, work started to revert the HC3s to HC2 standard, to enable them to enter service.They have since been upgraded to HC5 standard with a digital automated flight control system.
In 2001, the first CH-47F, an upgraded CH-47D, made its maiden flight; the first production model rolled out on 15 June 2006 at Boeing's facility in Ridley Park, Pennsylvania, and first flew on 23 October 2006. Upgrades include 4,868-shaft-horsepower (3,630 kW) Honeywell engines and the airframe featuring greater single-piece construction to lower maintenance requirements. The milled construction reduces vibration, as well as inspection and repair needs, and eliminates flexing points to increase service life. The CH-47F can fly at speeds of over 175 mph (282 km/h) with a payload of more than 21,000 lb (9.5 t). New avionics include a Rockwell Collins Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) cockpit, and BAE Systems' Digital Advanced Flight Control System (DAFCS). AgustaWestland assembles the CH-47F under license, known as the Chinook ICH-47F, for several customers. Boeing delivered 48 CH-47Fs to the U.S. Army through August 2008; at that time Boeing announced a $4.8 billion contract with the Army for 191 Chinooks.
In February 2007, the Royal Netherlands Air Force became the first international customer, ordering six CH-47Fs, expanding their fleet to 17. On 10 August 2009, Canada signed a contract for 15 extensively modified and upgraded CH-47Fs for the Royal Canadian Air Force, later delivered in 2013–14 with the Canadian designation CH-147F. On 15 December 2009, Britain announced its Future Helicopter Strategy, including the purchase of 24 new CH-47Fs to be delivered from 2012. Australia ordered seven CH-47Fs in March 2010 to replace its six CH-47Ds between 2014 and 2017. In late 2015, Australia has sought permission to order three more CH-47Fs. In September 2015 India approved purchase of 15 CH-47F Chinooks. On 7 November 2016, Singapore announced that the CH-47F would replace its older Chinooks, which had been in service since 1994. This would enable the Republic of Singapore Air Force to meet its requirements for various operations, including Search and Rescue (SAR), Aeromedical Evacuation (AME), and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.
A CH-47F Block 2 is planned to be introduced after 2020. The Block 2 aims for a payload of 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) with 4,000 ft (1,200 m) and 95°F (35°C) high and hot hover performance, eventually increased up to 6,000 ft (1,800 m), to carry the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle; maximum takeoff weight would be raised to 24,500 kg (54,000 lb). It features the composite-based advanced Chinook rotor blade (derived from the cancelled RAH-66 Comanche) 20% more powerful Honeywell T55-715 engines, and the active parallel actuator system (APAS); the APAS enhances the digital advanced flight-control system, providing an exact torque split between the rotors for greater efficiency. A new fuel system combines the three fuel cells in each sponson into one larger fuel cell and eliminating intracell fuel transfer hardware, reducing weight by 90 kg (200 lb) and increasing fuel capacity. Electrical capacity is increased by three 60 kVA generators.
The U.S. Army plans for a Block 3 upgrade after 2025, which could include a new 6,000 shp-class engine with boosted power capacity of the transmission and drive train developed under the future affordable turbine engine (FATE) program and a lengthened fuselage. The Future Vertical Lift program plans to begin replacing the Army's rotorcraft fleet in the mid-2030s, initially focusing on medium-lift helicopters, thus the CH-47 is planned to be in service beyond 2060, over 100 years after first entering service.
The MH-47G Special Operations Aviation (SOA) version is currently being delivered to the U.S. Army. It is similar to the MH-47E, but features more sophisticated avionics including a digital Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS). The CAAS is a common glass cockpit used by different helicopters such as MH-60K/Ls, CH-53E/Ks, and ARH-70As. The MH-47G also incorporates all of the new sections of the CH-47F.
The new modernization program improves MH-47D and MH-47E Special Operations Chinooks to the MH-47G design specs. A total of 25 MH-47E and 11 MH-47D aircraft were upgraded by the end of 2003. In 2002 the army announced plans to expand the Special Operations Aviation Regiment via an additional 12 MH-47G helicopters. The final MH-47G Chinook was delivered to the U.S. Army Special Operations Command on 10 February 2011. Modernization of MH-47D/E Chinooks to MH-47G standard is due for completion in 2015.
The CH-47J is a medium-transport helicopter for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The differences between the CH-47J and the CH-47D are the engine, rotor brake and avionics, for use for general transportation, SAR and disaster activity like U.S. forces. The CH-47JA, introduced in 1993, is a long-range version of the CH-47J, fitted with an enlarged fuel tank, an AAQ-16 FLIR in a turret under the nose, and a partial glass cockpit. Both versions are built under license in Japan by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced 61 aircraft by April 2001.
The Japan Defense Agency ordered 54 aircraft of which 39 were for the JGSDF and 15 were for the JASDF. Boeing supplied flyable aircraft, to which Kawasaki added full avionics, interior, and final paint. The CH-47J model Chinook (N7425H) made its first flight in January 1986, and it was sent to Kawasaki in April. Boeing began delivering five CH-47J kits in September 1985 for assembly at Kawasaki.
On 9 November 2006, the HH-47, a new variant of the Chinook based on the MH-47G, was selected by the U.S. Air Force as the winner of the Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR-X) competition. Four development HH-47s were to be built, with the first of 141 production aircraft planned to enter service in 2012. However, in February 2007 the contract award was protested and the GAO ordered the CSAR-X project to be re-bid. The CSAR-X program was again terminated in 2009. In February 2010, the USAF announced plans to replace aging HH-60G helicopters, and deferred secondary combat search and rescue requirements calling for a larger helicopter.
Other export models
The export version of the CH-47C Chinook for the Italian Army was designated "CH-47C Plus".
The HH-47D is a search and rescue version for the Republic of Korea Air Force. The CH-47DG is an upgraded version of the CH-47C for Greece. While the CH-47SD (also known as the "Super D") is a modified variant of the CH-47D, with extended range fuel tanks and higher payload carrying capacity; the CH-47SD is currently in use by the Republic of Singapore Air Force, Hellenic Army and the Republic of China Army.
Eight CH-47Cs were delivered to the Canadian Forces in 1974. These helicopters were in Canadian service until 1991, with the designation CH-147. These aircraft were subsequently sold to the Netherlands and are now operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force as CH-47Ds. Older aircraft will be phased out by 2020 and replaced by CH-47F-NL models.
- Model 234LR (long range): Commercial transport helicopter. The Model 234LR can be fitted out as an all-passenger, all-cargo, or cargo/passenger transport helicopter.
- Model 234ER (extended range): Commercial transport version.
- Model MLR (multi-purpose long range): Commercial transport version.
- Model 234UT (utility transport): Utility transport helicopter.
- Model 414: The Model 414 is the international export version of the CH-47D. It is also known as the CH-47D International Chinook.
In 1969, work on the experimental Model 347 was begun. It was a CH-47A with a lengthened fuselage, four-blade rotors, detachable wings mounted on top of the fuselage and other changes. It first flew on 27 May 1970 and was evaluated for a few years.
In 1973, the Army contracted Boeing to design a "Heavy Lift Helicopter" (HLH), designated XCH-62A. It appeared to be a scaled-up CH-47 without a conventional body, in a configuration similar to the S-64 Skycrane (CH-54 Tarhe), but the project was canceled in 1975. The program was restarted for test flights in the 1980s and was again not funded by Congress. The scaled-up model of the HLH was scrapped in late 2005 at Fort Rucker, Alabama.
- Argentina (former)
- Greece — 31 in service, 5 on order as of May 2017
- India — 15 on order
- Netherlands — 17 in service, 14 on order partly replacing older fleet for a total of 20 in service by 2020
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Republic of Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- South Vietnam (former)
- Turkey (6-2016)
- United Kingdom - see Boeing Chinook (UK variants)
- United Arab Emirates
- United States
- Vietnam (former)
- Oh 18 August 1971, CH-47A helicopter, airframe 66-19023, was operated by the 4th Aviation Company, 15th Aviation Group. The helicopter was transporting 33 soldiers of the Heavy Mortar Platoon, 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, 56th Field Artillery Brigade from battalion headquarters in Ludwigsburg to Grafenwoehr for live fire training exercises. Fatigue failure of the rear rotor blade led to its separation causing structural damage resulting in the crash and explosion that killed all 37 on board, including four crew members. A memorial plaque was placed near the crash site in the forest outside Pegnitz that was stolen in 2009.
- On 14 July 1977, a U.S. Army CH-47 helicopter was shot down by North Korean forces after straying into the DMZ.
- On 11 September 1982 at an airshow in Mannheim, Germany, a U.S. Army Chinook (serial number 74-22292) carrying parachutists crashed, killing 46 people. The crash was later found to have been caused by an accumulation of ground walnut shell grit used for cleaning machinery, which blocked lubrication from reaching transmission bearings. The accident resulted in the eventual discontinuation of the use of walnut grit as a cleaning agent.
- On 4 February 1985, a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) CH-47C (A15-001) crashed into Perseverance Dam, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. The Royal Air Force (RAF) exchange pilot, Flight Lieutenant Charles 'Chas' Chubb was rescued from the submerged cockpit but later died in hospital.
- On 6 November 1986, a British International Helicopters Chinook crashed on approach to Sumburgh Airport, Shetland Islands resulting in the loss of 45 lives and the withdrawal of the Chinook from crew-servicing flights in the North Sea.
- On 1 March 1991, Major Marie Therese Rossi Cayton was killed when her U.S. Army Chinook helicopter crashed after colliding with a microwave tower during a dust storm. She was the first American woman to fly in combat during Desert Storm in 1991.
- On 29 May 2001, a Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army) CH-47D installing a sculpture onto Olympic Bridge in Seoul, South Korea failed to unlatch the sculpture. The helicopter's rotors struck the monument; then the fuselage hit and broke into two. One section crashed onto the bridge in flames and the other fell into the river. All three crew members on board died.
- On 21 February 2002, a U.S. Army special forces MH-47E crashed at sea in the Philippines, killing all ten U.S. soldiers on board. No enemy fire was involved.
- On 11 September 2004, a Hellenic Army Aviation CH-47SD crashed into the sea off Mount Athos. All 17 people on board were killed, including four senior figures in the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
- On 6 April 2005, the U.S. Army CH-47D known as "Big Windy 25" crashed during a sandstorm near Ghazni, Afghanistan, killing all eighteen aboard (fifteen soldiers and three contractors). The pilots had been disoriented by the dust storm.
- On 6 August 2011, a U.S. Army CH-47D was shot-down in Wardak Province, Afghanistan, while transporting reinforcements for a U.S. Rangers unit engaged with the enemy, killing all on board: 38 plus one U.S. military working dog.
- On 7 January 2013, a BV-234 N241CH owned by Columbia Helicopters, Inc., crashed shortly after taking off from the airport in Pucallpa, Coronel Portillo Province, Peru. All seven crew members were killed.
- Crew: three (pilot, copilot, flight engineer or loadmaster)
- 33–55 troops or
- 24 litters and 3 attendants or
- 24,000 lb (10,886 kg) cargo
- Length: 52 ft. fuselage, 98 ft 10 in with rotors (30.1 m)
- Fuselage width: 12 ft 5 in (3.78 m))
- Rotor diameter: 60 ft 0 in (18.3 m)
- Height: 18 ft 11 in (5.7 m)
- Disc area: 5,600 ft2 (520 m2)
- Empty weight: 24,578 lb (11,148 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Lycoming T55-GA-714A turboshaft, 4,733 shp (3,529 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 160 kt (184 mph, 296 km/h)
- Range: 400 nmi (450 mi, 741 km)
- Combat radius: 200 nmi (230 mi, 370 km)
- Ferry range: 1,216 nmi (1,400 mi, 2,252 km)
- Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6100 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,522 ft/min (7.73 m/s)
- Disc loading: 9.5 lb/ft2 (47 kg/m2)
- Power/mass: 0.28 hp/lb (460 W/kg)
- Up to 3 pintle-mounted medium machine guns (1 on loading ramp and 2 at shoulder windows), generally 7.62 mm (0.308 in) M240/FN MAG machine guns
- Rockwell Collins Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) (MH-47G/CH-47F)
M240 machine gun emplacement on the loading ramp, as well as another partly visible on the right shoulder window
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War
- "Boeing Marks 50 Years of Delivering Chinook Helicopters". Boeing. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
- "CH-47F Selected Acquisition Report RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-278" (PDF). US Department of Defense. 31 December 2011. p. 13.
- Leuutenant General John J. Tolson (1989). Vietnam Studies: Airmobility 1961–71. Department of the Army. US Government Printing Office. CMH Pub 90-4.
- Apostolo, Giorgio. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters. New York: Bonanza Books. 1984. ISBN 978-0-517-43935-7.
- Goebel, Greg. Origins: Vertol V-107 & V-114 Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Vectorsite.net, 1 December 2009.
- Spenser, Jay P. Whirlybirds, A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers. University of Washington Press, 1998. ISBN 0-295-97699-3.
- Holmes, Alexander (26 October 1962). "The Quiet Americans-Our Marines Overseas". Los Angeles Times.
- Warwick, Graham (1 April 2008). "Chinook: Five decades of development". Flight International.
- "Chinook Information and diagrams about the transmission system". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Belden, Tom (21 May 1982). "This Whirlybird's an early bird: Boeing Vertol's Army copter delivered on budget". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- "Boeing Receives $1.15B Contract for 15 Canadian Chinooks, Announces Matching Reinvestment in Industry". Boeing. 10 August 2009.
- "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. H9EA" (.pdf). Federal Aviation Administration. 17 January 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2007.
- "Chinook Copter to Vietnam". The New York Times. 11 August 1965.
- Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth A.; Marion Anderson (2000). "Hardships and Personal Strategies of Vietnam War Nurses". Western Journal of Nursing Research. 22 (5): 526–550.
- Dunstan, Simon (2003). Vietnam choppers: helicopters in battle 1950–75. Osprey Publishing. p. 81.
- Anderton, David & Miller, Jay – Boeing Helicopters CH-47 Chinook. Arlington : Aerofax, Inc, 1989, p. 8, ISBN 0-942548-42-6
- Marder, Murray (26 July 1973). "Oil pact with U.S. firm: Iran signs agreement". Victoria Advocate.[permanent dead link]
- Szulcs, Tad (25 July 1971). "U.S., Britain Quietly Back Military Build-Up of Iran". The New York Times.
- "US reportedly will buy copters so Iran can't". Milwaukee Journal. 22 January 1984.
- "Iranian troops smash four-day siege by Kurds". Lakeland Ledger. 27 August 1979.
- Sander Peeters. "Iraqi Air-to-Air Victories since 1967". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Farrokh, Kaveh. Iran at War: 1500–1988. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781780962214.
- Roy, Amit (23 February 1980). "Iran feeling squeeze of European embargo". Spokesman-Review.
- "U.S. cuts off plane parts to Iran". Chicago Tribune. 9 November 1979.
- "Iran, China Seek Military Equipment From Pentagon Surplus Auctions". Fox News Channel. 16 January 2007.
- "Iranian engineers overhaul Chinook helicopter". BBC News. 27 January 2007.
- "آشنایی با هوانیروز ایران". irartesh.ir.
- Crossette, Barbara ROLE OF AMERICANS IN LIBYAN WARFARE CONFIRMED BY U.S. Published: November 3, 1981 New York Times Retrieved November 18, 2016
- UAE awards contracts for CH-47 upgrade March 15, 2005 flightglobal.com Retrieved November 18, 2016
- "British air and land forces outnumbered". Boston Globe. 21 May 1982.
- "MoD uses 'cut and shut' chopper". BBC News. 18 July 2009.
- "boeing-vertol CH-47C Chinook in Argentina – Comando de Aviación del Ejército argentino". Helis.com. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "RAF - Royal Air Force CH47 Chinook 'Bravo November'". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Ethell and Price 1983, pp. 147–148.
- Ethell and Price 1983, pp. 151–152.
- "The Boeing Chinook". airvectors.net. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "CH-47D/MH-47E Chinook". Army Technology. SPG Media Limited. 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- "Paras tell of their fear under fire". The Herald. 12 September 2000.
- "UK leads Nato into Kosovo". BBC News. 12 June 1999.
- Crerar, Pippa (26 January 2006). "Scots set for Taliban Hotspots". Daily Record. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011.
- "Chinook Replaces Blackhawk in Combat". Air Transportation. 5 March 2008.
- "MoD to buy 22 new Chinooks". The Daily Telegraph. London. 15 December 2009.
- "Copter Downed by Taliban Fire; Elite U.S. Unit Among Dead". The New York Times, 6 August 2011.
- "31 U.S. Troops Killed in Afghanistan Helo Crash". Defense News, 6 August 2011.[dead link]
- Dodd, Mark (31 May 2011). "Insurgent fire may have caused fatal Chinook crash in Afghanistan". The Australian. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "PRESS CONFERENCE WITH CHIEF OF THE DEFENCE FORCE AIR CHIEF MARSHAL ANGUS HOUSTON AND MINISTER FOR DEFENCE STEPHEN SMITH". Department of Defence. Retrieved 31 May 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "ADF Bolsters CH-47D Chinook Capability". Ministerial press release. Department of Defence. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "CH-47D/F Chinook page". Boeing.
- Abraham, Suresh. "Tactical Transport Helicopters in Humanitarian Relief Operations." ADJ, April 2009.
- "Japanese military helicopters dump water on Fukushima nuclear power plant". New York Post. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- The Christian Science Monitor. "CH-47 Chinook helicopter begins dumping water on nuclear reactor". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-17. Concern grows over spent fuel pools as crews spray nuclear plant with water
- http://www.nzherald.co.nz/japan-tsunami/news/article.cfm?c_id=1503051&objectid=10713272 Japan crisis: Radiation levels begin to dip
- "US ARMY CH-47 Chinook Helicopter". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Wayne Mutza, Helicopter Gunships: Deadly Combat Weapon Systems (Specialty Press, 2010) p52
- Guns a Go-Go. chinook-helicopter.com
- US Army CH-47A / CH-47B / CH-47C / CH-47D / SOA Chinooks Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Vectorsite.net, 1 July 2004.
- Boeing CH-47D model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
- Boeing, Netherlands MOD Mark 1st Flight of Royal Netherlands Air Force CH-47F (NL) Chinook 26 January 2011.
- Gunner, Jerry (November 2011). "Chinook at 50 - World Wokka Operators - Republic of Singapore Air Force". AirForces Monthly. Key Publishing Ltd. 284: 88. ISSN 0955-7091.
- Equipment Procurement – Afghanistan Air Capabilities Archived 29 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. forces.gc.ca.
- Chinooks make their debut in Afghanistan Archived 31 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. canadianally.com
- Boeing MH-47D model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
- Boeing MH-47E model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
- Hoyle, Craig (6 June 2008). "UK starts Chinook HC3 'reversion' work, amid criticism". Flight International. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- "RAF welcomes updated Chinook HC5". Flight Global.
- "New Boeing CH-47F takes flight", Aerotech News and Review, 3 November 2006, p. 3.
- "Chinook Helicopter Begins Operational Test Flights with US Army" (Press release). Boeing. 19 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Holcomb, Henry. "New Look Chinook". Philadelphia Inquirer, 17 August 2007. archive link
- "Boeing Awarded US Army Contract for 191 CH-47F Chinook Helicopters" (Press release). 26 August 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Chinook ICH-47F." AgustaWestland, Retrieved 4 July 2013. Archived 6 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Boeing Signs Contract for Dutch Chinooks" (Press release). Boeing. 15 February 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Leblanc, Daniel (10 August 2009). "Chinooks will fly too late for Afghanistan". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "As Cuts Loom, Britain Orders 24 Chinooks From Boeing". Defense News, 15 December 2009.[dead link]
- "Australia Ordering CH-47F Chinooks". Defense Industry Daily, 22 March 2010.
- The Hon. Greg Combet AM MP (20 March 2010). "New Chinook CH-47 helicopters". Media Release. Australian Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010.
- Brian Hartigan (24 December 2015). "Australia buying 3 more F-model Chinooks". Contact Air, Land and Sea.
- "India clears purchase of 15 Chinooks and 22 Apache helicopters from US". intoday.in.
- Government of Singapore (7 Nov 2016). "MINDEF Signs Contracts to Acquire New Medium- and Heavy-Lift Helicopters". Retrieved 7 Nov 2016.
- Warwick, Graham (22 April 2013). "Block 2 CH-47F to Tackle Payload Shortfalls". Aviation Week's Defense Technology International edition. Retrieved 1 April 2015 – via Military.com. (Original story Aviation Week )
- Trimble, Stephen (31 March 2015). "US Army outlines CH-47F upgrades for 100-year lifespan". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Warwick, Graham. "Chinook: CAAS unites rotorcraft cockpits". Flight International, 1 April 2008.
- MH-47E/G Special Operations Chinook product page Archived 21 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing.
- John Pike. "MH-47G Chinook". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Superfast Helicopters - Defensemedianetwork.com, October 25, 2011
- Kawasaki Heavy Industries CH-47J helis.com Retrieved November 18, 2016
- Crawford, Steve (2003). Twenty-first century military helicopters: today's fighting gunships. Zenith Imprint. p. 48. ISBN 0-7603-1504-3.
- goebel, greg. "Chinook in commercial & foreign service". Vectorsite.net. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- McGinley, Donna. "Boeing Core Business Activities" (PDF). Advocacy and Public Policymaking. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Flight International. Number 4006. Volume 129. New-build CH-47D ready for co-production. p.11.". Flight International. 12 April 1986. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Jackson, Paul (22 July 1999). "Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1999-00. THE BOEING COMPANY. BOEING 114 and 414. US ARMY MH-47E PROCUREMENT.". Retrieved 9 March 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 2016-02-06. Boeing News Release
-  Global Security.org
- "Bowing To GAO, USAF Likely To Recompete CSAR-X". Aviation Week, 28 February 2007.
- Trimble, Stephen. "USAF abandons large helicopter for rescue mission, proposes buying 112 UH-60Ms". Flight International. 24 February 2010.
- USAF HH-60 Personnel Recovery Recapitalization Program Sources Sought RFI. FBO.gov, 23 March 2010.
- "Chinooks for the Dutch: The CH-47F (NL) Heavy-Lift Helicopter". defenseindustrydaily.com. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Goebel, Greg. "ACH-47A Gunship / Model 347 / XCH-62 HLH (Model 301) / Model 360" Archived 26 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Vectorsite.net, 1 December 2009.
- "XCH-62 with photo". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Jennings, Gareth (2 May 2017). "US approves additional CH-47Ds for Greece". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Ahead of PM Modi's US visit, govt clears multi-billion dollar deal for military helicopters with Boeing". The Times of India.
- "India, US sign deals for 22 Apache choppers, 15 Chinook copters - Rediff.com India News". rediff.com.
- Jennings, Gareth (2 May 2017). "Netherlands signs for two more Chinooks". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "TSK'ya yeni 'uçan kale'ler geldi".
- "37 GIs Die as Copter Falls in Germany". Chicago Tribune. August 19, 1971.
- "Tafel an Hubschrauber-Gedenkstätte verschwunden" [Disappeared Plaque on Helicopter Memorial]. Nordbayern online (in German). August 14, 2009.
- "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 152334".
- Air show safety in the spotlight, BBC, 27 July 2002.
- "Ursula J. Schoenborn v. The Boeing Company, 769 F.2d 115 (3d Cir. 1985) – a case in the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit". resource.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "RAAF Museum: Royal Australian Air Force". airforce.gov.au. Department of Defence. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Report No: 2/1988. Report on the accident to Boeing Vertol (BV) 234 LR, G-BWFC 2.5 miles east of Sumburgh, Shetland Isles, 6 November 1986 Archived 16 July 2012 at Archive.is
- "Marie Therese Rossi Cayton". Arlington National Cemetery site.
- "S. Korean Helicopter Crashes Into Bridge, 3 Killed.". People's Daily, 30 May 2001. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009.
- "Crew killed as Korean helicopter hits sculpture". The Daily Telegraph, 30 May 2001.
- A Crash in Philippines. chinook-helicopter.com,
- Bamber, David. "Four Orthodox church leaders die in air crash". The Daily Telegraph, 12 September 2004.
- "Washington man presumed dead in Afghanistan crash". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. 10 April 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Kakesako, Gregg K. (29 July 2005). "Helicopter crash caused by dust storm, Army says". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "Portland-area native among 7 killed in Peru helicopter crash". The Oregonian, 8 January 2013.
- "CH-47 Technical Specifications". Boeing. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "CH-47 CHINOOK HELICOPTER". army.mil. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Frawley, Gerard: The International Directory of Military Aircraft, p. 49. Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- United States of America. Naval Training Equipment Center. Department of the Navy. Recognition Study Cards – US and Foreign Aircraft. Device 5E14H. LSN 6910-LL-C006462. Orlando, Florida. 1982. 55 Cards. Annotation: 2252 kilometers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- CH-47D/F, MH-47E/G, CH-47 history, and Model 234 Chinook history pages on Boeing.com
- ICH-47 on Leonardocompany.com
- CH-47A/B/C, ACH-47A, CH-47D/F and CH-47 Chinook pages on Army.mil
- CH-47F Chinook transport helicopter on airrecognition.com
- CH-47 page on GlobalSecurity.org
- CH-47 page on Vectorsite.net
- "Boeing's New Combat-Ready CH-47F Chinook Helicopter Fielded to First US Army Unit"
- Italian Chinooks – CASR Article
- The Kopp-Etchells Effect – CH-47 Night Landings in Afghanistan. Michael Yon online magazine
- The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-2A (1966) is available for free download at the Internet Archive