|Serbian Air Force and Air Defence MiG-29 takeoff|
|Role||Air superiority fighter, multirole fighter|
|National origin||Soviet Union
|First flight||6 October 1977|
|Primary users||Russian Air Force
Indian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
Yugoslavia Air Force
See Operators below for others
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: "Fulcrum") is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union. Developed by the Mikoyan design bureau as an air superiority fighter during the 1970s, the MiG-29, along with the larger Sukhoi Su-27, was developed to counter new American fighters such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. The MiG-29 entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1982.
While originally oriented towards combat against any enemy aircraft, many MiG-29s have been furnished as multirole fighters capable of performing a number of different operations, and are commonly outfitted to use a range of air-to-surface armaments and precision munitions. The MiG-29 has been manufactured in several major variants, including the multirole Mikoyan MiG-29M and the navalised Mikoyan MiG-29K; the most advanced member of the family to date is the Mikoyan MiG-35. Later models frequently feature improved engines, glass cockpits with HOTAS-compatible flight controls, modern radar and IRST sensors, and considerably increased fuel capacity; some aircraft have also been equipped for aerial refuelling.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the militaries of a number of former Soviet republics have continued to operate the MiG-29, the largest of which is the Russian Air Force. The Russian Air Force wanted to upgrade its existing fleet to the modernised MiG-29SMT configuration, but financial difficulties have limited deliveries. The MiG-29 has also been a popular export aircraft; more than 30 nations either operate or have operated the aircraft to date, India being one of the largest export operators of the type. As of 2013, the MiG-29 is in production by Mikoyan, a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) since 2006.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Aircraft on display
- 7 Specifications (MiG-29)
- 8 Notable appearances in media
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In the mid 1960s, the United States Air Force (USAF) encountered difficulties over the skies of Vietnam when supersonic fighter bombers like the F-105 Thunderchief which had been optimized for low altitude bombing were jumped and found to be vulnerable to older MiG-17s and more advanced MiGs which were much more maneuverable. In order to regain the sort of air superiority enjoyed over Korea, the Americans refocused on air combat using the F-4 Phantom, while the MiG-23 was the Soviet response to the American multi-role fighter. Towards the end of the 1960s, the USAF started the "F-X" program to produce a fighter dedicated to air superiority, which led to the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle being ordered for production in late 1969.
At the height of the Cold War, a Soviet response was necessary to avoid the possibility of a new American fighter gaining a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. Thus the development of a new air superiority fighter became a priority. In 1969, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel (PFI, roughly "Advanced Frontline Fighter"). Specifications were extremely ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance (including the ability to use austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The Russian aerodynamics institute TsAGI worked in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau on the aircraft's aerodynamics.
By 1971, however, 1971 Soviet studies determined the need for different types of fighters. The PFI program was supplemented with the Perspektivnyy Lyogkiy Frontovoy Istrebitel (LPFI, or "Advanced Lightweight Tactical Fighter") program; the Soviet fighter force was planned to be approximately 33% PFI and 67% LPFI. PFI and LPFI paralleled the USAF's decision that created the "Lightweight Fighter" program and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and Northrop YF-17. The PFI fighter was assigned to Sukhoi, resulting in the Sukhoi Su-27, while the lightweight fighter went to Mikoyan. Detailed design work on the resultant Mikoyan Product 9, designated MiG-29A, began in 1974, with the first flight taking place on 6 October 1977. The pre-production aircraft was first spotted by United States reconnaissance satellites in November of that year; it was dubbed Ram-L because it was observed at the Zhukovsky flight test center near the town of Ramenskoye.
The workload split between TPFI and LPFI became more apparent as the MiG-29 filtered into front line service with the Soviet Air Forces (Russian: Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily [VVS]) in the mid-1980s. While the heavy, long range Su-27 was tasked with the more exotic and dangerous role of deep air-to-air sweeps of NATO high-value assets, the smaller MiG-29 directly replaced the MiG-23 in the frontal aviation role. Features such as rugged landing gear and protective intake grates allowed MiG-29 operations from damaged or under-prepared airstrips that Soviet war planners expected to encounter during a rapid armored advance.
Introduction and improvements
In the West, the new fighter was given the NATO reporting name "Fulcrum-A" because the pre-production MiG-29A, which should have logically received this designation, remained unknown in the West at that time. The Soviet Union did not assign official names to most of its aircraft, although nicknames were common. Unusually, some Soviet pilots found the MiG-29’s NATO reporting name, "Fulcrum", to be a flattering description of the aircraft’s intended purpose, and it is sometimes unofficially used in Russian service.
The MiG-29B was widely exported in downgraded versions, known as MiG-29B 9-12A and MiG-29B 9-12B for Warsaw Pact and non-Warsaw Pact nations respectively, with less capable avionics and no capability for delivering nuclear weapons. Total production was about 840 aircraft.
In the 1980s, Mikoyan developed the improved MiG-29S to use longer range R-27E and R-77 air-to-air missiles. It added a dorsal 'hump' to the upper fuselage to house a jamming system and some additional fuel capacity. The weapons load was increased to 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) with airframe strengthening. These features were included in new-built fighters and upgrades to older MiG-29s.
Refined versions of the MiG-29 with improved avionics were fielded by the Soviet Union, but Mikoyan’s multirole variants, including a carrier-based version designated MiG-29K, were never produced in large numbers. Development of the MiG-29K carrier version was suspended for over a decade before being resumed; the type went into service with the Indian Navy's INS Vikramaditya, and Russian Navy's Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier.
In the post-Soviet era, MiG-29 development was influenced by the Mikoyan bureau's apparent lesser political clout than rival Sukhoi. Mikoyan had developed improved versions of the MiG-29, called MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29SMT. On 15 April 2014, the Russian Air Force placed an order for a batch of 16 MiG-29 SMT fighters.
There have been several upgrade programmes conducted for the MiG-29. Common upgrades include the adoption of NATO/ICAO standard-compatible avionics, service life extensions to 4,000 flight hours, safety enhancements, greater combat capabilities and reliability. In 2005 the Russian Aircraft Corporation “MiG” established a unified family of 4+ generation multirole fighters: the aircraft carrier–based MiG-29K, front-line MiG-29M and MiG-35 fighters.
On 11 December 2013, Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin revealed that Russia is planning to build a new fighter to replace the MiG-29. The Sukhoi Su-27 and its derivatives are to be replaced by the Sukhoi PAK FA, but a different design is needed to replace the lighter MiGs. A previous attempt to develop a MiG-29 replacement, the MiG 1.44 demonstrator, failed in the 1990s. The concept came up again in 2001 with interest from India, but they later opted for a variant of the PAK FA. Air Force commanders have hinted at the possibility of an single-engine airframe that uses the PAK FA's engine, radar, and weapons primarily for Russian service.
Sharing its origins in the original PFI requirements issued by TsAGI, the MiG-29 has broad aerodynamic similarities to the Sukhoi Su-27, however, there are some notable differences. The MiG-29 has a mid-mounted swept wing with blended leading-edge root extensions (LERXs) swept at around 40°; there are swept tailplanes and two vertical fins, mounted on booms outboard of the engines. Automatic slats are mounted on the leading edges of the wings; they are four-segment on early models and five-segment on some later variants. On the trailing edge, there are maneuvering flaps and wingtip ailerons.
The MiG-29 has hydraulic controls and a SAU-451 three-axis autopilot but, unlike the Su-27, no fly-by-wire control system. Nonetheless, it is very agile, with excellent instantaneous and sustained turn performance, high-alpha capability, and a general resistance to spins. The airframe consists primarily of aluminum with some composite materials[specify], and is stressed for up to 9 g (88 m/s²) maneuvers. The controls have "soft" limiters to prevent the pilot from exceeding g and alpha limits, but the limiters can be disabled manually
Powerplant and range
The MiG-29 has two widely spaced Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines, each rated at 50.0 kN (11,240 lbf) dry and 81.3 kN (18,277 lbf) in afterburner. The space between the engines generates lift, thereby reducing effective wing loading, hence improving maneuverability. The engines are fed through intake ramps fitted under the leading-edge extensions (LERXs), which have variable ramps to allow high-Mach speeds. As an adaptation to rough-field operations, the main air inlet can be closed completely and the auxiliary air inlet on the upper fuselage can be used for takeoff, landing and low-altitude flying, preventing ingestion of ground debris. Thereby the engines receive air through louvers on the LERXs which open automatically when intakes are closed. However the latest variant of the family, the MiG-35, eliminated these dorsal louvers, and adopted the mesh screens design in the main intakes, similar to those fitted to the Su-27.
The MiG-29 has a ferry range of 1,500 km without external fuel tanks, and 2,100 km with external tanks. The internal fuel capacity of the original MiG-29B is 4,365 litres distributed between six internal fuel tanks, four in the fuselage and one in each wing. For longer flights, this can be supplemented by a 1,500-litre (330 Imp gal, 395 US gal) centreline drop tank and, on later production batches, two 1,150-litre (253 Imp gal, 300 US gal) underwing drop tanks. In addition, a small number have been fitted with port-side inflight refueling probes, allowing much longer flight times by using a probe-and-drogue system.
The cockpit has conventional dials, with a head-up display (HUD) and a Shchel-3UM helmet mounted display, but no HOTAS ("hands-on-throttle-and-stick") capability. Emphasis seems to have been placed on making the cockpit similar to the earlier MiG-23 and other Soviet aircraft for ease of conversion, rather than on ergonomics. Nonetheless, the MiG-29 does have substantially better visibility than most previous Russian jet fighters, thanks to a high-mounted bubble canopy. Upgraded models introduce "glass cockpits" with modern liquid-crystal (LCD) multi-function displays (MFDs) and true HOTAS.
The baseline MiG-29B has a Phazotron RLPK-29 radar fire control system which includes the N019 Sapfir 29 look-down/shoot-down coherent pulse-Doppler radar and the Ts100.02-02 digital computer. Tracking range against a fighter-sized target was only about 70 km (38 nmi) in the frontal aspect and 35 km (19 nmi) in the rear aspect.
The N019 radar was not a new design, but rather a development of the Sapfir-23ML architecture used on the MiG-23ML. During the initial design specification period in the mid-1970s, Phazotron NIIR was tasked with producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. To speed development, Phazotron based its new design on work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental "Soyuz" radar program. Accordingly, the N019 was originally intended to have a flat planar array antenna and full digital signal processing, for a detection and tracking range of at least 100 km against a fighter-sized target. Prototype testing revealed this could not be attained in the required timeframe and still fit within the MiG-29's nose. Rather than design a new radar, Phazotron reverted to a version of the Sapfir-23ML's twisted-polarization cassegrain antenna and traditional analog signal processors, coupled with a new NII Argon-designed Ts100 digital computer to save time and cost. This produced a working radar system, but inherited the weak points of the earlier design, plaguing the MiG-29's ability to detect and track airborne targets at ranges available with the R-27 and R-77 missiles. New radars like the digital N010 Zhuk-M have addressed the signal processing shortcomings of the analog design.
The N019 was further compromised by Phazotron designer Adolf Tolkachev’s betrayal of the radar to the CIA, for which he was executed in 1986. In response to all of these problems, the Soviets hastily developed a modified N019M Topaz radar for the upgraded MiG-29S aircraft. However, VVS was reportedly still not satisfied with the performance of the system and demanded another upgrade. The latest upgraded aircraft offered the N010 Zhuk-M, which has a planar array antenna rather than a dish, improving range, and a much superior processing ability, with multiple-target engagement capability and compatibility with the Vympel R-77 (or RVV-AE). Most MiG-29 continue to use the analog N019 or N019M radar, VVS has indicated its desire to upgrade all MiG-29s to a fully digital system.
Armament for the MiG-29 includes a single GSh-30-1 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. This originally had a 150-round magazine, which was reduced to 100 rounds in later variants. Original production MiG-29B aircraft cannot fire the cannon when carrying a centerline fuel tank as it blocks the shell ejection port. This was corrected in the MiG-29S and later versions. Three pylons are provided under each wing (four in some variants), for a total of six (or eight). The inboard pylons can carry either a 1,150 liter (300 US gal) fuel tank, one Vympel R-27 (AA-10 "Alamo") medium-range air-to-air missile, or unguided bombs or rockets. Some Soviet aircraft could carry a single nuclear bomb on the port inboard station. The outer pylons usually carry R-73 (AA-11 "Archer") dogfight missiles, although some users still retain the older R-60 (AA-8 "Aphid"). A single 1,500-litre (400 US gal) tank can be fitted to the centerline, between the engines, for ferry flights, but this position is not used for combat stores.
While the MiG-29's true capabilities could only be estimated from the time it first appeared In 1977 until the mid-1980s, a combination of persistent intelligence and increasing access afforded by the Soviet foreign sales effort allowed a true appreciation of its capabilities. Early MiG-29s were very agile aircraft, capable of rivalling the performance of contemporary F-18 and F-16 aircraft. However, their relatively low fuel capacity relegated them to short-range air defense missions. Lacking HOTAS and an inter-aircraft data link, and requiring a very intensive "heads-down" approach to operating cockpit controls, the early MiG-29 denied pilots the kind of situational awareness routinely enjoyed by pilots operating comparable US aircraft. Analysts and Western pilots who flew examples of the MiG-29 thought this likely prevented even very good pilots from harnessing the plane's full combat capability. Later MiG-29s were upgraded to improve their capabilities. The Soviet Union exported MiG-29s to several countries. Because 4th-generation fighter jets require the pilots to have extensive training, air-defense infrastructure, and constant maintenance and upgrades, MiG-29s have had mixed operational history with different air forces.
The MiG-29 was first publicly seen in the West when the Soviet Union displayed the aircraft in Finland on 2 July 1986. Two MiG-29s were also displayed at the Farnborough Airshow in Britain in September 1988. The following year, the aircraft conducted flying displays at the 1989 Paris Air Show where it was involved in a non-fatal crash during the first weekend of the show. The Paris Air Show display was only the second display of Soviet fighters at an international air show since the 1930s. Western observers were impressed by its apparent capability and exceptional agility. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, most of the MiG-29s entered service with the newly formed Russian Air Force.
In July 1993, two MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force collided in mid-air and crashed away from the public at the Royal International Air Tattoo. No one on the ground sustained any serious injuries, and the two pilots ejected and landed safely.
The Russian Air Force grounded all its MiG-29s following a crash in Siberia on 17 October 2008. Following a second crash with an MiG-29 in east Siberia in December 2008, Russian officials admitted that most MiG-29 fighters in the Russian Air Force were incapable of performing combat duties due to poor maintenance. The age of the aircraft was also an important factor as about 70% of the MiGs were considered to be too old to take to the skies. The Russian MiG-29s have not received updates since the collapse of the Soviet Union. This is because the Russian Air Force chose to upgrade the Su-27 and MiG-31 instead. On 4 February 2009, the Russian Air Force resumed flights with the MiG-29. However, in March 2009, 91 MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force required repair after inspections due to corrosion; approximately 100 MiGs were cleared to continue flying at the time. The Russian Air Force started an update of its early MiG-29s to the more current MiG-29SMT standard, but financial difficulties prevented delivery of more than three MiG-29 SMT upgrade to the Russian Air Force. Instead, the 35 MiG-29SMT/UBTs rejected by Algeria were bought by the Russian Air Force.[verification needed] Russia placed an order for 16 new-build MiG-29SMTs on 15 April 2014, with delivery expected by 2017.
On 20 April 2008, Georgian officials claimed a Russian MiG-29 shot down a Georgian Hermes 450 unmanned aerial vehicle and provided video footage from the ill-fated drone showing an apparent MiG-29 launching an air-to-air missile at it. Russia denies that the aircraft was theirs and says they did not have any pilots in the air that day. Abkhazia’s administration claimed its own forces shot down the drone with an L-39 aircraft "because it was violating Abkhaz airspace and breaching ceasefire agreements." UN investigation concluded that the video was authentic and that the drone was shot down by a Russian MiG-29 or Su-27 using a R-73 heat seeking missile.
In April 2014, during the military intervention in Crimea, 45 Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29s and 4 L-39 combat trainers were reportedly captured by Russian forces at Belbek air base. Most of the planes appeared to be in inoperable condition. In May, Russian troops dismantled them and shipped them back to Ukraine. On 4 August 2014, the Ukrainian government stated that a number of them had been put back in service to fight in the war in the east of the country.
In April 2014, during the initial days of the War in Donbass, the Ukrainian Air Force deployed some jet fighters over the Donetsk region to perform combat air patrols and show of force flights. Probably due to the limited number of jet fighters available, a MiG-29 belonging to the Ukrainian Falcons display team was spotted armed with a full air-to-air load and performing a low altitude fly by.
In the evening of 7 August 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29MU1, bort number 02 Blue, was shot down by an antiaircraft missile fired by pro-Russian rebels near the town of Yenakievo, and exploded in midair. The pilot ejected safely.
On 17 August 2014, another Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29, bort number 53 White, tasked with air to ground duties against rebel positions was shot down by pro-Russian rebels in the Luhansk region. The Ukrainian government confirmed the downing. The pilot ejected safely and was recovered by friendly forces.
India was the first international customer of the MiG-29. The Indian Air Force (IAF) placed an order for more than 50 MiG-29s in 1980 while the aircraft was still in its initial development phase. Since its induction into the IAF in 1985, the aircraft has undergone a series of modifications with the addition of new avionics, sub-systems, turbofan engines and radars.
Indian MiG-29s were used extensively during the 1999 Kargil War in Kashmir by the Indian Air Force to provide fighter escort for Mirage 2000s, which were attacking targets with laser-guided bombs. According to Indian sources, two MiG-29s from the IAF's No. 47 squadron (Black Archers) gained missile lock on two F-16s of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) which were patrolling close to the border to prevent any incursions by Indian aircraft, but did not engage them because no official declaration of war had been issued. The Indian MiG-29s were armed with beyond-visual-range air-to-air missiles whereas the Pakistani F-16s were not.
The MiG-29's good operational record prompted India to sign a deal with Russia in 2005—2006 to upgrade all of its MiG-29s for US$888 million. Under the deal, the Indian MiGs were modified to be capable of deploying the R-77RVV-AE (AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile. The missiles had been successfully tested in October 1998 and were integrated into IAF's MiG-29s. IAF has also awarded the MiG Corporation another US$900 million contract to upgrade all of its 69 operational MiG-29s. These upgrades will include a new avionics kit, with the N-109 radar being replaced by a Phazatron Zhuk-M radar. The aircraft is also being equipped to enhance beyond-visual-range combat ability and for air-to-air refuelling to increase endurance. In 2007, Russia also gave India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a licence to manufacture 120 RD-33 series 3 turbofan engines for the upgrade. The upgrade will also include a new weapon control system, cockpit ergonomics, air-to-air missiles, high-accuracy air-to-ground missiles and "smart" aerial bombs. The first six MiG-29s will be upgraded in Russia while the remaining 63 MiGs will be upgraded at the HAL facility in India. India also awarded a multi-million dollar contract to Israel Aircraft Industries to provide avionics and subsystems for the upgrade.
In March 2009, the Indian Air Force expressed concern after 90 MiG-29s were grounded in Russia. After carrying out an extensive inspection, the IAF cleared all MiG-29s in its fleet in March 2009. In a disclosure in Parliament, Defence Minister A. K. Antony said the MiG-29 is structurally flawed in that it has a tendency to develop cracks due to corrosion in the tail fin. Russia has shared this finding with India, which emerged after the crash of a Russian Air Force MiG-29 in December 2008. "A repair scheme and preventive measures are in place and IAF has not encountered major problems concerning the issue," Antony said. Despite concerns of Russia's grounding, India sent the first six of its 78 MiG-29s to Russia for upgrades in 2008. The upgrade program will fit the MiGs with a phased array radar (PESA) and in-flight re-fuelling capability.
In January 2010, India and Russia signed a US$1.2 billion deal under which the Indian Navy would acquire 29 additional MiG-29Ks, bringing the total number of MiG-29Ks on order to 45. The MiG-29K entered service with the Indian Navy on 19 February 2010.
The upgrades to Indian MiG-29s will be to the MiG-29UPG standard. This version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite. The upgrade to latest MiG-29UPG standard is in process, which will include latest avionics, Zhuk-ME Radar, engine, weapon control systems, enhancing multirole capabilities by many-fold. As of 2012, Indian UPG version is the most advanced MiG-29 variant. The Director-General of MiG, Sergei Korotkov said, "The most advanced is the MiG-29UPG, implemented in India in collaboration with local industry". RAC MiG has upgraded the first six MiG-29UPG fighters for India by October 2012. The first three aircraft were delivered in December 2012, over two years behind schedule.
Yugoslavia and Serbia
Yugoslavia was the first European country outside the Soviet Union to operate the MiG-29. The country received 14 MiG-29Bs and two MiG-29UBs from the USSR in 1987 and 1988. The MiG-29s were put into service with the 127th Fighter Aviation Squadron, based at Batajnica Air Base, north of Belgrade, Serbia.
Yugoslav MiG-29s saw little combat during the breakup of Yugoslavia, and were used primarily for ground attacks. Several Antonov An-2 aircraft used by Croatia were destroyed on the ground at Čepin airfield near Osijek, Croatia in 1991 by a Yugoslav MiG-29, with no MiG-29 losses. At least two MiG-29 carried out an air strike on Banski dvori, the official residence of the Croatian Government, on 7 October 1991.
The MiG-29s continued their service in the subsequent Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Because of the United Nations arms embargo against the country, the condition of the MiG-29s worsened.
A total of six MiG-29s were shot down during the Kosovo War, of which three were shot down by USAF F-15s, one by a USAF F-16, and one by a RNLAF F-16. One aircraft, according to pilot, was hit by friendly fire from the ground. Another four were destroyed on the ground. One Argentine source claims that a MiG-29 shot down an F-16 on 26 March 1999, but this kill is disputed, as the F-16C in question was said to have crashed in the US that same day.
Most historians attribute the downing of a F-117 as being shot down by SAM commander Zoltan Dani. Russian sources have claimed a F-117 was shot down by a MiG-29[source needs translation][source needs translation][source needs translation][unreliable source?][unreliable source?] piloted by Lt. Gvozden Đukić, which was the nom de guerre of Zoltan Dani.[source needs translation]
The Air Force of Serbia and Montenegro continued flying its remaining five MiG-29s at a very low rate after the war with one of them crashing on 7 July 2009. In spring 2004, news appeared that MiG-29 operations had ceased, because the aircraft could not be maintained, but later the five remaining airframes were sent to Russia for overhauling. The small Serbian MiG-29 fleet along with other jets were grounded for four months during Summer 2014 due to a battery procurement issue. The Serbian Air Force operates three MiG-29s as of late 2014, with one airframe grounded due to structural issues.
The German Democratic Republic (also known as East Germany) bought 24 MiG-29s (20 MiG-29As, four MiG-29UBs), which entered service in 1988–1989. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and reunification of Germany in October 1990, the MiG-29s and other aircraft of the East German Air Forces of the National People's Army were integrated into the West German Luftwaffe.
The Federation of American Scientists claims the MiG-29 is equal to, or better than the F-15C in some areas such as short aerial engagements because of the Helmet Mounted Weapons Sight (HMS) and better maneuverability at slow speeds. This was demonstrated when MiG-29s of the German Air Force participated in joint DACT exercises with US fighters. The HMS was a great help, allowing the Germans to achieve a lock on any target the pilot could see within the missile field of view, including those almost 45 degrees off boresight. It was not until 2003 that the USAF and US Navy achieved Initial Operational Capability of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System.
Beginning in 1993 the German MiGs were stationed with 1./JG73 "Steinhoff" in Laage near Rostock. During the service in the German Air Force, one MiG-29 ("29+09") was destroyed during an accident on 25 June 1996 due to pilot error. By 2003, German Air Force pilots had flown over 30,000 hours in the MiG-29. In September 2003, 22 of the 23 remaining machines were sold to the Polish Air Force for the symbolic price of €1 per item. The last aircraft were transferred in August 2004. The 23rd MiG-29 ("29+03") was put on display at Laage.
The first 12 MiG-29 (nine MiG-29As, three MiG-29UB) were delivered to Poland in 1989–1990. The aircraft were based at Mińsk Mazowiecki and used by the 1st Fighter Aviation Regiment, which was reorganized in 2001 as 1 Eskadra Lotnictwa Taktycznego (1. elt), or 1st Tactical Squadron (TS). In 1995–1996, 10 used examples were acquired from the Czech Republic (nine MiG-29As, one MiG-29UB). After the retirement of its MiG-23s in 1999, and MiG-21s in 2004, Poland was left for a time with only these 22 MiG-29s in the interceptor role.
In 2004 Poland received 22 MiG-29s from the German Air Force. A total of 14 of these were overhauled and taken into service, equipping the 41st Tactical Squadron (41. elt) and replacing its MiG-21s. At present Poland has 32 active MiG-29s (26 MiG-29As, six MiG-29UB) which will serve at least until 2013–2015. They are currently stationed with the 1st Tactical Squadron at the 23rd Air Base near Mińsk Mazowiecki and the 41st TS at the 22nd Air Base near Malbork. As of 2008, Poland is the biggest NATO MiG-29 user. The possibility of modernising the fighters to enable them to serve until 2020–2025 is being contemplated, depending on whether cooperation with Mikoyan can be established.
There have been unconfirmed reports that Poland had at one point leased a MiG-29 from their own inventory to Israel for evaluation and the aircraft has since been returned to Poland, as suggested by photographs of a MiG-29 in Israeli use. Three Polish MiG-29A were reported in Israel for evaluation between April and May 1997 at Negev desert. On 7 September 2011 the Polish Air Force awarded a contract to the WZL 2 company to modernise its MiG-29 fleet to be compatible with Polish F-16s.
Four MiG-29s from 1. elt performed Baltic Air Policing Quick Reaction Alert mission in 2006, while 41. elt aircraft in 2008, 2010 and 2012. Polish MiG-29s played the aggressor role in NATO Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) joint training program in Albacete, Spain in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Spare parts for these aircraft have been difficult to acquire since the start of the conflict in Ukraine in 2014 due to the sanctions and counter-sanctions that followed.
Iraq received a number of MiG-29 fighters, and used MiG-29s to engage Iranian equivalent opponents during the later stages of the Iran-Iraq War. One Iraqi MiG-29 was downed by an Iranian F-14 Tomcat using the modified MIM-23 Hawk.
MiG-29s also saw combat in the 1991 Persian Gulf War with the Iraqi Air Force. Five MiG-29s were shot down by USAF F-15s. Some Russian sources reported that one British Panavia Tornado, ZA467, was shot down in northwestern Iraq by a MiG-29. UK sources claim this Tornado to have crashed on 22 January on a mission to Ar Rutbah. Other Iraqi air-to-air kills are reported in Russian sources, where the US claims other cases of combat damage, such as a B-52 which the US claims was hit by friendly fire, when an AGM-88 High-speed, Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; bomber was subsequently renamed "In HARM's Way".
Iraq's original fleet of 37 MiG-29s was reduced to 12 after the Gulf War. One MiG-29 was damaged, and four were evacuated to Iran. The remaining 12 aircraft were withdrawn from use in 1995 because the engines needed to be overhauled but Iraq could not send them off for that work.
After the American-led 2003 invasion of Iraq and disbandment of the Ba'athist Iraqi Army in May of the same year, the remaining Russian-made and Chinese-made fighters of Iraqi forces had been decommissioned.
Syrian Arab Air Force MiG-29s have sometimes encountered Israeli fighter and reconnaissance aircraft. Two Israeli F-15Cs reportedly shot down two MiG-29As on 2 June 1989 under unclear circumstances.
Further reports claim that on 14 September 2001 two Syrian Air Force MiG-29s were shot down by two Israeli F-15Cs while the MiGs were intercepting an Israeli reconnaissance aircraft off the coast of Lebanon. However, both Syria and Israel deny that this occurred.
There have been occasional claims regarding the use of Sudanese Air Force MiG-29s against insurgent forces in Darfur. However, whereas Mi-24 combat helicopters as well as A-5 or, more recently, Su-25 ground-attack aircraft have been spotted and photographed on Darfurian air fields, no MiG-29s have been observed. On 10 May 2008, a Darfur rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) mounted an assault on the Sudanese capital. During this action, the JEM shot down a Sudanese Air Force MiG-29 with 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm heavy machine gun fire while it was attacking a convoy of vehicles in the Khartoum suburb of Omdurman. The aircraft was piloted by a Russian mercenary. He was killed in action as his parachute did not open after ejecting.
During the brief 2012 South Sudan–Sudan border conflict, on 4 April 2012, Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) claimed the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29 using antiaircraft guns. The Sudan government denied the claim. On 16 April 2012, the SPLA issued a second claim about the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29. It was not clear if this second claim referred to the previous one.
In 1997, the United States purchased 21 Moldovan MiG-29 aircraft under the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. Fourteen were MiG-29Ss, which are equipped with an active radar jammer in its spine and are capable of being armed with nuclear weapons. Part of the United States’ motive to purchase these aircraft was to prevent them from being sold to "rogue states", especially Iran. This purchase could also provide the tactical jet fighter communities of the USAF, the USN and the USMC with a working evaluation and data for the MiG-29, and possibly for use in dissimilar air combat training. Such information may prove valuable in any future conflicts and can aid in the design and testing of current and future weapons platforms. In late 1997, the MiGs were delivered to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio, though many of the former Moldovan MiG-29s are believed to have been scrapped. Some of these MiG-29s are currently on open display at Nellis AFB, Nevada; NAS Fallon, Nevada; Goodfellow AFB, Texas; and Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
The Korean People's Air Force is believed to operate about 40 MiG-29Bs and MiG-29SEs divided into the 55th and 57th fighter regiments based at Sunchon and Onchon, respectively. These were first encountered and photographed by the USAF in March 2003 when a pair of KPAF MiG-29s intercepted an USAF RC-135S reconnaissance aircraft.
According to some reports, in the 1999 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, a number of Eritrean MiG-29s were shot down by Ethiopian Su-27s piloted by Russian mercenaries. There are also some other reports of Eritrean MiG-29s shooting down two Ethiopian MiG-21s, three MiG-23s, and an Su-25.
In December 2008, Russia moved to expand its military influence in the Middle East when it announced it was giving Lebanon 10 fighter jets, that would have been the most significant upgrade of Lebanon's military since the civil war ended almost two decades before. A Russian defense ministry representative said it was giving secondhand MiG-29s to Lebanon for free. This was to be part of a defense cooperation deal that would have seen Moscow train Lebanese military personnel. On 29 February 2010, Russia agreed to change the offer to 10 Mi-24 attack helicopters based on a Lebanese request.
Original Soviet variants
- MiG-29 (Product 9.12)
- Initial production version; entered service in 1983. NATO reporting name is "Fulcrum-A". 9.12A is the downgraded export version for Warsaw Pact while the 9.12B is the downgraded export version for non-Warsaw Pact nations. It lacks a nuclear weapon delivery system and has initial production radar, ECM and IFF (no ECM and IFF in 9.12B).
- MiG-29UB (Product 9.51)
- Twin seat training model. Infra-red sensor mounted only, no radar. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-B". Export variant had downgraded systems similar to MiG-29 9.12.
Upgraded variants based on original airframe
- MiG-29S (Product 9.13)
- The MiG-29S, given the NATO reporting code "Fulcrum-C", features flight control system improvements; a total of four new computers provide better stability augmentation and controllability with an increase of 2° in angle of attack (AoA). An improved mechanical-hydraulic flight control system allows for greater control surface deflections. The MiG-29S has a dorsal hump, which led to its nickname "Fatback", houses the L-203BE Gardenyia-1 ECM system. The MiG-29S can carry 1,150 liter (304 US gallon, 2,000 lb) under wing drop tanks and a centerline tank. The inboard underwing hardpoints allow a tandem pylon arrangement for carrying a larger payload of 4,000 kg (8,820 lb). Overall maximum gross weight has been raised to 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Build only for domestic use. Early MiG-29S featured an IRST sighting system; the MiG-29S improvement kit includes the Phazotron N019M radar and Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) to reduce dependence on ground support equipment; MiG MAPO designates this as MiG-29SD. Improvements to software and processing capabilities enables the tracking of up to 10 targets and the simultaneous engagement of two with the R-77 missile. The MiG-29S also has a limited ground-attack capability.
- Export model of MiG-29S with slightly downgraded N-019ME radar with multiple target tracking ability and RVV-AE (R-77 missile) compatibility. The first export model MiG-29 with underwing drop tanks; the inner underwing pylons can carry over 500 kg bombs in side by side tandem pairs. Its weapons mix includes R-27T1, R-27ER1 and R-27ET1 medium-range missiles. The aircraft can be fitted with active ECM systems, weapons guidance aids, improved built-in check and training systems. The MiG-29SE can simultaneously engage two air targets.
- MiG-29SM (Product 9.13M)
- Similar to the 9.13, but with the ability to carry guided air-to-surface missiles and TV- and laser-guided bombs. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-C".
- MiG-29SM (SyAF)
- For the Syrian Air Force, and based on the MiG-29SM, except the Syrian MiG-29SM uses the 9.12 airframe. RAC MiG developed a special variant for Syria.
- East German MiG-29 / 29UB upgraded to NATO standards, with work done by MiG Aircraft Product Support GmbH (MAPS), a joint venture company form between MiG Moscow Aviation Production Association and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace in 1993.
- MiG-29AS/MiG-29UBS (MiG-29SD)
- Slovak Air Force performed an upgrade on their MiG-29/-29UB for NATO compatibility. Work is done by RAC MiG and Western firms, starting from 2005. The aircraft now has navigation and communications systems from Rockwell Collins, an IFF system from BAE Systems, new glass cockpit features multi-function LC displays and digital processors and also fitted to be integrate with Western equipment in the future. However, the armaments of the aircraft remain unchanged. 12 out of 21 of the entire MiG-29 fleet were upgraded and had been delivered as of late February 2008.
- MiG-29 Sniper
- Upgrade planned for Romanian Air Force, by Israeli firms. First flight occurred on 5 May 2000. The program was halted along with the retiring of Romanian MiG-29s in 2003. The latter occurred because of high maintenance costs, which led to the Romanian Government's decision to halt the MiG-29 program and further invest in the MiG-21 LanceR program.
- MiG-29SMT (Product 9.17)
- The MiG-29SMT is an upgrade package for first-generation MiG-29s (9.12 to 9.13) containing enhancements intended for the MiG-29M variant. Additional fuel tanks in a further enlarged spine provide a maximum flight range of 2,100 km on internal fuel. The cockpit has an enhanced HOTAS design, two 152 × 203 mm (6 × 8-inch) colour liquid crystal MFDs and two smaller monochrome LCDs. The MiG-29A was not designed for an advanced air-to-ground capability, this is substantially improved by the SMT upgrade; features include air-to-ground radar detection and integrated air-to-ground guided weapons. The upgraded Zhuk-ME radar provides similar features to the MiG-29M. The power plant are upgraded RD-33 ser.3 engines with afterburning thrust rated at 8,300 kgf (81.4 kN) each. The weapons load was increased to 4,500 kg on six underwing and one ventral hardpoints, with similar weapon choices as for the MiG-29M. The upgraded aircraft can also accomidate non-Russian origin avionics and weapons.
- "The MiG-29BM (probably Belorussian Modernised, possibly Bolyshaya Modernizaciya – large modernization) is an upgrade to the MiG-29 conducted by the ARZ-558 aircraft repair plant in Baranovichi, Belarus. The MiG-29BM is a strike variant of the MiG-29 pure fighter, the Belarusian counterpart to the Russian MiG-29SMT." It includes improvements to weapons, radar, as well as adding non-retractable air-air refueling ability.
- MiG-29UBT (Product 9.51T)
- SMT standard upgrade for the MiG-29UB. Namely users, Algeria and Yemen.
- The Indian UPG version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite integrated within it, in the so called, "international avionics suite". The weapons suite is the same as the SMT and K/KUB versions. The design is a new modification intended for the MiG-29s used by Indian Air Force. It made its maiden flight on 4 February 2011. The standard includes the new Zhuk-M radar, new avionics, a IFR probe as well as new enhanced RD-33 series 3 turbofan engines. The modernization is part of a $900 million contract to upgrade the 69 fighters fleet. In 2012, RAC MiG general director's stated the UPG version was the "most advanced" MiG-29 variant.
- MiG-29SMP / MiG-29UBP
- Upgrade for the Peruvian Air Force MiG-29 fleet. In August 2008 a contract of US$ 106 million was signed with RAC MiG for this custom SM upgrade of an initial batch of eight MiG-29, with a provision for upgrade of the remainder of the Peruvian MiG-29 fleet. The single-seat version is designated SMP, whereas the twin-seat version is designated UBP.
- The SMP standard features an improved ECM suite, avionics, sensors, pilot interface, and a MIL-STD-1553 databus. The interfaces include improved IRST capabilities for enhanced passive detection and tracking as well as better off-boresight launch capabilities, one MFCD and HOTAS. The N019M1 radar, a heavily modified and upgraded digital version of the N019 radar, is used instead of the standard N010 Zhuk-M used on the MiG-29SMT. The upgrade also includes a structural life-extension program (SLEP), the overhaul, upgrade of the original engines and the installation of an in-flight refuelling probe.
- Ukrainian modernization of MiG-29. Range of detection of air targets increased up to 29% (up to 100 km in the forward hemisphere and up to 45 km - at the rear).
Second generation variants with modified airframe
- MiG-29M / MiG-33 (Product 9.15)
- Advanced multirole variant, with a redesigned airframe, mechanical flight controls replaced by a fly-by-wire system and powered by enhanced RD-33 ser.3M engines. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-E".
- MiG-29UBM (Product 9.61)
- Two-seat training variant of the MiG-29M. Never built. Effectively continued under the designation 'MiG-29M2'.
- MiG-29M2 / MiG-29MRCA
- Two-seat version of MiG-29M. Identical characteristics to MiG-29M, with a slightly reduced ferry range of 1,800 km. RAC MiG presented in various air shows, including Fifth China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition (CIAAE 2004), Aero India 2005, MAKS 2005. It was once given designation MiG-29MRCA for marketing purpose and now evolved into the current MiG-35.
- The aircraft is one of the six pre-built MiG-29Ms before 1991, later received thrust vectoring engine and fly-by-wire technology. It served as a thrust-vectoring engine testbed and technology demonstrator in various air shows to show future improvement in the MiG-29M. It has identical avionics to the MiG-29M. The only difference in the cockpit layout is an additional switch to turn on vector thrust function. The two RD-133 thrust-vectoring engines, each features unique 3D rotating nozzles which can provide thrust vector deflection in all directions. However, despite its thrust-vectoring, other specifications were not officially emphasized. The aircraft is being demonstrated along with the MiG-29M2 in various air shows around the world for potential export. The aircraft is usually used as an aerobatic demonstrator.
- MiG-29K (Product 9.31)
- Naval variant based on MiG-29M, the letter "K" stands for "Korabelnogo bazirovaniya" (deck-based). It features folding wings, arrestor gear, and reinforced landing gear. Originally intended for the Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, it had received series production approval from the Russian Ministry of Defence but was grounded in 1992 due to shift in military doctrine and financial difficulties. The MiG Corporation restarted the program in 1999. On 20 January 2004, the Indian Navy signed a contract of 12 single-seat MiG-29K and four two-seat MiG-29KUB. Modifications were made for the Indian Navy requirement. Production MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB share a two-seater size canopy. The MiG-29K has radar absorbing coatings to reduce radar signature. Cockpit displays consist of wide HUD and three (seven on MiG-29KUB) colour LCD MFDs with a Topsight E helmet-mounted targeting system. It has a full range of weapons compatible with the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
- MiG-29KUB (Product 9.47)
- Identical characteristic to the MiG-29K but with tandem twin seat configuration. The design is to serve as trainer for MiG-29K pilot and is full combat capable. The first MiG-29KUB developed for the Indian Navy made its maiden flight at the Russian Zhukovsky aircraft test centre on 22 January 2007. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
- A recently unveiled mature development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-F".
- North Korea
- Russian Air Force - 28 MiG-29SMT, 6 MiG-29 UBT. These were originally built for Algiers, but were rejected due to manufacturing issues in 2007. 16 MiG-29SMT ordered on to be delivered by the end of 2016. On 13 October 2015, 31st Fighter Aviation Regiment (the last unit equipped with Soviet build MiG-29s) of the 1st Combined Aviation Division, 4th Army of VVS and PVO, received the first 3 Su-30SM. The regiment is to receive more than 20 Su-30SMs by the end of 2015.
- United States – Used by private defense contractor Air USA for adversary training services.
- Czechoslovakia – Received 18 MiG-29s and two MiG-29UB aircraft. Six were capable of delivering nuclear weapons, the necessary equipment for this was removed as per the CFE treaty. All passed onto successor states.
- Czech Republic – Inherited nine MiG-29 and one MiG-29UB. All sold to Poland in 1995 in exchange for 11 W-3A Sokol helicopters. Replaced with JAS 39 Gripen.
- East Germany – 24 absorbed into the West German Air Force upon reunification.
- Germany – One crashed, one on display, 22 sold to Poland
- Hungary – 28 in inventory as of January 2011. The last fighter was retired in December 2010. In 2011 the Hungarian government intended to sell six MiG-29B and two MiG-29UB aircraft. Replaced with JAS 39 Gripen but kept in reserve if needed.
- Iraq – Received 37 MiG-29s during Saddam Hussein's era. These were destroyed or written off.
- Israel – leased from Poland in 1997.
- Moldova – not operational, six MiG-29S in storage. In the 1990s, a total of six were sold to the USA for type evaluation testing.
- Romania – 17 MiG-29 and five MiG-29UB were delivered in 1989—1990. Withdrawn from service in 2003.
- Serbia and Montenegro – Inherited from Yugoslavia, six shot down in 1999.
- Soviet Union - Passed on to successor states.
- Yugoslavia – 14 MiG-29 and 2 MiG-29UB, passed on to FRY/SCG.
Aircraft on display
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2011)|
There are several museums in Russia that display MiG-29s:
- Three are displayed at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino near Moscow. The first two are a prototype and an early production model (both with ventral fins), and the third is a MiG-29KVP.
- MiG-29 "9–13" is on display of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow on the Poklonnaya Hill.
- A MiG-29, Red 02 is on display at the Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow.
In India, 2 MiGs-29s are preserved:
- One (KB-732) Serves as a Gate Guardian at Ozhar AFB Nasik Maharastra.
- One (KB-741) is displayed at the Technical Type Training (TETTRA) School in Pune Maharastra.
Several MiG-29s are on display in Europe:
- One MiG-29 is on display at the Muzeum Wojska Polskiego in Warsaw, Poland.
- Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków has a MiG-29, which served in the Polish Air Force.
- One MiG-29 is on display in Germany. The only remaining German MiG-29G (29+03) was on display in Laage before being moved to the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr in Berlin's Gatow Airport in 2006 as part of the exhibition "50 Jahre Luftwaffe".
- No. 67 (MiG-29 Sniper prototype) is on display at the Romania Muzeul Aviatiei, Bucharest.
- The second MiG-29UB prototype (9–52) is on display at the Riga Aviation Museum, in Riga, Latvia. After 213 test flights around Moscow between 23 August 1982 and 10 April 1986, it was disassembled and parts of the wings and tails were re-used in prototype (9–16). The remains were shipped to Riga Military Aviation Engineers High School, and later handed over to the Riga Aviation Museum in 1994, where it is currently displayed. The remains of this prototype is in a very bad condition, with open fuselage panels and a partly broken canopy.
MiG-29s are currently on display in the United States at the following locations:
- Goodfellow AFB in Texas
- NAS Fallon Airpark at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada.
- Two MiG-29s in Soviet and Moldavian colors are on display at Nellis AFB in Nevada. One MiG-29 in better shape is displayed inside the USAF Warfare Center's Threat Training Facility alongside a MiG-23.
- An early MiG-29A (s/n 2960516761) is on display in the Cold War Gallery of the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. It was formerly assigned to the 234th Gvardeiskii Istrebitelnii Aviatsionnii Polk (234th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment) stationed at Kubinka (air base) near Moscow. This aircraft was one of six MiG-29s that made a good will visit to Kuopio-Rissala, Finland, in July 1986, an event that marked the first public display of the MiG-29.
- One former Moldovan MiG-29S is currently on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
- A MiG-29 is on display near the entrance at the Pima Air and Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.
- A MiG-29 from the former Moldovan group is on display at the Evergreen Aviation and Space Museum in McMinnville, Oregon, painted in Russian markings.
- One MiG-29UB is on display at the NASIC headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
In private ownership
- MiG-29UB (civilian registration N29UB) is owned by the Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Washington, US. The aircraft was obtained from Eastern Europe in early 2009. The aircraft has an FAA approved maintenance program and is flyable.
- A private collector, Don Kirlin, has two MiG-29s purchased from Kyrgyzstan. The aircraft were located at the Quincy Regional Airport in Quincy, Illinois. As of 2010, they had an FAA approved maintenance program and were flyable, operated as part of Air USA's "Red Air" operation. As of 2014, Air USA had two MiG-29s registered in Nevada available for contract training and flight testing.
- Two MiG-29UBs in flying condition were offered for sale from Eastern Europe in spring 2009. These aircraft come from the same source as the flyable aircraft owned by the Historic Flight Foundation.
- As of 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration listed five privately owned MiG-29s in the U.S.
- The MiG-29 is available for flights of civilian passengers. Civilian flights started due to financial problems on Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky, Russia. Those flights in Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 stopped in July 2006, when civilian flights in MiG-29 and Mikoyan MiG-31 started from Nizhny Novgorod.
Data from MiG specifications
- Crew: 1
- Length: 17.37 m (57 ft)
- Wingspan: 11.4 m (37 ft 3 in)
- Height: 4.73 m (15 ft 6 in)
- Wing area: 38 m² (409 ft²)
- Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,250 lb)
- Loaded weight: 15,300 kg (33,730 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 20,000 kg (44,100 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Klimov RD-33 afterburning turbofans, 8,300 kgf (81.4 kN, 18,300 lbf) each
- Fuel capacity: 3,500 kg. (7,716 lbs.) internal
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.25 (2,400 km/h, 1,490 mph) At low altitude: Mach 1.25 (1,500 km/h, 930 mph)
- Range: 1,430 km (772 nmi, 888 mi) with maximum internal fuel
- Ferry range: 2,100 km (1,300 mi) with external drop tanks
- Service ceiling: 18,013 m (59,100 ft)
- Rate of climb: initial 330 m/s average 109 m/s 0–6000 m (65,000 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 403 kg/m² (82 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 1.09
- Maximum design g-load: +9 g
- 1 x 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds
- 7 Hard points: 6 x pylons under-wing, 1 x under fuselage
- Up to 3,500 kg (7,720 lb) of weapons including six air-to-air missiles — a mix of semi-active radar homing (SARH)/infrared homing R-60, R-27, R-73, active radar homing R-77, RBK-500, PB-250, FAB-250, FAB 500-M62, TN-100, ECM Pods, S-8 rockets, S-24 rockets, Kh-25, Kh-29
Notable appearances in media
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo
- Dassault Mirage 2000
- General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
- McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
- Related lists
- "Products: Military Programs." migavia.ru/eng. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- Gordon and Davison 2005, p. 61.
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- Gordon and Davison 2005, p. 9.
- Vietnam People's Air Force
- Jenkins 1998, pp. 9–11.
- Spick 2000, pp. 488–489, 512–513.
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- Lambert 1993, p. 238.
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