Directorate of Military Intelligence (United Kingdom)
|Jurisdiction||Government of the United Kingdom|
|Parent department||War Office|
Over its lifetime the Directorate underwent a number of organisational changes, absorbing and shedding sections over time.
The first instance of an organisation which would later become the DMI was the Department of Topography & Statistics, formed by Major Thomas Best Jervis, late of the Bombay Engineer Corps, in 1854 in the early stages of the Crimean War.
In 1873 the Intelligence Branch was created within the Quartermaster General's Department with an initial staff of seven officers. Initially the Intelligence Branch was solely concerned with collecting intelligence, but under the leadership of Henry Brackenbury, a protege of influential Adjutant-General Lord Wolseley, it was increasingly concerned with planning. However despite these steps towards a nascent general staff the Intelligence Branch remained a purely advisory body, something that sharply limited its influence. The Branch was transferred to the Adjutant General's Department in 1888 and Brackenbury's title was changed to Director of Military Intelligence.
After Wolseley's appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in 1895 he made the Director of Military Intelligence directly responsible to him. At the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899 the Intelligence Branch had 13 officers. Prior to the war it produced a highly accurate summary of the Boer republics' military potential and was the only part of the War Office to escape criticism in the resulting Royal Commission. In the immediate aftermath of the Boer War the Intelligence Branch was enlarged and its head elevated to Director General of Mobilisation and Military Intelligence.
Following the Esher Report in 1904 the War Office was dramatically reorganized. The post of Commander-in-Chief was abolished and replaced by the Chief of the General Staff. Planning and intelligence would be the responsibility of the Directorate of Military Operations.
During World War I, British secret services were divided into numbered sections named Military Intelligence, department number x, abbreviated to MIx, such as MI1 for information management. The branch, department, section, and sub-section numbers varied through the life of the department, however examples include:
|Name||World War I||World War II|
|MI1||Secretariat, including :
|MI2||Geographical information (Americas, Latin countries, Balkans, Ottoman Empire, Trans-Caucasus, Arabia, Africa less French and Spanish possessions)||Information on Middle and Far East, Scandinavia, US, USSR, Central and South America.|
|MI3||Geographical Information (rest of European countries)||Information on Eastern Europe and the Baltic Provinces (plus USSR and Scandinavia after summer 1941).|
|MI4||Topographical information and military maps||Geographical section—maps (transferred to Military Operations in April 1940).|
|MI5||Counter-espionage and military policy in dealing with the civil population (the former Home Section of the Secret Service Bureau)||Liaison with the Security Service (counterintelligence)|
|MI6||Legal and economic section dealing with the MI finance as well as economic intelligence and personnel records. Monitoring arms trafficking.||Liaison with Secret Intelligence Service|
|MI7||Press censorship and propaganda||Press and propaganda (transferred to Ministry of Information in May 1940).|
|MI8||Cable censorship||Signals interception and communications security. Merged into MI6 in 1941.|
|MI9||Postal censorship||Escaped British PoW debriefing, escape and evasion (also: enemy PoW interrogation until 1941).|
|MI10||Foreign Military Attaches||Technical Intelligence worldwide|
|MI11||Military Security. Disbanded at the end of WWII.|
|MI12||Liaison with censorship organisations in Ministry of Information, military censorship.|
|MI14||Germany and German-occupied territories (aerial photography until spring 1943).|
|MI15||Aerial photography. In the spring of 1943, aerial photography moved to the Air Ministry and MI15 became air defence intelligence.|
|MI16||Scientific Intelligence (formed 1945).|
|MI17||Secretariat for Director of Military Intelligence from April 1943.|
|MI19||Enemy prisoner of war interrogation (formed from MI9 in December 1941).|
|Others||MIR: Information on Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, China, Japan, Siam and India||MI (JIS): ″Axis planning staff″ related to Joint Intelligence Staff, a sub-group of the Joint Intelligence Committee.|
|MI L: Attaches.|
|MI L(R): Russian Liaison.|
Two MI section-names remain in common use, MI5 and MI6, in most part due to their use in spy fiction and the news media.
"MI5" is used as the short form name of the Security Service, is included in the agency's logo and web address. MI6 is included as an alias on the Secret Intelligence Service website, though the official abbreviation, SIS, is predominant.
Directors of Military Intelligence
Directors of Military Intelligence have been:
Deputy Quartermaster General, Intelligence Branch
- 1873-1878 Patrick Leonard MacDougall
- 1878-1882 Archibald Alison
- 1882-1886 Aylmer Cameron (Assistant Quartermaster General, Intelligence Branch)
- 1886–1888 Henry Brackenbury
Director of Military Intelligence
Director General of Mobilisation and Military Intelligence
- 1901–1904 William Nicholson
Director of Military Operations
Director of Military Intelligence
Director of Military Operations and Intelligence
- 1922–1923 William Thwaites
- 1923–1926 John Burnett-Stuart
- 1926–1931 Ronald Charles
- 1931–1934 William Henry Bartholomew
- 1934–1936 John Greer Dill
- 1936–1938 Robert Hadden Haining
- 1938–1939 Henry Royds Pownall
Director of Military Intelligence
- 1939–1940 Frederick Beaumont-Nesbitt
- 1940–1944 Francis Henry Norman Davidson
- 1944–1945 John Alexander Sinclair
- 1945–1946 Freddie de Guingand
- 1946–1948 Gerald Templer
- 1948–1949 Douglas Packard
- 1949–1953 Arthur Shortt
- 1953–1956 Valentine Boucher
- 1956–1959 Cedric Rhys Price
- 1959–1962 Richard Eyre Lloyd
- 1962–1965 Marshall St John Oswald
- "History of the Ministry of Defence". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- The Puppet Masters, John Hughes-Wilson, Cassell, London, 2004
- Wade, Stephen (2007). Spies in the Empire: Victorian Military Intelligence. Anthem Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780857287014. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Dylan, p. 184
- "SIS Records — War Office Military Intelligence (MI) Sections in the First World War". Sis.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 26 August 2006.
- "SIS Records — War Office Military Intelligence (MI)Sections in the Second World War". Sis.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 26 August 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Aldrich, Richard James (1998). Espionage, security, and intelligence in Britain, 1945–1970. Manchester University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7190-4956-9.
- "Army senior appointments" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Dylan, Huw (2014). Defence Intelligence and the Cold War: Britain's Joint Intelligence Bureau 1945–1964. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199657025.