MKX

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MKX
Identifiers
AliasesMKX, C10orf48, IFRX, IRXL1, mohawk homeobox
External IDsMGI: 2687286 HomoloGene: 72239 GeneCards: MKX
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 10 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 10 (human)[1]
Chromosome 10 (human)
Genomic location for MKX
Genomic location for MKX
Band10p12.1Start27,672,874 bp[1]
End27,746,060 bp[1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001242702
NM_173576

NM_177595

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001229631
NP_775847

NP_808263

Location (UCSC)Chr 10: 27.67 – 27.75 MbChr 18: 6.93 – 7 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Homeobox protein Mohawk, also known as iroquois homeobox protein-like 1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKX (mohawk homeobox) gene.[5] MKX is a member of an Iroquois (IRX) family-related class of 'three-amino acid loop extension' (TALE) atypical homeobox proteins characterized by 3 additional amino acids in the loop region between helix I and helix II of the homeodomain.[5][6]

Function[edit]

MKX is a transcription factor that regulates tendon differentiation during embryological development. Knocking out this gene in mouse embryos results in them developing hypoplastic tendons containing less type I collagen.[7] MKX binds directly to the promoter of MyoD and represses its expression, negatively regulating muscle differentiation.[8]

Expression of MKX is maintained in adult tendon tissues, decreasing as a result of ageing or osteoarthritis. Collagen fibres in tendons become more dense and thick following mechanical stimulation as a result of exercise,[9] and MKX is essential in this mechanosensory process.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150051 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000061013 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: mohawk homeobox".
  6. ^ Anderson DM, Arredondo J, Hahn K, Valente G, Martin JF, Wilson-Rawls J, Rawls A (March 2006). "Mohawk is a novel homeobox gene expressed in the developing mouse embryo". Developmental Dynamics. 235 (3): 792–801. doi:10.1002/dvdy.20671. PMID 16408284.
  7. ^ Ito Y, Toriuchi N, Yoshitaka T, Ueno-Kudoh H, Sato T, Yokoyama S, Nishida K, Akimoto T, Takahashi M, Miyaki S, Asahara H (June 2010). "The Mohawk homeobox gene is a critical regulator of tendon differentiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (23): 10538–42. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10710538I. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000525107. PMC 2890854. PMID 20498044.
  8. ^ Chuang HN, Hsiao KM, Chang HY, Wu CC, Pan H (July 2014). "The homeobox transcription factor Irxl1 negatively regulates MyoD expression and myoblast differentiation". The FEBS Journal. 281 (13): 2990–3003. doi:10.1111/febs.12837. PMID 24814716.
  9. ^ Nakahara H, Hasegawa A, Otabe K, Ayabe F, Matsukawa T, Onizuka N, Ito Y, Ozaki T, Lotz MK, Asahara H (August 2013). "Transcription factor Mohawk and the pathogenesis of human anterior cruciate ligament degradation". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 65 (8): 2081–9. doi:10.1002/art.38020. PMC 3840305. PMID 23686683.
  10. ^ Kayama T, Mori M, Ito Y, Matsushima T, Nakamichi R, Suzuki H, Ichinose S, Saito M, Marumo K, Asahara H (April 2016). "Gtf2ird1-Dependent Mohawk Expression Regulates Mechanosensing Properties of the Tendon". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 36 (8): 1297–309. doi:10.1128/MCB.00950-15. PMC 4836271. PMID 26884464.

Further reading[edit]

  • Robertson NG, Khetarpal U, Gutiérrez-Espeleta GA, Bieber FR, Morton CC (September 1994). "Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear cDNA library using subtractive hybridization and differential screening". Genomics. 23 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1457. PMID 7829101.
  • Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (September 2005). "In silico characterization of an Iroquois family-related homeodomain protein". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 16 (3): 443–8. doi:10.3892/ijmm.16.3.443. PMID 16077953.
  • Anderson DM, Arredondo J, Hahn K, Valente G, Martin JF, Wilson-Rawls J, Rawls A (March 2006). "Mohawk is a novel homeobox gene expressed in the developing mouse embryo". Developmental Dynamics. 235 (3): 792–801. doi:10.1002/dvdy.20671. PMID 16408284.
  • Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M, Andersson-Svahn H (March 2008). "Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 7 (3): 499–508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.