Men who have sex with men blood donor controversy
The men who have sex with men blood donor controversy is the dispute over prohibitions on donations of blood or tissue for organ transplants from men who have sex with men (MSM), a classification of men who engage (or have engaged in the past) in sex with other men, regardless of whether they identify themselves as bisexual, gay, or otherwise. Opposition to the prohibition is frequently addressed in terms of bisexual and gay men. Restrictions on donors are sometimes called "deferrals", since blood donors who are found ineligible may be found eligible at a later date. Many deferrals are indefinite, however, meaning that these blood donors may not be accepted at any point in the future. The restrictions vary from country to country, and in many cases, men are deferred even though they always have protected sex or have not had sex with men for many years. The restrictions affect these men, and, in some cases, any female sex partners. They do not otherwise affect other women, including women who have sex with women. Opponents of many of the deferrals point out that these policies are not supported by medical science.
Many LGBT organizations view the restrictions on donation as based on homophobia and not based on valid medical concern since donations are rigorously tested to rule out donors that are infected with known viruses such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They state the deferrals are based on stereotypes. Proponents of the lifetime restriction defend it because of the risk of false negative test results and because the MSM population in developed countries tends to have a relatively high prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection. The UK government advisory committee, SABTO, states that the risk of transfusion of HIV infected blood would increase if MSM were allowed to donate blood. Opponents of prohibitions against MSM point out that screening of donors should focus on sexual behavior as well as safe sex practices since many MSM may always have protected sex, be monogamous, or be in other low risk categories. Some groups in favor of lifting the restrictions support a waiting period after the blood is donated when the donor is considered to have had behavior considered higher risk, and before it is used, to match the blood bank's window of testing methods. Depending on the testing method used, the window to detect HIV can be as short as 7 to 21 days (RNA testing), or as long as three months (serology testing method). However, there is a small percentage of the population at 3% who still will not test positive after 3 months with serology testing.
- 1 HIV/AIDS
- 2 Current situation
- 3 Reasoning for the restrictions
- 4 Criticism of the restrictions
- 5 Protests and boycotts
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In the United States in 2005, MSM, African Americans, and persons engaging in high-risk heterosexual behavior accounted for respectively 49%, 49%, and 32% of new HIV diagnoses. In 2009 in the United States, African Americans accounted for 47.9% of new HIV diagnoses reported that year, but represented approximately only 12% of the population.
|Parts of this article (those related to policies and events) are outdated. (March 2012)|
List of countries with their stand on MSM blood donors
|Country||Deferral for MSM||Deferral for female
sex partners of MSM
|Argentina||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Australia||1 year||1 year|||
|Bhutan||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Brazil||1 year||1 year|||
|Bulgaria||No deferral|||
|Canada||5 years||1 year|||
|Chile||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Colombia||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Czech Republic||1 year||1 year|||
|Israel||Indefinite A||No deferral|||
|Italy||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Latvia||No deferral B||No deferral B|||
|Mexico||No deferral||No deferral|||
|New Zealand||1 year||1 year|||
|Peru||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Poland||No deferral B||No deferral B|||
|Portugal||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Russia||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Serbia||1 year|||
|South Africa||No deferral||No deferral|||
|South Korea||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Slovakia||1 year|||
|Spain||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Sweden||1 year||1 year|||
|Thailand||No deferral||No deferral|||
|United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland)||1 year||1 year|||
|United States||indefinite C||1 year|
|Uruguay||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Venezuela||Indefinite D||No deferral|||
- ^A No restriction if last MSM activity was before 1977.
- ^B People of any sexual orientation involved in any kind of sexual activity are welcome to donate blood, if they are confident that their sexual behaviour is safe and does not expose them to sexually transmitted diseases by e.g. unprotected sex with non-trusted partners, regardless of sexual orientation.
- ^C No restriction if last MSM activity was before 1977. As of July 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is proposing to change the policy by replacing the indefinite deferral with a 1-year deferral.
- ^D Individuals are requested to fill a "Yes/No" questionnaire about their sexual life. Direct questions like "Have you ever had any sexual intercourse with someone from your same sex?" could appear.
In the US, the current guidance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to indefinitely defer any male donor who has had sex with another man (MSM), in the period from 1977 to the present day. As of July 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is proposing to change the policy by replacing the indefinite deferral with a 1-year deferral.
Female sexual partners of MSM are deferred for one year since the last exposure. This is the same policy used for any sexual partner of someone in a high risk group. The argument used to follow these policies is that blood should be collected from a population that is at low risk for disease, since the tests are not perfect and human error may lead to infected units not being properly discarded, and these population groups would be considered a high risk. The policy was first put in place in 1983 by the FDA, which regulates blood donations to profit and non-profit organizations.
Donors of what the FDA calls "HCT/P's", a category that includes transplants (other than organs) and some reproductive tissue, notably anonymous semen donations, are ineligible for five years after the most recent contact. UNOS policies for Organ donation require the hospital receiving the organ to be notified if the donor was an MSM within the past 5 years. The organs are generally used unless there is a clear positive test for a disease.
History of calls to change the policy
- In 2006, the AABB, American Red Cross, and America's Blood Centers all supported a change from the current US policy of a lifetime deferral of MSM to one year since most recent contact. One model suggested that this change would result in one additional case of HIV transmitted by transfusion every 32.8 years. The AABB has suggested making this change since 1997. The FDA did not accept the proposal and had concerns about the data used to produce the model, citing that additional risk to recipients was not justified.
- On 19 August 2009, the Assembly Judiciary Committee in California passed AJR13, the U.S. Blood Donor Nondiscrimination Resolution, calling upon the FDA to end the MSM blood ban.
- In April 2010, the New York City Council passed a resolution calling on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to eliminate the ban stating "This ban was based on prejudice, a knee-jerk reaction, and misunderstandings about the HIV/AIDS disease. Given the constant need for blood, it does not make common sense to prohibit donations from an entire population."
- On 1 June 2010, the Washington, DC City Council passed a resolution calling on the FDA to "reverse the lifetime deferment of blood donations by men who have had sex with men since 1977 in favor of a policy that protects the safety and integrity of the blood supply that is based on an up-to-date scientific criteria."
- In June 2013, the American Medical Association issued a statement calling on the FDA to change the policy, stating that "The lifetime ban on blood donation for men who have sex with men is discriminatory and not based on sound science."
- In July 2013, the American Osteopathic Association approved a policy calling on the FDA to "end the indefinite deferment period for Men who have sex with Men (MSM)", and to "modify the exclusion criteria for MSM to be consistent with deferrals for those judged to be at an increased risk of infection."
- As of July 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is proposing to change the policy by replacing the indefinite deferral with a 1-year deferral.
The UK (excluding Northern Ireland) lifted its lifetime ban on MSM blood donation in September 2011, and changed the policy to simply restrict men who have had sex with another man within the previous 12 months. The Advisory Committee on the Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs recommended the policy change after a study concluded that a total ban may breach equality legislation and that the risk of HIV reaching the blood supply would only increase by approximately 2%.
A similar policy exists in the rest of the European Union and is the prevailing interpretation of the European Union Directive 2004/33/EC article 2.1 on donor deferrals. The policy, however, is not very specific and refers to "high risk sexual contact."
In Finland, the parliamentary ombudsman launched an investigation on the possible unconstitutionality of the lifetime ban in January 2006. In June 2008, it was concluded that the ban was not unlawful in Finland as it is based on "appropriately reasoned epidemiological information" and because it is related to sexual behaviour rather than sexual orientation. The ombudsman added that people over the age of 65 and people who lived in Britain during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) outbreak are also screened out during blood donor interviews. In December 2013, the Finnish Red Cross blood service announced it was lifting the ban and introducing a one-year deferral instead.
Australia's individual states and territories each had their own policies on blood donations by MSM. Most previously had some form of the indefinite deferral, and they all changed to a 12-month deferral at different times between 1996 (SA) and 2000 (ACT, NSW).
A comparison of confirmed HIV positive blood donations before and after the change did not see a statistically significant difference, though the number of HIV positive blood donations during the period with a 12-month deferral was greater. In all of the cases of HIV positive donations associated with MSM after the 12-month deferral, the donors had lied about their medical history and would not have been eligible under either criterion.
Since 2009, the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) had deferred males who have had oral or anal intercourse, with or without protection, with another male for five years. From the formation of the NZBS in 1998 to 2009, the deferral period had been ten years, but reduced to five years following an independent review of blood donation criteria in 2007-8 which found no significant difference in risk to the blood supply for deferral periods of five years compared to ten years.
In 2014, the NZBS dropped the ban period from 5 years to one year following the recommendation of Medsafe. Their decision was mainly caused by recently gained facts about HIV transmission in Australia  which already had a one-year deferral. The new 12-month deferral has been in effect since 15 December 2014.
The one year deferral period for MSM is on par with the one year deferral period for persons engaging in prostitution outside of New Zealand and people who have resided in a country which has a high (1% or more) HIV prevalence. Females who engage in sexual intercourse with a male who has had sex with another male are also deferred for twelve months.
Reasoning for the restrictions
Blood services first and foremost must ensure that all blood received for donation is safe for transfusion purposes. This is achieved by screening potential donors for high risk behaviors through questionnaires and interviews before blood is taken, and subsequent laboratory testing on samples of donated blood.
Blood services commonly justify their bans against MSM using the statistically higher prevalence of HIV and hepatitis of MSM in population studies.
In the earliest years of the AIDS epidemic, there were no reliable tests for the virus, which justified blanket bans on blood donations from groups at high risk of acquiring or having HIV, including MSM. These restrictions are similar to present-day restrictions in most countries on people residing in the United Kingdom during the BSE ("mad cow disease") epidemic of the 1980s and early-to-mid 1990s, due to the absence of a test for its human form, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD).
In 1985, early tests using the ELISA method looked for antibodies, which are the immune system's response to the virus. However, there is a window period when using this method in which a person who has been infected with HIV is able to spread the disease but may test negative for the virus. This window period can be as long as three to six months, with an average of 22 days. Tests using the ELISA methods are often still used in developed countries because they are highly sensitive. In developing countries, these tests are often the only method used to screen donated blood for HIV. To cover the window period resultant from the use of these tests, donors are also screened for high risk behaviors, one of which is a history of same-sex sexual activity among male potential donors. Other groups with similar restrictions include commercial sex workers, injecting drug users, and people resident in countries with a high HIV prevalence (such as sub-Saharan Africa). Newer tests look for the virus itself, such as the p24 antigen test, which looks for a part on the surface of the virus, and Nucleic acid tests (NAT), which look for the genetic material of the virus. With these tests, the window period is shorter, with an average duration of 12 days. Fourth generation combination HIV tests are conclusive at 3 months, and Hepatitis B tests are conclusive at 6 months.
Risks are also associated with a regular donor testing positive for HIV, which can have major implications as the donor's last donation could have been given within the window period for testing and could have entered the blood supply, potentially infecting blood product recipients. An incident in 2003 in New Zealand saw a regular donor testing positive for HIV and subsequently all blood products made with the donor's last blood donation had to be recalled. This included NZ$4 million worth of Factor VIII, a blood clotting factor used to treat haemophiliacs which is manufactured from large pools of donated plasma, and subsequently led to a natiowide shortage of Factor VIII and the deferral of non-emergency surgery on haemophiliac patients, costing the health sector millions of dollars more. Screening out those at high risk of bloodborne diseases, including MSM, reduces the potential frequency and impact of such incidents.
Criticism of the restrictions
Objections to the restrictions, including those from the American Medical Association and Red Cross, are generally based on the idea that improvements in testing and other safeguards have reduced the risk from transfusion transmitted HIV to an acceptable level. Blood shortages are common, and opponents of the policies point out that excluding healthy donors only makes the problem worse. "Ideal" inventories are at least a three-day supply, but many blood centers struggle to meet this demand.
Further opposition stems from the fact that the ban is a blanket ban encompassing all men who have had sex with another man, even with protection and even if the HIV status of these men's partners is shown beyond doubt to be negative. Opponents point out that a promiscuous heterosexual male is a higher-risk donor than a gay or bisexual man in a monogamous relationship, for example a civil partnership in the United Kingdom, but the former will usually be allowed to donate blood. Additionally, in the United States, a man who has unprotected heterosexual sex with a complete stranger is allowed to donate the next day, whereas a man who has protected homosexual sex is banned from donating for life. Furthermore, other high-risk activities such as having sexual contact with anyone who has used needles to take drugs not prescribed by their doctor have a set deferral period before the donor is allowed to donate blood, whereas in some countries MSM donors are deferred indefinitely. Female donors who have sexual contact with MSM are deferred for only twelve months.
Protests and boycotts
- The students association at Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario voted in 2012 to maintain a ban on blood clinics on campus.
Throughout the 2000s, several boycotts have been held on college campuses across the United States against blood drives. For example, in 2003, a blood drive at the University of Vermont was cancelled to protest the MSM donor policy. In 2007, an Iowa State University student group sparked controversy when they pulled their support for a blood drive. In 2008, a faculty member at Sonoma State University proposed a ban on blood drives on campus, and at San Jose State University President Don Kassing suspended all blood drives on campus. In 2010, students from Keene State College protested blood drives on their campus. On 14 April 2011, The Queens College Academic Senate of The City University of New York recommended that all blood drives on campus should cease. The recommendation was adopted by Queens College President James Muyskens but reversed in June 2011 when the CUNY chancellory expressed its disapproval. A student organization at the University of Michigan, Blood Drives United, has been holding awareness drives in conjunction with their annual blood drive competitions as a means of productively addressing the policy while still collecting blood. These "sponsor" drives allow individuals ineligible to donate because of the policy to bring eligible individuals to donate on their behalf, visually demonstrating that twice as much blood could potentially be collected.
- The National Union of Students LGBT Campaign runs a "Donation Not Discrimination" campaign to have the blood ban revised, while also advocating continued donation by those who are not banned from donating.
- In September 2015, writer & poet RJ Arkhipov organised a performance, Words&Blood, at the CRISIS Festival in Paris, France, during which he read several of his poems and exhibited a series of his poetry written in his own blood. Arkhipov concluded the spoken word performance with his poem "Inkwell", a work intended to bring attention to the MSM blood donor controversy.
- Schoettes, Scott (December 2012). "Blood Donations Questions". Adelante Magazine.
- Stier, Jeff (13 June 2007). "Blood for Sale". HuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- UNAIDS 2006 report on the global AIDS epidemic, Chapter 05, June 2006
- "Homosexual men allowed to give blood but sex banned for decade". Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "HIV Test Window Periods". San Francisco AIDS Foundation. San Francisco AIDS Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2005.
- "HIV and AIDS in America". avert.org.
- Clive R. Seed, Philip Kiely, Mathew Law, and Anthony J. Keller (December 2010). "No evidence of a significantly increased risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in Australia subsequent to implementing a 12-month deferral for men who have had sex with men". Transfusion (AABB) 50: 2722–2730. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02793.x.
- "Mclaughlin Report on Risk Management for Canadian Blood Services" (PDF). McLaughlin Center for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa. 31 January 2007. p. 28. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- Matthew Corb. "Health Ministry Removes Ban on Homosexual Blood Donors". Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Argentina Abolishes Gay Blood Ban
- (Spanish) Nuevas normas para la donación de sangre
- "FAQs - Who can give". Australian Red Cross Blood Service. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Rotes Kreuz: Wer darf Blutspenden?". Roteskreuz.at. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Avis du CSH relatif a` la sécurisation maximale de la collecte et de la transfusion sanguine (CSH 8094)." (in French). Brussels: FPS Health Belgium. 18 February 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Who can be a blood donor?". Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- "Ordinance No. 2712 of November 12, 2013" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- D Andreatta (22 May 2013). "Ban lifted on gay men giving blood, but tough restrictions remain". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Gays and lesbians in Chile now allowed to donate blood". Santiago Times. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- "China says lesbians may donate blood, but not gay men — Latitude News". Latitudenews.com. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Legislators want to guarantee gay rights to donate blood— Inside Costa Rica". insidecostarica.com. Retrieved 1 December 2006.
- Ministry of Health (Croatia) (16 December 1998). "Pravilnik o krvi i krvnim sastojcima" [Bylaw for blood and its contents] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
E`lanak 16. Trajno se iskljue`uju kao davatelji krvi: [...] osobe sa homoseksualnim ponašanjem [...]
- "Doporučení Společnosti pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP č. STL2007_03 ze dne 12. 4. 2007 verze 6 (2012_04)" (DOC) (in Czech). Společnost pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP. p. 8. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Risikobetonet adfærd" (in Danish). Bloddonorerne i Danmark. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Ban on donation of blood imposed following male-to-male sexual contact to become temporary". veripalvelu.fi. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Arrêté du 12 janvier 2009 fixant les critères de sélection des donneurs de sang, Annexe II, page 7
- "Richtlinien zur Gewinnung von Blut und Blutbestandteilen und zur Anwendung von Blutprodukten (Hämotherapie)" [Guidelines for the collection of blood and blood components and the use of blood products (haemotherapy)] (PDF). German Medical Association. 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "What should you know about the Health history Enquiry in Blood Donation?" (PDF) (in Traditional Chinese & English). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service. 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Blood Donation". Magen David Adom.
- . Valsts asinsdonoru centrs http://www.donors.lv/anketas/donora.php?bl=1&setlang=lv. Retrieved 20 March 2015. Missing or empty
- (PDF). VšĮ „Nacionalinis kraujo centras“ http://kraujodonoryste.lt/uploads/images/contentPdf/Questionnaire%20for%20donors%20of%20blood%20and%20blood%20components%20%28EN%29_26e69.pdf. Retrieved 20 March 2015. Missing or empty
- Reid-Smith, Tris (21 October 2013). "Malta keeps gay blood ban but prepares for same-sex weddings". Gay Star News. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Roberts, Scott. "Mexico lifts ban on gay men donating blood". PinkNews.co.uk. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- TFE, tfe.nl (1 July 2013). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv mannen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for men]. Sanquin.nl. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- TFE, tfe.nl (1 July 2013). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv vrouwen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for women]. Sanquin.nl. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Detailed eligibility criteria". New Zealand Blood Service. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "UK Government refuses to repeal Northern Ireland gay blood ban". Pinknews.co.uk. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych" [Internet System of Legal Acts]. Isap.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Narodowe Centrum Krwi: Nie będziemy dyskryminować homoseksualistów" [National Blood Center: We will not discriminate against homosexuals]. Wiadomosci.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Honorowe krwiodawstwo mężczyzn homo- i biseksualnych. Fakty i mity" [Honorable blood donation by gay and bisexual men. Facts and Myths]. Kph.org.pl. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Приказ Минздравсоцразвития России от 16.04.2008 N 175н". Российская газета. 24 May 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Россиянам вольют "голубую кровь" (in Russian). Полит.ру. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- DeBarros, Luiz (20 May 2014). "SA finally ends gay blood donation ban". Mamba Online. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "The Republic of Slovenia Institute for Transfusion: Who cannot donate blood". Ztm.si. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Gay men blood donor ban to be lifted". BBC News Online. 8 September 2011.
- Regulations on blood donation from the National Board of Health and Welfare, SOSFS 2009:28 Appendix 5 Section B:3, http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/2009_28_bilaga5.pdf
- "thai red cross reverses ban on gay blood donors - Gay News Asia". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Donor selection criteria review". Department of Health and SaBTO, Blood Donor Selection Steering Group. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Blood donation (giving blood) - Who can donate - NHS Choices". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Honorowe krwiodawstwo mężczyzn homo- i biseksualnych. Fakty i mity". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration (May 2015). "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER). "Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men Questions and Answers". Fda.gov. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (23 December 2014). "F.D.A. Easing Ban on Gays, to Let Some Give Blood". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- 1992 Recommendations for the prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products[dead link]
- "Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men Questions and Answers (published: August 19th, 2013)". FDA.gov. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- FDA/CBER - Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps)[dead link]
- "OPTN/UNOS POLICY 4" (PDF). Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Meeting of Blood Products Advisory Committee" (133MB). Food and Drug Administration. 9 March 2006. p. 66. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "Ending the Federal Ban on Gay Blood Donations". California Progress Report. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Legislative and Community Report". New York: New York City Council. 30 April 2010. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- "A Resolution 18-486 : In the Council of the District of Columbia". Dcregs.dc.gov. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- no author listed (18 June 2013). "AMA Adopts New Policies on Second Day of Voting at Annual Meeting". ama-assn.org. American Medical Association. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "American Medical Association Opposes FDA Ban on Gay Men Donating Blood". Abcnews.go.com. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "American Osteopathic Association Calls for Removing FDA's Blood Donor Ban". Osteopathic.org. 20 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Sabrina Tavernise (23 December 2014). "F.D.A. Easing Ban on Gays, to Let Some Give Blood". New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Waygood, James (8 September 2011). "UK Government lifts lifetime ban on gay blood donation". So So Gay. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Homosexual men allowed to give blood but sex banned for decade". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Commission Directive 2004/33/EC of 22 March 2004" (PDF). Iospress.metapress.com. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Behavioural Donor Deferral Criteria Review - Final Report to the New Zealand Blood Service" (PDF). April 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "New one year blood ban now in place". 15 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- . 15 December 2014 http://www.sdgln.com/health/2014/12/15/new-zealand-new-1-year-blood-ban-now-place#sthash.7HLfyPIC.dpbs. Retrieved 1 February 2015. Missing or empty
- "Detailed Eligibility Criteria". New Zealand Blood Service. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "San Francisco AIDS Foundation: HIV Testing". Sfaf.org. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- FDA Approves First Nucleic Acid Test (Nat) System To Screen Whole Blood Donors For Infections With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv)[dead link]
- "Blood clinic ban on campus upheld due to policy on gay men - Ottawa - CBC News". Cbc.ca. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- [dead link]
- "LETTER: Political correctness may cripple blood drive turnout - Iowa State Daily: Opinion". Iowa State Daily. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Norton, Laura (8 March 2008). "Battle over blood". PressDemocrat.com. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "News: College protests blood drives". The Badger Herald. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "keeneequinox.com". keeneequinox.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Queens College Bans Blood Drives (The City University of New York) blood drive is happening in flushing queens,york college cuny blood donation". Free-press-release.com. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Minutes Of The Academic Senate Of Queens College" (PDF). Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "From the Daily: The battle for donor equality". The Michigan Daily. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Viewpoint: Ending a discriminatory blood policy". The Michigan Daily. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Blood Battle at the University of Michigan". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "RJ Arkhipov Works With His Own Blood to Protest Ban On Gay Donors - OUT Magazine". OUT Magazine. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Sortie : Samedi 26 septembre : " Words&Blood " – Exposition de RJ Arkhipov - TÊTU". TÊTU. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- FDA:Blood Products Advisory Committee, 09Mar2006 transcript See page 53 (page 59 of the pdf) for the discussion of test error rates. Warning: this is a 133 MB scanned transcript.
- CDC: HIV/AIDS among Men Who Have Sex with Men
- British Medical Journal Debate: Should men who have ever had sex with men be allowed to give blood? No
- British Medical Journal Debate: Should men who have ever had sex with men be allowed to give blood? Yes