|MutY DNA glycosylase|
PDB rendering based on 1x51.
|RNA expression pattern|
MUTYH (mutY Homolog (E. coli)) is a human gene encoding a DNA glycosylase, MUTYH glycosylase, involved in oxidative DNA damage repair. The enzyme excises adenine bases from the DNA backbone at sites where adenine is inappropriately paired with guanine, cytosine, or 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, a major oxidatively damaged DNA lesion. The protein is localized to the nucleus and mitochondria. Mutations in this gene result in heritable predisposition to colon and stomach cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
The MUTYH gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 between positions 34.3 and 32.1, from base pair 45,464,007 to base pair 45,475,152.
Mutations in the MUTYH gene cause an autosomal recessive form of familial adenomatous polyposis (also called MUTYH-associated polyposis). Polyps caused by mutated MUTYH do not appear until adulthood and are less numerous than those found in patients with APC gene mutations. The risk for developing colon cancer, when colon screening has not commenced, is about 43 to 100% (MUTYH-Associated Polyposis, genereviews 2012)
Mutations in this gene affect the ability of cells to correct mistakes made during DNA replication. Both copies of the MYH gene are mutated in individuals who have autosomal recessive familial adenomatous polyposis. Most reported mutations in this gene cause production of a nonfunctional or low functioning glycosylase enzyme<Nielsen 2011>. When base excision repair in the cell is compromised, mutations in other genes build up, leading to cell overgrowth and possibly tumor formation. The two most common mutations in Caucasian Europeans are exchanges of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) in the enzyme. One mutation replaces the amino acid tyrosine with cysteine at position 179 (also written as p.Tyr179Cys (p.Y179C) or, when describing the nucleotide change, written as c.536A>G) The other common mutation switches the amino acid glycine with aspartic acid at position 396 (also written as p.Gly396Asp(G396D)or c.1187G>A)
- "Entrez Gene: MUTYH mutY homolog (E. coli)".
- Parker A, Gu Y, Mahoney W, Lee SH, Singh KK, Lu AL (Feb 2001). "Human homolog of the MutY repair protein (hMYH) physically interacts with proteins involved in long patch DNA base excision repair". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (8): 5547–55. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008463200. PMID 11092888.
- Cheadle JP, Sampson JR (Oct 2003). "Exposing the MYtH about base excision repair and human inherited disease". Human Molecular Genetics. 12 Spec No 2 (90002): R159–65. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg259. PMID 12915454.
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- Jones S, Emmerson P, Maynard J, Best JM, Jordan S, Williams GT, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP (Nov 2002). "Biallelic germline mutations in MYH predispose to multiple colorectal adenoma and somatic G:C-->T:A mutations". Human Molecular Genetics 11 (23): 2961–7. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.23.2961. PMID 12393807.
- Jones S, Lambert S, Williams GT, Best JM, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP (Apr 2004). "Increased frequency of the k-ras G12C mutation in MYH polyposis colorectal adenomas". British Journal of Cancer 90 (8): 1591–3. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601747. PMC 2410274. PMID 15083190.
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- Lipton L, Halford SE, Johnson V, Novelli MR, Jones A, Cummings C, Barclay E, Sieber O, Sadat A, Bisgaard ML, Hodgson SV, Aaltonen LA, Thomas HJ, Tomlinson IP (Nov 2003). "Carcinogenesis in MYH-associated polyposis follows a distinct genetic pathway". Cancer Research 63 (22): 7595–9. PMID 14633673.
- Sampson JR, Dolwani S, Jones S, Eccles D, Ellis A, Evans DG, Frayling I, Jordan S, Maher ER, Mak T, Maynard J, Pigatto F, Shaw J, Cheadle JP (Jul 2003). "Autosomal recessive colorectal adenomatous polyposis due to inherited mutations of MYH". Lancet 362 (9377): 39–41. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13805-6. PMID 12853198.
- Sieber OM, Lipton L, Crabtree M, Heinimann K, Fidalgo P, Phillips RK, Bisgaard ML, Orntoft TF, Aaltonen LA, Hodgson SV, Thomas HJ, Tomlinson IP (Feb 2003). "Multiple colorectal adenomas, classic adenomatous polyposis, and germ-line mutations in MYH". The New England Journal of Medicine 348 (9): 791–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa025283. PMID 12606733.
- Venesio T, Molatore S, Cattaneo F, Arrigoni A, Risio M, Ranzani GN (Jun 2004). "High frequency of MYH gene mutations in a subset of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis". Gastroenterology 126 (7): 1681–5. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.02.022. PMID 15188161.
- Wang L, Baudhuin LM, Boardman LA, Steenblock KJ, Petersen GM, Halling KC, French AJ, Johnson RA, Burgart LJ, Rabe K, Lindor NM, Thibodeau SN (Jul 2004). "MYH mutations in patients with attenuated and classic polyposis and with young-onset colorectal cancer without polyps". Gastroenterology 127 (1): 9–16. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.03.070. PMID 15236166.
- Brand R, Nielsen M, Lynch H, Infante E (2012). "MUTYH-Associated Polyposis.". GeneReviews. PMID 23035301.
- Nielsen M, Morreau H, Vasen HF, Hes FJ (Jul 2011). "MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP)". Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 79 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2010.05.011. PMID 20663686.