MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the older TB vaccine BCG. Phase I clinical trials have been completed and phase II clinical trials are currently underway in South Africa. As of late 2010, those trials, while promising, were not expected to be finished until late 2015, with efficacy trials running in parallel from 2009 to 2019. By contrast, results released in February 2013 were described as "disappointing", showing only a statistically insignificant prevention rate in infants. Results published in 2015 bring the further doubt on the efficacy of the vaccine.
^Ibanga H, Brookes R, Hill P, Owiafe P, Fletcher H, Lienhardt C, Hill A, Adegbola R, McShane H (2006). "Early clinical trials with a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in tuberculosis-endemic countries: issues in study design". Lancet Infect Dis6 (8): 522–8. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70552-7. PMID16870530.