|, CNM3, MRF4, bHLHc4, myf-6, Myf6, myogenic factor 6|
Myogenic factor 6 (herculin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYF6 gene.  Also known in the medical literature as MRF4 and herculin), MYF6 is a myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) in the process known as myogenesis.
MYF6 is a member of the myogenic factors (MYF) family that regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Myogenics factor are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. MYF-6 is a gene that encodes a protein involved in the regulation of myogenesis. Specifically, it induces the maturation of myotubes into myofibers. The portion of the protein integral to myogenesis regulation is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain that is conserved among all of the genes in the MRF family.
MYF-6 is expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle, and it is expressed at a higher levels in adult skeletal muscle than all of the other genes in the muscle regulatory factor factor gene family. MYF-6 is different from the other myogenic regulatory factor genes due to its two-phase expression. Initially, MYF-6 is transiently expressed along with MYF-5 in the somites during the early stages of myogenesis. However, it is primarily expressed postnatally. This suggests that it serves an important role in the maintenance and repair of adult skeletal muscle. The role of MYF-6 expression in the somites during embryogenesis is currently unknown.
The MYF-6 gene is physically linked to the MYF-5 gene on chromosome 12, and mutations in the MYF-6 gene typically exhibit reduced levels of MYF-5. Despite reductions in muscle mass of the back, MYF6 mutants still exhibit fairly normal skeletal muscle. While this demonstrates that MYF-6 might not be essential for the formation of myofibers, it is thought that myogenin compensates for the absence of functional MYF-6.
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000111046 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000035923 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- "Entrez Gene: Myogenic factor 6 (herculin)". Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- Braun T, Bober E, Winter B, Rosenthal N, Arnold HH (March 1990). "Myf-6, a new member of the human gene family of myogenic determination factors: evidence for a gene cluster on chromosome 12". EMBO J. 9 (3): 821–31. PMC . PMID 2311584.
- Cupelli L, Renault B, Leblanc-Straceski J, Banks A, Ward D, Kucherlapati RS, Krauter K (1996). "Assignment of the human myogenic factors 5 and 6 (MYF5, MYF6) gene cluster to 12q21 by in situ hybridization and physical mapping of the locus between D12S350 and D12S106". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 72 (2–3): 250–1. doi:10.1159/000134201. PMID 8978788.
- Moretti, I. et al. MRF4 negatively regulates adult skeletal muscle growth by repressing MEF2 activity. Nat. Commun. 7:12397 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12397 (2016).
- Arnold, H. H.; Braun, T. (1996-02-01). "Targeted inactivation of myogenic factor genes reveals their role during mouse myogenesis: a review". The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 40 (1): 345–353. ISSN 0214-6282. PMID 8735947.
- Miner J. H. & Wold B. Herculin, a fourth member of the MyoD family of myogenic regulatory genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87, 1089–1093 (1990)
- Kerst B, Mennerich D, Schuelke M, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, von Moers A, Gossrau R, van Landeghem FK, Speer A, Braun T, Hübner C (December 2000). "Heterozygous myogenic factor 6 mutation associated with myopathy and severe course of Becker muscular dystrophy". Neuromuscul. Disord. 10 (8): 572–7. doi:10.1016/S0960-8966(00)00150-4. PMID 11053684.
- Braun, T.; Arnold, H. H. (1991). "The four human muscle regulatory helix-loop-helix proteins Myf3-Myf6 exhibit similar hetero-dimerization and DNA binding properties". Nucleic Acids Research. 19 (20): 5645–5651. doi:10.1093/nar/19.20.5645. PMC . PMID 1945842.
- Langlands, K.; Yin, X.; Anand, G.; Prochownik, E. V. (1997). "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (32): 19785–19793. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.32.19785. PMID 9242638.
- Kong, Y.; Flick, M. J.; Kudla, A. J.; Konieczny, S. F. (1997). "Muscle LIM protein promotes myogenesis by enhancing the activity of MyoD". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (8): 4750–4760. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.8.4750. PMC . PMID 9234731.
- Onions, J.; Hermann, S.; Grundström, T. (2000). "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15): 4366–4374. doi:10.1021/bi992533u. PMID 10757985.
- Cupelli, L.; Renault, B.; Leblanc-Straceski, J.; Banks, A.; Ward, D.; Kucherlapati, R. S.; Krauter, K. (1996). "Assignment of the human myogenic factors 5 and 6 (MYF5, MYF6) gene cluster to 12q21 by in situ hybridization and physical mapping of the locus between D12S350 and D12S106". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 72 (2–3): 250–251. doi:10.1159/000134201. PMID 8978788.
- Kosek, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Petrella, J. K.; Cross, J. M.; Bamman, M. M. (2006). "Efficacy of 3 days/wk resistance training on myofiber hypertrophy and myogenic mechanisms in young vs. Older adults". Journal of Applied Physiology. 101 (2): 531–544. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01474.2005. PMID 16614355.
- Black, B. L.; Molkentin, J. D.; Olson, E. N. (1998). "Multiple roles for the MyoD basic region in transmission of transcriptional activation signals and interaction with MEF2". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.1.69. PMC . PMID 9418854.
- Braun, T.; Bober, E.; Winter, B.; Rosenthal, N.; Arnold, H. H. (1990). "Myf-6, a new member of the human gene family of myogenic determination factors: Evidence for a gene cluster on chromosome 12". The EMBO Journal. 9 (3): 821–831. PMC . PMID 2311584.
- Kerst, B.; Mennerich, D.; Schuelke, M.; Stoltenburg-Didinger, G.; Von Moers, A.; Gossrau, R.; Van Landeghem, F. K.; Speer, A.; Braun, T.; Hübner, C. (2000). "Heterozygous myogenic factor 6 mutation associated with myopathy and severe course of Becker muscular dystrophy". Neuromuscular disorders : NMD. 10 (8): 572–577. doi:10.1016/S0960-8966(00)00150-4. PMID 11053684.
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