Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa

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The AryaMañjuśrīmūlakalpa or Arya-Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa is a text of the Kriyā-tantra class. It is affiliated with the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī.[1] It contains violent, sensual and sexual tantric rituals.[2]

The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa is often cited as the earliest example of an extant Indian Buddhist Tantra. Some scholars identify it as a compilation of a core dated circa 6th century with accretions and additions.[1] The Sanskrit version, significantly longer than its corresponding Chinese and Tibetan renderings, is still extant.[1]

The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, which later was classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Shaiva, Garuda and Vaishnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Manjushri.[3] The attribution to Mañjuśrī is an attempt by its author(s) to counter the objection that the teachings in this text are of non-Buddhist origin.[4]

Date[edit]

According to Sanderson (2009: 129) and the study by Matsunaga (1985), the text is datable to about 775 CE.[5][6]

Editions[edit]

The editio princeps of the Sanskrit text was by T. Ganapati Sastri in three volumes (Trivandrum, 1920, 1923, 1925).[7] Rahul Sankrityayana's edition appeared in 1934.[8] Ganapati Sastri's edition with some modifications[9] was reprinted by P. L. Vaidya in 1964.[10]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Keown, Damien (editor) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860560-9 p.172.
  2. ^ Delhey, Martin. “How Buddhist is the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa (a.k.a.Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa), Abstract of the talk in Tokyo on December 22, 2011”, http://www.icabs.ac.jp/iibs/delhey_abstract.pdf. Accessed 2.7.2018.
  3. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 129-131.
  4. ^ Delhey, Martin. “How Buddhist is the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa (a.k.a.Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa), Abstract of the talk in Tokyo on December 22, 2011”, http://www.icabs.ac.jp/iibs/delhey_abstract.pdf. Accessed 2.7.2018.
  5. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period. In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 41-350". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Matsunaga, Yukei (1985). "On the Date of the Mañjuśrı̄mūlakalpa". In Strickmann, Michael (ed.). Tantric and Taoist Studies in honour of R.A. Stein. Brussels: Institut Belge des Hautes Études Chinoises. pp. 882–894.
  7. ^ The Āryamanjuśrîmûlakalpa. Trivandrum: Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press., 3 vols, 1920, 1923, 1925, Trivandrum Sanskrit Series no. 70, 76, 84, new reprint ed. in one vol. University of Kerala 2008, Trivandrum Sanskrit Series no. 269 (Sri Satguru Publications reprint in 1989, Delhi; 1992 combined CBH reprint edition at Archive org.)
  8. ^ Jayaswal, K. P (1934). An imperial history of India in a sanskrit text: [c. 700 B.C. - c. 770 A.D.] ; with a special commentary on later Gupta period. Lahore: Dass. OCLC 257169166.
  9. ^ Einoo, S.; Sanderson, Alexis (2009). Genesis and Development of Tantrism. Tokyo: University of Tokyo. p. 316.
  10. ^ Vaidya, Parashuram Lakshman (1964). Mahāyāna-sūtra-saṁgraha. P.2 P.2 (in Sanskrit). Darbhanga: Mithila Inst. of Post-graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning. OCLC 246245976.