Ma Fulu

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Ma Fulu
Born馬福祿 1854
Linxia County, Gansu, Qing dynasty
Died1900
Beijing, Qing dynasty
AllegianceFlag of the Qing dynasty Qing dynasty
Years of service1889–1900
UnitKansu braves
Battles/warsDungan revolt (1895–1896), Boxer Rebellion 
Ma Fulu
Traditional Chinese馬福祿
Simplified Chinese马福禄

Ma Fulu (Chinese: 马福禄; Pinyin: Mǎ Fúlù, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﻟُﻮْ‎ ; 1854–1900), a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fuxiang. He was a middle born son.[1]

In 1880 Ma Fulu went to Beijing to take advanced military exams when he had an audience before the Emperor. He accidentally committed a faux pas since he did not know proper palace etiquette, and subsequently served as a guard for the Emperor to make up for this incident.[2]

He studied at a martial arts hall and military school. In 1895, he served under general Dong Fuxiang, leading loyalist Chinese Muslims to crush a revolt by rebel Muslims in the Dungan revolt (1895–1896). His loyalist Muslim troops slaughtered and beheaded the rebel Muslims and his commanding officers received the heads of the rebels from Ma. In 1897 a military Jinshi degree was awarded to Ma Fulu.[3][4][5][6]

Ma was transferred along with his brother Ma Fuxiang and several cousins to serve as officers under General Dong Fuxiang to Beijing in 1898. During the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898 Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang, and Ma Haiyan were called to Beijing and helped put an end to the reform movement along with Ma Fulu and Ma Fuxiang.[7] During the Boxer Rebellion, the Muslim troops came to be known as the "Kansu Braves", and fought against the Eight Nation Alliance. Ma Fulu and Ma Fuxiang both participated in ambushing and driving back the Alliance forces at the Battle of Langfang during the Seymour Expedition, leading a force of Hui, Dongxiang, and Baoan Muslims to drive the Alliance back to Tianjin and personally leading a cavalry charge, cutting down enemy troops with his sword.[2] Ma Fulu and four cousins of his were killed in action during the battle against the foreigners in Beijing,[8] in 1900 during the Battle of Peking (1900)[9] during a bloody battle at Zhengyang Gate.[10][11][12] His paternal cousins Ma Fugui 馬福貴, Ma Fuquan 馬福全, and his paternal nephews Ma Yaotu 馬耀圖, and Ma Zhaotu 馬兆圖 died in the battle. 100 of his fellow Hui and Dongxiang soldiers from his home village died fighting the British at Zhengyang Gate in Beijing.[2][7][13] He had commanded a brigade, his brother Ma Fuxiang took over his position after his death.[14][15] Ma Fuxiang inherited Ma Fulu's army.[16]

He had a son, Ma Hongbin, who later became a General in charge of the 84th Army Corps.[17]

Ma Fuxing, a Hui who played an important part in the history of Xinjiang, served under Ma Fulu during the Boxer Rebellion.[18]

In the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Japanese asked the Muslim General Ma Hongkui to defect and become head of a Muslim puppet state under the Japanese, Ma responded through Zhou Baihuang, the Ningxia Secretary of the Nationalist Party to remind the Japanese military chief of staff Itagaki Seishiro that many of his relatives fought and died in battle against Eight Nation Alliance forces during the Battle of Peking, including his uncle Ma Fulu, and that Japanese troops made up the majority of the Alliance forces so there would be no cooperation with the Japanese.[19]

Originally buried at a Hui cemetery in Beijing, in 1995 Ma Fulu's remains were moved by his descendants to Yangzhushan in Linxia County.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 甘、寧、青三馬家族世系簡表
  2. ^ a b c 抗击八国联军的清军将领——马福禄 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  3. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  4. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  5. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  6. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 223. ISBN 9004212396. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  7. ^ a b 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  8. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  9. ^ Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) (1987). Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20-24, 1987, Volume 3. p. 20. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  10. ^ 马福祥--"戎马书生" - 新华网甘肃频道 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ 缅怀中国近代史上的回族将领马福祥将军戎马一生 Archived 15 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ 清末民国间爱国将领马福祥__中国甘肃网 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Michael Dillon (16 December 2013). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Routledge. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-136-80933-0.
  14. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  15. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 224. ISBN 9004212396. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  16. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Southeast Conference (1979). Annals, Volumes 1-5. The Conference. p. 52. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  17. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  18. ^ Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals" (PDF). Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University). p. 106. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  19. ^ LEI, Wan (February 2010). "The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" During the Anti-Japanese War". DÎVÂN DİSİPLİNLERARASI ÇALIŞMALAR DERGİSİ. cilt 15 (sayı 29): 133–170. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  20. ^ "临夏旅游" (Linxia Tourism), published by Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture Tourist Board, 2003. 146 pages. No ISBN. Page 91