Ma Rulong

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Ma Rulong
Nickname(s) Marshal Ma
Born Yunnan
Allegiance Flag of the Qing dynasty Qing dynasty
Years of service 1856–his death
Rank general
Battles/wars Panthay Rebellion
Ma Rulong
Traditional Chinese 馬如龍
Simplified Chinese 马如龙

Ma Rulong (Ma Julung in Wade Giles) was a Chinese Muslim who originally rebelled against the Qing dynasty along with Du Wenxiu in the Panthay Rebellion. He later defected to the Qing side.[1] After officially surrendering in 1862 his forces effectively occupied the capital of Yunnan.[2] He then helped the Qing forces crush his fellow Muslim rebels, and defeated them.[3][4][5][6][7] He was known by the name of Marshal Ma to Europeans and achieved almost total control in Yunnan province.[8] He was the most powerful military official in the province after the war.[9]

Du Wenxiu was fought against by the defector to the Qing Ma Rulong. The Muslim scholar Ma Dexin, who said that Neo-Confucianism was reconcilable with Islam, approved of Ma Rulong defecting to the Qing and he also assisted other Muslims in defecting.[10]

General Ma Yu-kun, who fought against Japanese forces in the First Sino-Japanese War and against foreigners in the Boxer Rebellion was believed to be Ma Rulong's son by Europeans.[6]

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from A short history of China: being an account for the general reader of an ancient empire and people, by Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger, a publication from 1893 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The flowery kingdom and the land of the mikado: or, China, Japan, and Corea; containing their complete history down to the present time ..., by Henry Davenport Northrop, John Russell Young, a publication from 1894 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The flowery kingdom and the land of the Mikado or China, Japan and Corea: containing their complete history down to the present time : manners, customs, and peculiarities of the people ... : together with a graphic account of the war between China and Japan ..., by Henry Davenport Northrop, a publication from 1894 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The flowery kingdom and the land of the Mikado or China, Japan and Corea: containing their complete history down to the present time; manners, customs and peculiarities of the people; superstitions; idol worship; industries; natural scenery, etc., etc., together with a graphic account of the war ..., by Henry Davenport Northrop, a publication from 1894 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The living age ..., Volume 226, by Eliakim Littell, Robert S. Littell, Making of America Project, a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Eclectic magazine: foreign literature, by John Holmes Agnew, Walter Hilliard Bidwell, a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The history of China, Volume 2, by Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger, a publication from 1898 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Demetrius Charles De Kavanagh Boulger (1893). A Short History of China: Being an Account for the General Reader of an Ancient Empire and People. LONDON 13 WATERLOO PLACE SW: Allen. p. 319. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)
  2. ^ David G. Atwill (2005). The Chinese sultanate: Islam, ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in southwest China, 1856–1873. Stanford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-8047-5159-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ Henry Davenport Northrop; John Russell Young (1894). The flowery kingdom and the land of the mikado: or, China, Japan, and Corea; containing their complete history down to the present time ... CHICAGO: C. W. Stanton company. p. 130. Retrieved 2011-07-20. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  4. ^ Henry Davenport Northrop (1894). Contributor John Russell Young, ed. The flowery kingdom and the land of the Mikado or China, Japan and Corea: containing their complete history down to the present time : manners, customs, and peculiarities of the people ... : together with a graphic account of the war between China and Japan ... PHILADELPHIA & CHICAGO: International Pub. p. 130. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  5. ^ Henry Davenport Northrop (1894). The flowery kingdom and the land of the Mikado or China, Japan and Corea: containing their complete history down to the present time; manners, customs and peculiarities of the people; superstitions; idol worship; industries; natural scenery, etc., etc., together with a graphic account of the war between china and Japan, its causes, land and naval battles, etc., etc. J.H.Moore Co. p. 130. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)[1][2]
  6. ^ a b Eliakim Littell; Robert S. Littell; Making of America Project (1900). The living age ..., Volume 226. BOSTON: The Living Age Co. Inc. p. 757. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  7. ^ John Holmes Agnew; Walter Hilliard Bidwell (1900). The Eclectic magazine: foreign literature. Leavitt, Throw and Co. p. 620. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  8. ^ Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger (1898). The history of China, Volume 2. LONDON: W. Thacker & co. p. 443. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)
  9. ^ Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals" (PDF). Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  10. ^ John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Late Chʻing, 1800-1911, pt. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3.