General Ma Shaowu
|Tao-yin of Kashgar|
|Preceded by||Ma Fuxing|
|Political party||Xinjiang clique, Kuomintang|
|Spouse(s)||Single unknown wife|
|Religion||Sufi Jahriyya Islam|
|Allegiance||Qing dynasty Republic of China|
|Years of service||1912-1937|
|Commands||Military commander at Kucha and Tao-yin of Kashgar|
|Battles/wars||Kirghiz rebellion, Kumul Uprising, Battle of Kashgar (1933), Battle of Kashgar (1934)|
Couplet written in Honor of Ma Shaowu by Ma Yuanzhang
Ten thousand li to pay his respects at the isolated tomb and satisfy the wish of the founding ancestor,
Those that satisfy the wishes of their ancestors are truly filial.
In the home province he built up the embankment in honour of the departed sage,
Not only by showing respect for the departed but in his countenance he is a true worthy descendant.
Official in Xinjiang
He became a military commander in the Qing dynasty army, and in that of the Republic of China. He served as a mandarin official. During Yang Zengxin's reign in Xinjiang, Ma was appointed military commander of Kucha, and then Daotai of Kashgar. His authority extended over all of southern Xinjiang, and he commanded several hundred Hui and Han Chinese soldiers. Brigadier General Yang and Colonel Chin served under him. He was loyal to the Chinese government, and a Muslim.
Ma enforced anti Soviet measures and preserved Chinese sovereignty in Xinjiang, when the Soviet Union tried to encroach on Chinese territory. He jailed a Uighur called Akbar Ali, who was employed by the Soviet consulate, for setting off a Uighur riot. The Uighurs were suppressed by 400 Hui troops.
When Ma Zhongying invaded the province in 1932, Ma Shaowu, himself a Hui Muslim, commanded predominantly Han Chinese troops against the anti provincial Uighur and Hui forces. He steadily lost control over southern Xinjiang, despite Jin Shuren appointing him as commander in Chief of all Chinese forces in the area, and was panicking, Ma Shaowu sent Han Chinese troops to Khotan and Maral Bashi to fight against the anti provincial forces, he withdrew Chinese troops from Sarikol to Kashgar to reinforce the garrison, and raised levies of Kirghiz.
Ma faced an army of Uighurs and Hui from Gansu under the command of Timur Beg and Ma Zhancang, when Ma Zhancang defected to Ma Shaowu after conducting negotiations, and shot and beheaded Timur Beg. Ma Shaowu commanded a Han Chinese garrison, his subordinates included Brigadier General Yang and Colonel Chin. Then all of the Hui Muslim and Han Chinese gathered together and holed up in the yamen, while the Turkic Muslims, the Kirghiz and Uighurs besieged them. At the Battle of Kashgar (1933) the Turkic armies were defeated. During this time Ma Shaowu resigned as Tao-yin of Kashgar. When the independence of the First East Turkestan Republic was declared, the following year, at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) Ma Zhancang and Ma Fuyuan destroyed the Turkic army, massacring over 2,000 Uighurs and attacking the British consulate. Ma Fuyuan and Ma Zhancang then reinstated Ma Shaowu as Tao-yin of Kashgar. In 1934, Ma Shaowu was seriously injured in an assassination attempt ordered by Sheng Shicai. Ma was sent to the Soviet Union for treatment, and recovered but on crutches.
He was walking with his son and wife when the assassination attempt happened. The child was unhurt, the wife slightly wounded, and even though Ma was shot in the legs, he dragged himself into a maize] field. He got home on a donkey, a doctor was summoned, and by the end of summer he was convalescing. Nobody was apprehended by the police for the attack. Two of his fingers were lost.
Ma was interviewed by the traveler Peter Fleming in 1936, shortly after the assassination attempt. Peter also visited the site of assassination where bloodstains were present. He wore a long beige silk robe, had a spittoon and spoke in precise Peking speech. His son's name was Cho-ya. He was then sent to Moscow in the Soviet Union to complete medical treatment. He did not give direct answers, replying through a translator that "I lost my post when, as a result of the troubles, China lost her authority in Kashgar", referring to when he had to resign as taotai. After being sent to Moscow by train, he returned to Ürümqi in 1936. In 1937, during the Xinjiang War (1937), Ma Shaowu was accused by the Soviet puppet Sheng Shicai of being part of a "Fascist-Trotskyite" network, including Khoja Niyas Hajji, Ma Hushan, along with other totally ridiculous claims, which Sheng Shicai used as an excuse to conduct his own purge in Xinjiang along with Joseph Stalin's Great Purge.
In 2006 Anthony Garnaut was told by Ma Shaowu's son that Ma Shaowu's biography was being written in Kashgar, and the son and his wife live in Ürümqi.
- Anthony Garnaut (August 1, 2009). "From Yunnan to Xinjiang: Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals" (PDF). Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- George Roerich, Philip Hamilton McMillan Memorial Publication Fund (1931). Trails to inmost Asia: five years of exploration with the Roerich central Asian expedition. Yale university press. p. 504. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Christian Tyler (2004). Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-8135-3533-6. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-231-13924-1. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 66. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Forbes, A.D.W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge University Press. p. 236. ISBN 9780521255141. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 65. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 231. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 77. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 76. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Ai-ch'ên Wu, Aichen Wu (1940). Turkistan tumult. Methuen: Methuen. p. 246. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. p. 77. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Peter Fleming (1999). News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir. Evanston Illinois: Northwestern University Press. p. 384. ISBN 0-8101-6071-4. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Ella K. Maillart (2006). Forbidden Journey. READ BOOKS. p. 255. ISBN 1-4067-1926-9. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Li Chang (2006). Maria Roman Sławiński, ed. The modern history of China (illustrated ed.). Księgarnia Akademicka. p. 168. ISBN 83-7188-877-5. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
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