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Mabel Normand

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Mabel Normand
Normand c. 1920
Amabel Ethelreid Normand

(1893-11-09)November 9, 1893
DiedFebruary 23, 1930(1930-02-23) (aged 36)
Resting placeCalvary Cemetery, Los Angeles
Other namesMabel Normand-Cody, Muriel Fortescue
  • Actress
  • director
  • screenwriter
  • comedian
Years active1910–1927
(m. 1926)

Amabel Ethelreid Normand (November 9, 1893[1][2] – February 23, 1930), better known as Mabel Normand, was an American silent film actress, director and screenwriter. She was a popular star and collaborator of Mack Sennett in their Keystone Studios films,[3] and at the height of her career in the late 1910s and early 1920s had her own film studio and production company,[4] the Mabel Normand Feature Film Company.[5] On screen, she appeared in twelve successful films with Charlie Chaplin and seventeen with Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, sometimes writing and directing (or co-writing and directing) films featuring Chaplin as her leading man.[6][7]

Normand's name was repeatedly linked with gun violence, including the 1922 murder of her friend, director William Desmond Taylor, and the non-fatal[8] 1924 shooting of Courtland S. Dines by Normand's chauffeur, Joe Kelly. After police interrogation, she was ruled out as a suspect in Taylor's murder. Normand was a very heavy smoker who may have suffered lung cancer, and/or a recurrence of tuberculosis in 1923, which led to a decline in her health, an early retirement from films in 1926 and her death in 1930 at age 36.[9][10]

Early life and career[edit]

Roscoe Arbuckle and Normand with Luke the Dog in Fatty and Mabel Adrift (1916)

Amabel Ethelreid Normand was born in New Brighton, New York (before it was incorporated into New York City as part of Staten Island) on November 9, 1893. She took her name from her father's only sibling, who had died before her birth in 1892. Normand's mother, Mary "Minnie" Drury, of Providence, Rhode Island,[11] was of Irish heritage; while her father, Clodman "Claude" George Normand, was French Canadian, with his ancestral lineage dating back to Normandy in France and their surname originally being LeNormand or Le Normand.[12]

For a short time at the start of her career, Normand worked for Vitagraph Studios in New York City for $25 per week, but Vitagraph founder Albert E. Smith admitted she was one of several actresses about whom he made a mistake in estimating their "potential for future stardom."[13] Normand's intensely beguiling lead performance in the 1911 dramatic short film Her Awakening, directed by D. W. Griffith, drew her attention and led to her meeting director Mack Sennett while at Griffith's Biograph Company. The two subsequently embarked on a chaotic relationship. Sennett later brought Normand to California when he founded Keystone Studios in 1912.[14]

In A Little Hero (1913, Dutch language edition), Collection EYE Film Institute Netherlands

Normand appeared with Charlie Chaplin and Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle in many short films. She played a key role in starting Chaplin's film career and acted as his leading lady and mentor in a string of films in 1914, collaborating with him as a director, co-director or co-writer.[14] Chaplin had considerable initial difficulty adjusting to the demands of film acting, and his performance suffered for it. After his first film appearance in Making a Living, Sennett felt he had made a costly mistake.[15] However, Normand persuaded Sennett to give Chaplin another chance,[16] and she and Chaplin appeared together in a dozen subsequent films, almost always as a couple in the lead roles. At the start of 1914, Chaplin first played his Tramp character in Mabel's Strange Predicament,[14] although it wound up being the second Tramp film released; Normand directed Chaplin and herself in the film.[17] Later that year, Normand starred with Chaplin and Marie Dressler in Tillie's Punctured Romance, the first feature-length comedy.

Normand is credited as being the first film star to receive a pie thrown in the face.[18]

Mabel's Strange Predicament (1914), the first film in which Chaplin plays the Tramp

Normand opened her own film company in partnership with Sennett in 1916,[14] based in Culver City, California. She lost the company in 1918 when its parent company, Triangle Film Corporation, experienced a massive shakeup which also had Sennett lose Keystone Studios and establish his own independent company. In 1918, as her relationship with Sennett came to an end, Normand signed a $3,500-per-week contract with Samuel Goldwyn. Around that same time, Normand allegedly had a miscarriage (or stillbirth) with Goldwyn's child.[19][20]


Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle trials[edit]

Arbuckle, Normand's co-star in many films, was the defendant in three widely publicized trials for manslaughter in the 1921 death of actress Virginia Rappe. Although Arbuckle was acquitted, the scandal damaged his career and his films were banned from exhibition for a short time. Since she had made some of her most notable works with him, much of Normand's output was withheld from the public as a result.[14] Arbuckle later returned to the screen as a director and actor, but did not attain his previous popularity despite being exonerated in court.

William Desmond Taylor murder[edit]

Director William Desmond Taylor formed a close relationship with Normand based on their shared interest in books. Author Robert Giroux claims that Taylor was deeply in love with Normand, who had originally approached him for help in dealing with an alleged cocaine dependency, and that Taylor met with federal prosecutors shortly before his death with an offer to assist them in filing charges against her drug dealers, theorizing that this meeting caused the dealers to hire a contract killer. According to Giroux, Normand suspected the reasons for Taylor's murder but did not know the identity of the man who killed him.[21] According to Kevin Brownlow and John Kobal in their book Hollywood: The Pioneers, the idea that Taylor was murdered by drug dealers was invented by Paramount Studios for publicity purposes.[22]

On the night of his murder, February 1, 1922, Normand left Taylor's bungalow at 7:45 pm in a happy mood, carrying a book he had lent her. They blew kisses to each other as her limousine drove away. Normand was the last person known to have seen Taylor alive. The Los Angeles Police Department subjected Normand to a grueling interrogation but ruled her out as a suspect.[23] Most subsequent writers have done the same. However, Normand's career had already slowed, and her reputation was tarnished. According to George Hopkins, who sat next to her at Taylor's funeral, Normand wept inconsolably.[24]

The Dines shooting[edit]

In 1924, Normand's chauffeur Joe Kelly shot and wounded millionaire oil broker and amateur golfer Courtland S. Dines with her pistol.[14][25][26] In response, several theaters pulled Normand's films, which were also banned in Ohio by the state film censorship board.[27] However, Dines was not fatally injured; he died of a heart attack in 1945, over two decades after the shooting.[28]

Later career and death[edit]

Normand continued making films and was signed by Hal Roach Studios in 1926 after discussions with director/producer F. Richard Jones, who had directed her at Keystone. At Roach, she made the films Raggedy Rose, The Nickel-Hopper, and One Hour Married (her last film), all co-written by Stan Laurel, and was directed by Leo McCarey in Should Men Walk Home? The films were released with extensive publicity support from the Hollywood community, including her friend Mary Pickford.[citation needed]

Normand's crypt at Calvary Cemetery

In 1926, she married actor Lew Cody, with whom she had appeared in Mickey in 1918.[29] They lived separately in nearby houses in Beverly Hills. Normand's health was in decline due to tuberculosis.[14] After an extended stay in Pottenger Sanitorium, she died from pulmonary tuberculosis on February 23, 1930, in Monrovia, California, at the age of 36.[30] She was interred as Mabel Normand-Cody at Calvary Cemetery, Los Angeles. The date of birth listed on her crypt is incorrect.[1][2] Her mother was buried in the crypt above her crypt.


Normand has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contributions to motion pictures at 6821 Hollywood Boulevard.

Her film Mabel's Blunder (1914) was added to the National Film Registry in December 2009.[31]

In June 2010, the New Zealand Film Archive reported the discovery of a print of Normand's film Won in a Closet (exhibited in New Zealand under its alternate title Won in a Cupboard), a short comedy previously believed lost. This film is a significant discovery, as Normand directed the film and starred in the lead role, displaying her talents on both sides of the camera.[32]

Cultural references[edit]

Moviegoers Roscoe Arbuckle and Mack Sennett (foreground) argue while watching Normand onscreen in Mabel's Dramatic Career (1913)
  • A nod to Normand's celebrity in early Hollywood came through the name of a leading character in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard, "Norma Desmond", which has been cited as a combination of the names Norma Talmadge and William Desmond Taylor. The film also frequently mentions Normand by name.[33][34]
  • "Hello Mabel" is a song by the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band released in England on their second album The Doughnut in Granny's Greenhouse (released as Urban Spaceman in the US.) in November 1968.
  • Normand is mentioned during series 2 episode 1 of Downton Abbey by ambitious housemaid Ethel Parks. Daisy Mason (née Robinson), the kitchen maid, inquires what she is reading and Ethel responds, "Photoplay about Normand. She was nothing when she started, you know. Her father was a carpenter and they'd no money, and now she's a shining film star."[35][better source needed]
  • Singer-songwriter Stevie Nicks wrote a song about the actress titled "Mabel Normand", which appears on her 2014 album 24 Karat Gold: Songs from the Vault.

Fictional portrayals[edit]

The 1974 Broadway musical Mack & Mabel (Michael Stewart and Jerry Herman) fictionalized the romance between Normand and Mack Sennett. Normand was played by Bernadette Peters and Robert Preston portrayed Sennett.

Normand is played by actress Marisa Tomei in the 1992 film Chaplin opposite Robert Downey, Jr. as Charles Chaplin; by Penelope Lagos in the first biopic about Normand's life, a 35-minute dramatic short film entitled Madcap Mabel (2010); and by Morganne Picard in the motion picture Return to Babylon (2013).

In 2014, Normand was played on television by Andrea Deck in series 2, episode 8 of Mr Selfridge and by Kristina Thompson in the short film Mabel's Dressing Room.[36][37]

The character played by Alice Faye in Hollywood Cavalcade (1939) was reputed to have been based partly on Normand.[38]


Some of her early roles are credited as "Mabel Fortesque".[39]

Denotes a lost or presumed lost film.


Year Film Role Director Co-Star Notes
1910 Indiscretions of Betty
1910 Over the Garden Wall
1911 Fate's Turning A Diner At The Hotel D. W. Griffith
1911 The Diamond Star Guest At Dinner Party
1911 A Tale of Two Cities Uncredited William J. Humphrey
1911 Betty Becomes a Maid Betty
1911 Troublesome Secretaries Betty Harding Ralph Ince
1911 Picciola; or, The Prison Flower Theresa Girhardi
1911 His Mother Donald's Fiancee
1911 When a Man's Married His Trouble Begins Mabel - Jack's Wife James Morrison
1911 A Dead Man's Honor Helen
1911 The Changing of Silas Warner
1911 Two Overcoats
1911 The Subduing of Mrs. Nag Miss Prue George D. Baker
1911 The Strategy of Anne George D. Baker
1911 The Diving Girl The Niece Mack Sennett Fred Mace
1911 How Betty Won the School Betty's Rival Edith Storey
1911 The Baron The Heiress Mack Sennett Dell Henderson


Year Film Role Director Co-Star Notes
1911 The Squaw's Love Wild Flower D. W. Griffith Alfred Paget
1911 The Revenue Man and the Girl D. W. Griffith Dorothy West
1911 Her Awakening The Daughter D. W. Griffith Harry Hyde
1911 The Making of a Man In Second Audience D. W. Griffith Dell Henderson
1911 Italian Blood D. W. Griffith Charles West
1911 The Unveiling The Showgirl D. W. Griffith Robert Harron
1911 Through His Wife's Picture Wifey Mack Sennett Fred Mace
1911 The Inventor's Secret Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
1911 A Victim of Circumstances Mack Sennett Fred Mace
1911 Their First Divorce Case Hubby's Chorine Sweetheart
Mack Sennett
1911 Why He Gave Up The Wife Henry Lehrman
Mack Sennett
Fred Mace
1911 Saved from Himself D. W. Griffith
1912 The Joke on the Joker Mack Sennett
1912 The Engagement Ring Mack Sennett
1912 The Eternal Mother Mary D. W. Griffith Edwin August
Blanche Sweet
1912 Did Mother Get Her Wish? Mack Sennett
1912 Pants and Pansies Mack Sennett Harry McCoy
1912 The Mender of Nets D. W. Griffith Mary Pickford
1912 The Fatal Chocolate Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
1912 Hot Stuff Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
1912 A Voice From The Deep Mack Sennett
1912 Oh, Those Eyes! Mack Sennett
1912 Help! Help! Mrs. Suburbanite Mack Sennett Fred Mace
1912 The Brave Hunter Mack Sennett
1912 The Fickle Spaniard Mack Sennett
1912 The Furs Mack Sennett
1912 When Kings Were The Law (Uncredited) D.W. Griffith
1912 Helen's Marriage Helen Mack Sennett
Dell Henderson
1912 Tomboy Bessie Bessie Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
1912 Katchem Kate Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Jack Pickford
1912 Neighbors Mack Sennett
1912 A Dash Through The Clouds Mack Sennett
1912 The New Baby Mack Sennett
1912 The Tourists Mack Sennett
1912 What The Doctor Ordered Mack Sennett
1912 An Interrupted Elopement Mack Sennett
1912 Tragedy of a Dress Suit Mack Sennett
1912 He Must Have a Wife Mack Sennett


Year Film Role Director Co-Star Notes
1912 Cohen Collects a Debt Mack Sennett Ford Sterling
1912 The Water Nymph Diving Venus Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Ford Sterling
Alternative title: The Beach Flirt
First Keystone comedy
1912 The New Neighbor Mack Sennett
1912 Riley and Schultz Mack Sennett
1912 The Beating He Needed Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 Pedro's Dilemma Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 Ambitious Butler Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 The Flirting Husband Mack Sennett Ford Sterling
1912 At Coney Island Mack Sennett Ford Sterling
Fred Mace
Alternative title: Cohen at Coney Island
1912 At It Again Mrs. Smith Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 Mabel's Lovers Mabel Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
Alice Davenport
1912 The Deacon's Troubles Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 A Temperamental Husband Gladys Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 Mr. Fix-It Mabel Mack Sennett
1912 The Rivals Mabel Mack Sennett
1912 A Desperate Lover Mack Sennett Fred Mace
1912 Brown's Séance Mrs. Brown Fred Mace Fred Mace
Alice Davenport
1912 Pat's Day Off Bridget, Pat's Wife Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Alice Davenport
Ford Sterling
1912 A Family Mixup A Wife Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Fred Mace
1912 A Midnight Elopement Mack Sennett
1912 Mabel's Adventures Mabel Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Ford Sterling
1912 The Drummer's Vacation Mack Sennett
1912 The Duel Mabel Mack Sennett
1912 Mabel's Stratagem Mabel Mack Sennett Fred Mace
Alice Davenport
Mack Sennett
1912 Kings Court
1913 The Bangville Police Farm Girl Henry Lehrman Fred Mace
the Keystone Cops
1913 A Noise from the Deep Mabel Mack Sennett Roscoe Arbuckle
the Keystone Cops
1913 A Little Hero George Nichols
1913 Mabel's Awful Mistakes Mabel Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Ford Sterling
Alternative title: Her Deceitful Lover
1913 Passions, He Had Three Henry Lehrman Roscoe Arbuckle Alternative title: He Had Three
1913 For the Love of Mabel Mabel Henry Lehrman Roscoe Arbuckle
Ford Sterling
1913 Mabel's Dramatic Career Mabel, the kitchen maid Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Ford Sterling
Alternative title: Her Dramatic Debut
1913 The Gypsy Queen Mack Sennett Roscoe Arbuckle
1913 Cohen Saves the Flag Rebecca Mack Sennett Ford Sterling
1914 Mabel's Stormy Love Affair Mabel Mabel Normand Alice Davenport
1914 Won in a Closet[40] Mabel Normand Alternative title: Won in a Cupboard
1914 In the Clutches of the Gang Roscoe Arbuckle
Keystone Cops
1914 Mack at It Again Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
1914 Mabel's Strange Predicament Mabel Mabel Normand Charles Chaplin Alternative title: Hotel Mixup
First film with Chaplin as the Tramp although the second released.
1914 Mabel's Blunder Mabel Mabel Normand Charley Chase
Al St. John
Added to the National Film Registry in 2009[31]
1914 A Film Johnnie Mabel George Nichols Charles Chaplin
Roscoe Arbuckle
1914 Mabel at the Wheel Mabel Mabel Normans
Mack Sennett
Charles Chaplin
1914 Caught in a Cabaret Mabel Mabel Normand Charles Chaplin Writer
1914 Mabel's Nerve Mabel George Nichols
1914 The Alarm Roscoe Arbuckle
Edward Dillon
Roscoe Arbuckle
Minta Durfee
Alternative title: Fireman's Picnic
1914 Her Friend the Bandit Mabel Mabel Normand
Charles Chaplin
Charles Chaplin
1914 The Fatal Mallet Mabel Mack Sennett Charles Chaplin
Mack Sennett
1914 Mabel's Busy Day Mabel Mabel Normand Charles Chaplin
Chester Conklin
1914 Mabel's Married Life Mabel Charles Chaplin Charles Chaplin Co-written by Normand and Chaplin
1914 Mabel's New Job Mabel Mabel Normand
George Nichols
Chester Conklin
Charley Chase
1914 The Sky Pirate Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
Minta Durfee
1914 The Masquerader Actress Charles Chaplin Uncredited
1914 Mabel's Latest Prank Mabel Mabel Normand
Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
Hank Mann
Alternative title: Touch of Rheumatism
1914 Hello, Mabel Mabel Mabel Normand Charley Chase
Minta Durfee
Alternative title: On a Busy Wire
1914 Gentlemen of Nerve Mabel Charles Chaplin Charles Chaplin
Chester Conklin
Alternative titles: Charlie at the Races
Some Nerve
1914 His Trysting Place Mabel, The Wife Charles Chaplin Charles Chaplin
1914 Shotguns That Kick Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
Al St. John
1914 Getting Acquainted Ambrose's Wife Charles Chaplin Charles Chaplin
Phyllis Allen
1914 Tillie's Punctured Romance Mabel Mack Sennett Marie Dressler
Charles Chaplin
Feature-Length film
First feature-length comedy
1915 Mabel and Fatty's Wash Day Mabel Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
1915 Mabel and Fatty's Simple Life Mabel Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle Alternative title: Mabel and Fatty's Simple Life
1915 Mabel and Fatty Viewing the World's Fair at San Francisco Mabel Mabel Normand
Roscoe Arbuckle
Roscoe Arbuckle
1915 Mabel and Fatty's Married Life Mabel Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
1915 That Little Band of Gold Wifey Roscoe Arbuckle Uncredited
Alternative title: For Better or Worse
1915 Wished on Mabel Mabel Mabel Normand Roscoe Arbuckle
1915 Mabel's Wilful Way Mabel Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
1915 Mabel Lost and Won Mabel Mabel Normand Owen Moore
Mack Swain
1915 The Little Teacher The Little Teacher Mack Sennett Roscoe Arbuckle, Mack Sennett Alternative title: A Small Town Bully
1916 Fatty and Mabel Adrift Mabel Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
Al St. John
Alternative title: Concrete Biscuits
1916 He Did and He Didn't The Doctor's Wife Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle
Al St. John

Goldwyn Feature films[edit]

Year Film Role Director Co-Star Notes
1918 Dodging a Million Arabella Flynn George Loane Tucker Tom Moore
1918 The Floor Below Patricia O'Rourke Clarence G. Badger Tom Moore
1918 Joan of Plattsburg Joan George Loane Tucker
1918 Back to the Woods Stephanie Trent George Irving Herbert Rawlinson
1918 Peck's Bad Girl Minnie Penelope Peck Charles Giblyn Earle Foxe
1918 The Venus Model Kitty O'Brien Clarence G. Badger Rod La Rocque
1918 A Perfect 36 Mabel Charles Giblyn Rod La Rocque
1918 Mickey Mickey F. Richard Jones
James Young
Produced by the Mabel Normand Feature Film Company and distributed by Film Booking Offices of America rather than Goldwyn
1919 Sis Hopkins Sis Hopkins Clarence G. Badger John Bowers
1919 When Doctors Disagree Millie Martin Victor Schertzinger Walter Hiers
1919 Upstairs Elsie MacFarland Victor Schertzinger Cullen Landis
1919 Jinx The Jinx Victor Schertzinger
1919 The Pest Jigs Christy Cabanne
1920 Pinto Pinto Victor Schertzinger Cullen Landis
1920 What Happened to Rosa Rosa Victor Schertzinger
1920 The Slim Princess Princess Kalora Victor Schertzinger Tully Marshall
1921 Molly O' Molly O' F. Richard Jones George Nichols Produced by Mack Sennett
1922 Oh, Mabel Behave Innkeeper's Daughter Mack Sennett Mack Sennett
Ford Sterling
Filmed in 1915 or 1916, produced by Triangle Film Corporation
1922 Head Over Heels Tina Paul Bern
Victor Schertzinger
Raymond Hatton
Adolphe Menjou
1923 Suzanna Suzanna F. Richard Jones George Nichols Incomplete, two reels are missing
Produced by Mack Sennett
1923 The Extra Girl Sue Graham F. Richard Jones George Nichols Produced by Mack Sennett

Hal Roach Studios[edit]

Year Film Role Director Co-Star Notes
1926 Raggedy Rose Raggedy Rose Richard Wallace Carl Miller
Max Davidson
Feature length film
1926 The Nickel-Hopper Paddy, the nickel hopper F. Richard Jones
Hal Yates
1927 Should Men Walk Home? The Girl Bandit Leo McCarey Eugene Pallette
Oliver Hardy
1927 One Hour Married Jerome Strong Creighton Hale
James Finlayson



  1. ^ a b Jaley, Thomas (June 5, 1900). 1900 USA Census Card. Census of the United States, State of New York, Borough of Richmond, Supervisor's District No. 2, Enumeration District 583, First Ward, Sheet #8.
  2. ^ a b Westman, Frank C. (April 26, 1910). 1910 USA Census Card. Census of the United States, State of New York, Borough of Richmond, Supervisor's District No. 2, Enumeration District 1713, 2nd Ward, Sheet #7857 12 A.
  3. ^ Harper Fussell 1992, pp. 50–52.
  4. ^ Harper Fussell 1992, pp. 71–73.
  5. ^ "Mary Mallory / Hollywood Heights: Mabel Normand Studio Leads the Way". October 2022.
  6. ^ Harper Fussell 1992, pp. 64–70.
  7. ^ Lefler, Timothy Dean (2016). Mabel Normand: The Life and Career of a Hollywood Madcap. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786478675.
  8. ^ "BLAME JEALOUSY FOR DINES SHOOTING; Los Angeles Police Think the Chauffeur Was Infatuated With Miss Normand. SHE CONTRADICTS HIS STORY Breaks Down From Excitement and Goes to Hospital -- Dines Develops Pneumonia. BLAME JEALOUSY FOR DINES SHOOTING". The New York Times. January 3, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 6, 2024.
  9. ^ cite magazine article Films in Review September 1974 Mabel Normand A Grand – Nephew's Memoir Normand, Stephen
  10. ^ Ward Mahar, Karen (2006). Women Filmmakers in Early Hollywood. JHU Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-8018-8436-5.
  11. ^ Rhode Island State Census, 1875
  12. ^ Sherman, William Thomas. "Mabel Normand: An Introductory Biography". mm-hp.com. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  13. ^ Smith, Albert E. in collaboration with Phil A. Koury, "Two Reels And A Crank", Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1952.[ISBN missing][page needed]
  14. ^ a b c d e f g McCarthy, Jay (September 7, 2018). "ThiEyes on the pies: how Mabel Normand, Chaplin's mentor, changed cinema". The Guardian. Retrieved February 25, 2024.
  15. ^ Chaplin, Charles (1964). My Autobiography. Penguin. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-14-101147-9.
  16. ^ Harper Fussell 1992, pp. 70–71.
  17. ^ Chaplin, Charles (2003) [1964]. My Autobiography. London: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-101147-5.
  18. ^ "Mabel Normand Web Page"
  19. ^ Higham, Charles (2006). Murder in Hollywood: Solving a Silent Screen Mystery. Terrace Books. ISBN 978-0299203641.
  20. ^ "Mabel Normand – Women Film Pioneers Project".
  21. ^ Giroux, Robert (1990). A Deed of Death: The Story Behind the Unsolved Murder of Hollywood Director William Desmond Taylor. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 232. ISBN 0394580753.
  22. ^ Brown low and Kobal, Kevin and John (1979). Hollywood The Pioneers. New York: Alfred A Knopf. p. 111. ISBN 0394508513.
  23. ^ "Press Film Star For Taylor Clew; Police Conduct 'Long And Grueling' Examination, Working on Jealousy Motive. Mabel Normand Speaks Tells Reporters Affection For Slain Director Was Based on Comradeship, Not 'Love.'". The New York Times. New York. February 7, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 29, 2010. A motion picture actress was subjected to what the police termed a "long and grueling" examination at her home here tonight in an attempt to obtain a clew to the murderer of William Desmond Taylor.
  24. ^ Giroux (1990), p. 236.
  25. ^ Milton, Joyce (1998). Tramp: The Life of Charlie Chaplin. Da Capo Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-306-80831-5.
  26. ^ Basinger 2000, p. 92.
  27. ^ "Ohio and M.P.T.O.A. Both Bar Normand Films", Variety, 73 (8): 19, January 10, 1924
  28. ^ "Denver Public Library 1945 - 1949 Death Index (Rocky Mountain News and The Denver Post)" (PDF). The Denver Public Library. 1945–1949. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2024. Alternate archive
  29. ^ McCaffrey, Donald W.; Jacobs, Christopher P. (1999). Guide To the Silent Years of American Cinema. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 84. ISBN 0-313-30345-2.
  30. ^ Vogel, Michelle (2007). Olive Thomas: The Life and Death of a Silent Film Beauty. McFarland. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7864-2908-0.
  31. ^ a b "Thriller and 24 Other Films Named to National Film Registry", Associated Press via Yahoo News (December 30, 2009) Archived January 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "A Happy Homecoming For Long-Lost Silent Films". NPR. April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
  33. ^ "Taylorology" (about William D. Taylor & era), (literateweb.com), September 2003, webpage: LitWeb-WDTaylor[permanent dead link].
  34. ^ Staggs, Sam: Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond and the Dark Hollywood Dream. St. Martin's Griffin Books, 2002 ISBN 978-0-3123-0254-2
  35. ^ "Downton Abbey: Episode 2x01, Part One". October 21, 2011.
  36. ^ Spicer, Megan (January 2, 2014). "Darien yard transformed into Keystone lot for short film". Darien News. Bridgeport, CT. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  37. ^ Hennessy, Christina (June 3, 2014). "Darien-filmed short spotlights cinematic pioneer Mabel Norman". Hearst CT News Blogs. Archived from the original on April 12, 2021. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  38. ^ "Hollywood Cavalcade (1939) - Irving Cummings, Malcolm St. Clair | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie". www.allmovie.com. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  39. ^ Denise Lowe (2005). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Women in Early American Films, 1895–1930. Psychology Press. pp. 406. ISBN 978-0-7890-1843-4.
  40. ^ Kehr, Dave (June 6, 2010). "Trove of Long-Lost Silent Films Returns to America". The New York Times. New York. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 29, 2010.

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External links[edit]