Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty

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Mac Giolla Phádraig / Fitzpatrick
Fitzpatrick of Ossary.svg
Parent houseDál Birn
CountryIreland
Foundedlate 10th century
FounderGilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, heir of Óengus Osrithe through Cerball mac Dúnlainge's son Cellach
Current headVacant
Final rulerBernard FitzPatrick, 2nd Baron Castletown
Titles

Kingdom of Ireland titles:

Dissolution29 May 1937

Mac Giolla Phádraig (pronunciation)[2] (alternately Mac Gilla Pátraic) is a native Irish dynastic surname which translates into English as "Son of the Devotee of (St.) Patrick". In the medieval period, the Mac Giolla Phádraigs were hereditary kings of Osraige; today, the name is commonly translated to "Fitzpatrick".

Name[edit]

The ancient kingdom of Osraige is the patrimony of the Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty.

The name "Giolla Phádraig" first appears in the annals at the end of the tenth century in connection with the Christianized Uí Ímair dynasty of Waterford, and is later found elsewhere.[3] Likely as a consequence of the intermarriage, this surname came to be borne by the leading medieval branch of the Dál Birn lineage, the illustrious ruling dynasty of the neighbouring Osraige. This surname was adopted by the descendants of king Gilla Patráic mac Donnchada who reigned as king of Osraige from 976 to 996.[4] Some scholars speculate a Norse influence on the name.[5] In 1541, by the submission of Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig, then the ruling chief of Upper Ossory and lineal descendant of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, the name was anglicised to Fitz-Patrick, and the majority of the Mac Giolla Phádraig clan followed suit. Many members of the lineage feature prominently in Irish and English politics throughout history.[6][7]

Notable members[edit]

Heritage of the Built-Environment[edit]

Jerpoint Abbey was founded by Domnall Mac Gilla Pátraic I (d. 1176) ca. 1160.

As would be expected, numerous places throughout the historic Osraige and Upper Ossory regions and elsewhere have strong associations with the activity of Clann Giolla Phádraig. These include Jerpoint Abbey in Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny; Aghamacart,[10][11] Aghaboe Abbey, the vicinity of St Canice's Cathedral, Gowran, Grangefertagh near Johnstown, County Kilkenny, Ballagharahin, Co. Laois,[12] Ballaghmore Castle,[13] Cullahill Castle, amongst other places.

Annals and genealogies[edit]

An important Ossorian genealogy for Domnall mac Donnchada mac Gilla Patric is preserved in the Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson B 502, tracing the medieval Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty back to Óengus Osrithe, who supposedly flourished in the first or second century.[14][15] The genealogy goes on further, tracing the pedigree back to Noah (and thus presumably to Adam), but scholars regard this as an attachment of the accounts in Genesis on the back of native tradition. Another early Ossorian genealogy is found in the Book of Leinster.[16]

Arms, Mottoes, and Tartans[edit]

The white saltire on a black field is widely recognized as a standard feature in all Fitzpatrick arms, along with the lion and dragon crest. Different chiefs in the arms generally follow either three or black torteaux on a white chief, or the "French augmentation" of three fleur-de-lis or, on a chief azure - a gift from Henri II upon the 2nd Baron Upper Ossory while he served as ambassador for Edward VI. The Fitzpatrick (Mac Giolla Phádraig) Latin motto – Fortis sub Forte Fatiscet – can be interpreted as "The strong will yield to the strong." A second motto in Irish, "Ceart láidir abú" translates loosely to "Right and Mighty Forever",[17] or more narrowly as "Correct, Strong, to Victory!"

Two tartans are registered for the surname Fitzpatrick; labeled #766 and #1813 with the Scottish Tartan Registry.[18]

Modern Day[edit]

Since 2000, the Fitzpatrick-Mac Giolla Phádraig Clan Society has been at the forefront of researching and promoting the history of the name.[19] Members from across the world have shared information and history, and international and regional clan gatherings have been held in Ireland and the United States for participants to present their research and visit historical sites of interest to the clan. International Clan Gatherings have been held in Portlaoise and Kilkenny city in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2018,[20][21] and regional gatherings have been held in Altamont, New York, Savannah, Georgia, and Albany, New York in 2018 and 2019.

In April 2004, a geophysical survey using ground-penetrating radar discovered what were likely the original foundations of the twelfth century cathedral of the diocese of Ossory and another very large structure which was possibly a royal Mac Giolla Phádraig palace; noting that the site bears a strong resemblance to contemporaneous structures at the Rock of Cashel.[22]

The Mac Giolla Phádraig Way is a hiking trail named after the family connecting communities in southwest County Laois and north County Kilkenny, as part of the Slieve Bloom Way.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Annals of Ulster 1033.4, Annals of Loch Cé 1033.3, Annals of Tigernach 1033.5
  2. ^ Team, Forvo. "Mac Giolla Phádraig pronunciation: How to pronounce Mac Giolla Phádraig in Irish". forvo.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  3. ^ http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/GiollaPhadraig.shtml
  4. ^ U996.2
  5. ^ "THE NORSE IN OSSORY: THE NAMING OF GIOLLAPHADRAIG". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  6. ^ Index of Names in Irish Annals: Gilla Pátraic / Giolla Phádraig: http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/GiollaPhadraig.shtml
  7. ^ D'Alton, John (1 January 1861). Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, 1689: 2d Ed.--enl. J.R. Smith.
  8. ^ "Kings of Osraige". sbaldw.home.mindspring.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  9. ^ Rigg 1889, p. 191.
  10. ^ "AUGHAMACART, or AGHAMACART, a parish". www.libraryireland.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  11. ^ Carrigan, William (1 January 1905). The history and antiquities of the diocese of Ossory. Sealy, Bryers & Walker.
  12. ^ "The Standing Stone: Ballagharahin, Tower House, Co. Laois". www.thestandingstone.ie. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  13. ^ "Welcome to Ballaghmore Castle". www.castleballaghmore.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  14. ^ Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502; CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G105003.html
  15. ^ Digital images of Rawlinson B502 folios from Oxford Bodleian Library: http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=bodleian&manuscript=msrawlb502
  16. ^ Baldwin. Ossorian Tribal Genealogies: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/Ireland/Osr/lists/Osraige.htm
  17. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ http://fitzpatricksociety.com/heraldry-and-tartan/
  19. ^ [*The Fitzpatrick – Mac Giolla Phádraig Clan Society *[https://fitzpatricksociety.com/ The Fitzpatrick – Mac Giolla Phádraig Clan Society]] Check |url= value (help). Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ http://fitzpatricksociety.com/gatherings/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ http://genforum.genealogy.com/fitzpatrick/messages/3138.html
  22. ^ Cóilín Ó Drisceoil. "Probing the past: a geophysical survey at St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny." Old Kilkenny Review No. 58 (2004) p. 80-106. Print.
  23. ^ Cached image, accessed 19 February 2015: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Z0AhCaqjSlEJ:https://www.facebook.com/MacGiollaPhadraigWay+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

External links[edit]