Mac OS Roman

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Mac OS Roman
MIME / IANAmacintosh
Alias(es)mac, MacRoman, x-mac-roman
Language(s)English, various others
ClassificationExtended ASCII, Mac OS script
ExtendsASCII, Macintosh character set

Mac OS Roman is a character encoding created by Apple Computer, Inc. for use by Macintosh computers.[1] It is suitable for representing text in English and several other Western languages. Mac OS Roman encodes 256 characters, the first 128 of which are identical to ASCII, with the remaining characters including mathematical symbols, diacritics, and additional punctuation marks. Mac OS Roman is an extension of the original Macintosh character set, which encoded only 217 characters.[1] Full support for Mac OS Roman first appeared in macOS 6.0.4, released in 1989,[2] and the encoding is still supported in current versions of macOS, though the standard character encodings are now UTF-8 or UTF-16. Apple modified Mac OS Roman in 1998 with the release of macOS 8.5 by replacing the currency sign at position hexadecimal 0xDB with the euro sign,[3] but otherwise the encoding has been unchanged since its release.

Character set[edit]

The following table shows how characters are encoded in Mac OS Roman. The row and column headings give the first and second digit of the hexadecimal code for each character in the table. Below each character is the scalar value of the character's Unicode equivalent.

Mac OS Roman[4]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_ NUL
0000
SOH
0001
STX
0002
ETX
0003
EOT
0004
ENQ
0005
ACK
0006
BEL
0007
BS
0008
HT
0009
LF
000A
VT
000B
FF
000C
CR
000D
SO
000E
SI
000F
1_ DLE
0010
DC1
0011
DC2
0012
DC3
0013
DC4
0014
NAK
0015
SYN
0016
ETB
0017
CAN
0018
EM
0019
SUB
001A
ESC
001B
FS
001C
GS
001D
RS
001E
US
001F
2_ SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_ 0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_ @
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_ P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_ `
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_ p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
DEL
007F
8_ Ä
00C4
Å
00C5
Ç
00C7
É
00C9
Ñ
00D1
Ö
00D6
Ü
00DC
á
00E1
à
00E0
â
00E2
ä
00E4
ã
00E3
å
00E5
ç
00E7
é
00E9
è
00E8
9_ ê
00EA
ë
00EB
í
00ED
ì
00EC
î
00EE
ï
00EF
ñ
00F1
ó
00F3
ò
00F2
ô
00F4
ö
00F6
õ
00F5
ú
00FA
ù
00F9
û
00FB
ü
00FC
A_
2020
°
00B0
¢
00A2
[a]
£
00A3
[a]
§
00A7

2022

00B6
ß
00DF
®
00AE
©
00A9
[a]

2122
´
00B4
¨
00A8

2260
Æ
00C6
Ø
00D8
B_
221E
±
00B1
[a]

2264

2265
¥
00A5
µ
00B5
[a]

2202

2211

220F
π
03C0

222B
ª
00AA
º
00BA
Ω
03A9
æ
00E6
ø
00F8
C_ ¿
00BF
¡
00A1
¬
00AC

221A
ƒ
0192

2248

2206
«
00AB
»
00BB

2026
NBSP
00A0
À
00C0
Ã
00C3
Õ
00D5
Œ
0152
œ
0153
D_
2013

2014

201C

201D

2018

2019
÷
00F7

25CA
ÿ
00FF
Ÿ
0178

2044
[b]
20AC

2039

203A

FB01

FB02
E_
2021
·
00B7

201A

201E

2030
Â
00C2
Ê
00CA
Á
00C1
Ë
00CB
È
00C8
Í
00CD
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
Ì
00CC
Ó
00D3
Ô
00D4
F_ Apple logo black.svg[c]
F8FF
Ò
00D2
Ú
00DA
Û
00DB
Ù
00D9
ı
0131
ˆ
02C6
˜
02DC
¯
00AF
˘
02D8
˙
02D9
˚
02DA
¸
00B8
˝
02DD
˛
02DB
ˇ
02C7

  Letter  Number  Punctuation  Symbol  Other  Undefined

  1. ^ a b c d e The codes 0xA2, 0xA3, 0xA9, 0xB1, and 0xB5 coincidentally have the same character assignment as ISO 8859-1 (and thus Unicode).
  2. ^ Before macOS 8.5, the character at position 0xDB was the currency sign (¤), Unicode character U+00A4.
  3. ^ The character at position 0xF0 is a solid Apple logo. Apple uses Unicode character U+F8FF in the Corporate Private Use Area for this character, but it may not be supported on non-Apple systems.

Technical notes[edit]

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority identifies this encoding using the string "macintosh". The MIME Content-Type for this encoding is therefore "text/plain; charset=macintosh". The Microsoft Windows code page number is 10000. IBM uses code page/CCSID 1275.[5][6][7][8]

With the release of Mac OS X, Mac OS Roman and all other "scripts" (as classic Mac OS called them) were replaced by UTF-8 as the standard character encoding for the Macintosh operating system. However, the default character encoding in Java for Mac OS X remained MacRoman,[9] and the keyboard layout with its combination of control, option, and dead keys still map to the original characters in MacRoman. The default character encoding for Java can be changed to UTF-8 by adding the following line to .profile:

JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS:+$JAVA_OPTS }-Dfile.encoding=UTF-8"
export JAVA_OPTS

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Apple Computer, Inc. (1993). Inside Macintosh: Text (PDF). p. 1-53. ISBN 0-201-63298-5. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  2. ^ Apple Computer, Inc. (1991). Inside Macintosh, Volume VI. p. 14-104. ISBN 0-201-57755-0.
  3. ^ Apple Computer, Inc. (September 14, 1998). "Technical Note TN1104: The Euro Currency Symbol". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  4. ^ Apple Computer, Inc. (1993). Inside Macintosh: Text (PDF). pp. 1–54, A-5–A-18. ISBN 0-201-63298-5. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  5. ^ "Code page 1275 information document". Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  6. ^ "CCSID 1275 information document". Archived from the original on 2016-03-27.
  7. ^ Code Page CPGID 01275 (pdf) (PDF), IBM
  8. ^ Code Page CPGID 01275 (txt), IBM
  9. ^ "Java Development Guide for Mac: User Interface Toolkits for Java". Archived from the original on 2012-11-19.