Macau Grand Prix

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Macau Grand Prix
Guia Circuit
Circuito da Guia GP.svg
Race information
Number of times held 63
First held 1954
Most wins (drivers) Hong Kong John MacDonald (4)
Circuit length 6.120 km (3.803 mi)
Race length 91.800 km (57.042 mi)
Laps 15
Last race (2016)
Pole position
Podium
Fastest lap
The entry into the Lisboa corner, Guia Circuit

The Macau Grand Prix (澳門格蘭披治大賽車) is a motor-racing event held annually in Macau, one of China's Special Administrative Regions. It is known for being the only street circuit racing event in which both car and motorcycle races are held.

The first Macau Grand Prix event was held in 1954, as a sports car event. In 1961, the title race became an open-wheel Formula Libre event. The event has also had a variety of support races in its duration. Production cars joined the event in 1957, which were superseded by touring cars in 1972. The event received world championship status from 2005 to 2014 as the final round of the World Touring Car Championship. In 1976, the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix was introduced.[1] In 2008, a GT3 race was added to the event, which became known as the FIA GT World Cup.

The highlight of the race weekend is the Macau Formula Three Grand Prix, featuring many national Formula Three champions and drivers from around the world, with the winner being awarded the FIA Formula 3 World Cup. Due to the challenging nature of the circuit, which consists of fast straights (a Formula Three car can reach a top speed of 275 km/h (171 mph) at the end of the straight[2]), tight corners and uncompromising crash barriers, the Macau Grand Prix is famously known as one of the most demanding circuits in the world. Many current or former Formula One drivers have participated in the event early in their careers and some of them have won the prestigious prize. Famous winners include Riccardo Patrese, Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher, David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher, Takuma Sato, Lucas di Grassi, Edoardo Mortara, Antonio Felix da Costa and Felix Rosenqvist.

History[edit]

The Macau Grand Prix was originally conceived in 1954 as a treasure hunt around the streets of the city,[3] but shortly after, it was suggested that the hunt's track could host a professional racing event for local motor enthusiasts. The race continued as an amateur race until 1966, when Belgian driver Mauro Bianchi entered the race in an Alpine A220 (chassis #1722).[4] Alpine Renault had also sent engineer Jean-Paul Castilleux to assist Bianchi with technical aspects of the car.[5] Bianchi's victory and exposure led to more professional racing teams entering the Grand Prix in the following years.

The motorcycle race was introduced in 1967, and in that year the first fatal tragedy struck the race: double champion Dodjie Laurel was killed when he lost control of his car and crashed. This raised the alarm for more safety improvements for the race. Teddy Yip was one of the main forces behind the Macau Grand Prix back in the 1970s and 1980s, leading this Grand Prix to be one of the world's most famous motor racing events. The Macau Grand Prix parties he hosted for many years at his home also became a central part of the social aspect of the Grand Prix.

In 1983, it was decided by the organisers that since Formula Pacific was becoming obsolete, the race would be held as a Formula Three event. Initially, they wanted to run a F2 race, but as they were unwilling to make any large circuit modifications, which included cutting down trees, the organisers decided to adopt Formula 3 cars for the feature race and it was sanctioned by FIA as the F3 World Cup title race. At the same time, Yokohama Tire was officially designated as the sole supplier of control tires for the competitors.[6]

This decision has seen the reputation of the event in the motorsport world increase rapidly, with the event attracting the best young drivers from Europe and Japan. The first F3 race was won by a young Ayrton Senna. The race in 1990 was a memorable one, as Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen were involved in an incident when they were in positions 1 and 2 going into the final lap. At the main straight just after the Mandarin Oriental Bend, Häkkinen hit the back of Schumacher's car and crashed out when he attempted to overtake him. Schumacher's car was able to continue with its rear wing damaged and eventually won the race with the best aggregate time. Other notable winners include Formula One drivers David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher and Takuma Sato. Since the introduction of F3 races, the Macau GP has gradually become a stepping stone for many F3 drivers to higher class motor-racing competitions such as the GP2 Series and Formula One.

Along with the New Zealand Grand Prix, the race is one of only two non-Formula One events to receive the Grand Prix title.

Format[edit]

The 2008 Macau Grand Prix in progress.

The Macau Grand Prix race weekend normally starts on the Thursday and ends on the Sunday on the second or third week of November. The first two days (Thursday and Friday) are generally scheduled for practice and qualifying. All races are held on Saturday and Sunday, with the final rounds of the heavyweights Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix and the Guia Race (the final 2 rounds of the TCR International Series since 2015), as well as the FIA GT World Cup, held on the last day. Both the Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix and the Guia Race are sanctioned by the FIA and the winner of the Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix is awarded the FIA World Cup. Apart from the two major races held at the race weekend, the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix is also one of the highlights of the weekend since it features former or current racers of the Superbike World Championship. Other races include the Formula BMW Pacific race, and for locals and Hong Kong drivers who want a slice of the action, Interport Race for novices, CTM Cup race the experienced.

Newly introduced into the 2007 race Macau GT Cup is the race for GT3 category cars. Since 2015 the winner of the race is awarded the FIA GT World Cup.

Races that have been held in the past but have since been discontinued includes the ATCS race, Supercar Cup for road going exotic sports cars, the Formula Renault race, the Porsche Carrera Cup Asia race, the scooter race for locals and in the past but on a less than frequent basis, a Jackie Chan endorsed race for celebrity women drivers (partnered with pro racers) involving Mitsubishis, with whom Chan hold a sponsorship deal.

Circuit[edit]

Main article: Guia Circuit

The 3.8 miles (6.2 km) Guia Circuit features a combination of fast straights and tight corners, with the circuit's minimum width being only seven metres. It is recognised as one of the most challenging circuits in the world.[7]

Title Race[edit]

Winners[edit]

Year GP Winner Entrant Chassis – Engine Rules
1954 Macau Eduardo de Carvalho Triumph TR2 Sports car
1955 United Kingdom Robert Ritchie Austin-Healey 100 Sports car
1956 Hong Kong Doug Steane Mercedes-Benz 190SL Sports car
1957 United Kingdom Arthur Pateman Mercedes-Benz 300SL Sports car
1958 Singapore Chan Lye Choun Aston Martin DB3S Sports car
1959 Hong Kong Ron Hardwick Jaguar XKSS Sports car
1960 Hong Kong Martin Redfern Jaguar XKSS Sports car
1961 United Kingdom Peter Heath Lotus 15-Climax Formula Libre
1962 Philippines Arsenio Laurel Lotus 22-Ford Formula Libre
1963 Philippines Arsenio Laurel Lotus 22-Ford Formula Libre
1964 Hong Kong Albert Poon (zh) Lotus 23-Ford Formula Libre
1965 Hong Kong John MacDonald Lotus 18-Ford Formula Libre
1966 Belgium Mauro Bianchi (fr) Alpine-Renault T66 Formula Libre
1967 Malaysia Tony Maw Lotus 20B-Ford Formula Libre
1968 Singapore Jan Bussell McLaren M4C Formula Libre
1969 Australia Kevin Bartlett Mildren-Waggott Formula Libre
1970 Austria Dieter Quester BMW F270 Formula Libre
1971 Singapore Jan Bussell McLaren M4C Formula Libre
1972 Hong Kong John MacDonald Brabham BT36 Formula Libre
1973 Hong Kong John MacDonald Brabham BT40 Formula Libre
1974 Australia Vern Schuppan Hong Kong Theodore Racing March 72B-Ford Formula Pacific
1975 Hong Kong John MacDonald Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1976 Australia Vern Schuppan Hong Kong Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1977 Italy Riccardo Patrese Hong Kong Bob Harper Racing Chevron B40-Ford Formula Pacific
1978 Italy Riccardo Patrese Hong Kong Bob Harper Racing Chevron B42-Ford Formula Pacific
1979 United Kingdom Geoff Lees Hong Kong Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1980 United Kingdom Geoff Lees Hong Kong Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1981 United States Bob Earl Hayashi 200P-Toyota Formula Pacific
1982 Brazil Roberto Moreno Ralt RT4-Ford Formula Pacific
Year Formula 3 GP Winner Entrant Chassis – Engine Main Series of the winner
1983 Brazil Ayrton Senna United Kingdom West Surrey Racing Ralt RT3-Toyota British Formula 3 Championship
1984 Denmark John Nielsen West Germany Volkswagen Motorsport Ralt RT3-Volkswagen German Formula Three Championship
1985 Brazil Maurício Gugelmin United Kingdom West Surrey Racing Ralt RT30-Volkswagen British Formula 3 Championship
1986 United Kingdom Andy Wallace United Kingdom Madgwick Motorsport Reynard 863-Volkswagen British Formula 3 Championship
1987 United Kingdom Martin Donnelly United Kingdom Intersport Racing Ralt RT31-Toyota British Formula 3 Championship
1988 Italy Enrico Bertaggia Italy Forti Corse Dallara 388-Alfa Romeo Italian Formula Three Championship
1989 Australia David Brabham United Kingdom Bowman Racing Ralt RT33 (de)-Volkswagen/Spiess British Formula 3 Championship
1990 West Germany Michael Schumacher West Germany WTS Racing Reynard 903-Volkswagen/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1991 United Kingdom David Coulthard United Kingdom Paul Stewart Racing Ralt RT35-Honda/Mugen German Formula Three Championship
1992 Sweden Rickard Rydell Japan Team TOM'S TOM'S 032F-Toyota All-Japan Formula Three Championship
1993 Germany Jörg Müller Austria RSM Marko Dallara 393-Fiat/Novamotor German Formula Three Championship
1994 Germany Sascha Maassen West Germany WTS Racing Dallara F394-Opel/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1995 Germany Ralf Schumacher West Germany WTS Racing Dallara F394-Opel/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1996 Republic of Ireland Ralph Firman United Kingdom Paul Stewart Racing Dallara F396-Honda/Mugen-NBE British Formula 3 Championship
1997 France Soheil Ayari France Graff Racing Dallara F396-Opel/Spiess International Formula 3000
1998 United Kingdom Peter Dumbreck Japan Team TOM'S Dallara F398-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
1999 United Kingdom Darren Manning Japan Team TOM'S Dallara F399-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2000 Macau André Couto Germany Bertram Schäfer Racing Dallara F399-Opel/Spiess International Formula 3000
2001 Japan Takuma Sato United Kingdom Carlin Motorsport Dallara F301-Honda/Mugen-NBE British Formula 3 Championship
2002 France Tristan Gommendy France ASM Dallara F302-Renault/Sodemo French Formula Three Championship
2003 France Nicolas Lapierre France Signature Plus Dallara F302-Renault/Sodemo Formula 3 Euro Series
2004 France Alexandre Prémat France ASM Dallara F304-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2005 Brazil Lucas di Grassi United Kingdom Manor Motorsport Dallara F304-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2006 United Kingdom Mike Conway United Kingdom Räikkönen Robertson Racing Dallara F306-Mercedes/HWA British Formula 3 Championship
2007 United Kingdom Oliver Jarvis Japan Team TOM'S Dallara F307-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2008 Japan Keisuke Kunimoto Japan Team TOM'S Dallara F308 (de)-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2009 Italy Edoardo Mortara France Signature Plus Dallara F308 (de)-Volkswagen GP2 Series
2010 Italy Edoardo Mortara France Signature Plus Dallara F308 (de)-Volkswagen Formula 3 Euro Series
2011 Spain Daniel Juncadella Italy Prema Powerteam Dallara F308 (de)-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2012 Portugal António Félix da Costa United Kingdom Carlin Motorsport Dallara F312 (de)-Volkswagen GP3 Series
2013 United Kingdom Alex Lynn Italy Prema Powerteam Dallara F312 (de)-Mercedes European Formula 3 Championship
2014 Sweden Felix Rosenqvist Germany Mücke Motorsport Dallara F312 (de)-Mercedes European Formula 3 Championship
2015 Sweden Felix Rosenqvist Italy Prema Powerteam Dallara F315-Mercedes European Formula 3 Championship
2016 Portugal António Félix da Costa[8] United Kingdom Carlin Dallara F316-Volkswagen DTM/Formula E

Multiple winners[edit]

Wins Driver Years
4 Hong Kong John MacDonald 1965, 1972, 1973, 1975
2 Philippines Arsenio Laurel 1962, 1963
Singapore Jan Bussell 1968, 1971
Australia Vern Schuppan 1974, 1976
Italy Riccardo Patrese 1977, 1978
United Kingdom Geoff Lees 1979, 1980
Italy Edoardo Mortara 2009, 2010
Sweden Felix Rosenqvist 2014, 2015
Portugal António Félix da Costa 2012, 2016

Touring cars[edit]

Main article: Guia Race of Macau

The first Guia race for touring cars was held in 1972. The event was notable in that very few touring car races were held on street circuits at the time. From 2005 to 2014, the race became the final two rounds of the FIA World Touring Car Championship. In 2015, the category was replaced by the TCR International Series with Robert Huff winning both the last WTCC and first TCR races at the circuit. Huff has won a record eight races at the circuit.

Winners[edit]

Year Touring Car Winner[note 1] Car Report
1957
to
1962
unknown
1963 Hong Kong Albert Poon (zh) Lotus Cortina
1964 West Germany Eugen Böhringer (de) Mercedes-Benz 300SE
1965 United States Grant Wolfkill Austin Cooper S
United States George Baker Jaguar Mark 2
1966 Belgium Mauro Bianchi (fr) Alpine A210 (fr)
1967 Hong Kong Albert Poon (zh) Alfa Romeo GTA
1968 HKG Peter Chow
1969 West Germany Erich Waxenberger
Hong Kong Albert Poon (zh)
Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3
1970 Singapore Anne Wong Mini Cooper
1971 West Germany Dieter Glemser Ford Capri 2600RS
1972 Hong Kong John MacDonald Mini Cooper
1973 Hong Kong Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1974 Japan Nobuhide Tachi Toyota Celica
1975 Japan Nobuhide Tachi Toyota Celica
1976 Hong Kong Herb Adamczyk Porsche 911 Carrera RS
1977 Hong Kong Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1978 Hong Kong Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1979 Hong Kong Herb Adamczyk Porsche 911 Carrera RSR
1980 West Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck BMW 320i
1981 West Germany Manfred Winkelhock BMW 320i
1982 West Germany Helmut Greiner Porsche 935
1983 West Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck BMW 635 CSI
1984 United Kingdom Tom Walkinshaw Jaguar XJS
1985 Italy Gianfranco Brancatelli Volvo 240 Turbo
1986 Venezuela Johnny Cecotto Volvo 240 Turbo
1987 Italy Roberto Ravaglia BMW M3
1988 West Germany Altfrid Heger BMW M3
1989 United Kingdom Tim Harvey Ford Sierra RS500
1990 Japan Masahiro Hasemi Nissan Skyline GT-R
1991 Italy Emanuele Pirro BMW M3 Evolution
1992 Italy Emanuele Pirro BMW M3 Evolution
1993 Hong Kong Charles Kwan BMW M3 Evolution
1994 Germany Joachim Winkelhock BMW 318is
1995 United Kingdom Kelvin Burt Toyota Corona EXIV
1996 Germany Frank Biela Audi A4 Quattro
1997 United Kingdom Steve Soper BMW 320i
1998 Germany Joachim Winkelhock BMW 320i
1999 Germany Michael Bartels Audi A4 Quattro
2000 Netherlands Patrick Huisman BMW 320i
2001 Netherlands Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2002 Netherlands Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2003 Netherlands Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2004 Germany Jörg Müller BMW 320i
FIA World Touring Car Championship
2005 Brazil Augusto Farfus Alfa Romeo 156 Report
Netherlands Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2006 United Kingdom Andy Priaulx BMW 320si Report
Germany Jörg Müller BMW 320si
2007 Switzerland Alain Menu Chevrolet Lacetti Report
United Kingdom Andy Priaulx BMW 320si
2008 Switzerland Alain Menu Chevrolet Lacetti Report
United Kingdom Robert Huff Chevrolet Lacetti
2009 United Kingdom Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze LT Report
Brazil Augusto Farfus BMW 320si
2010 United Kingdom Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze LT Report
Hungary Norbert Michelisz SEAT León TDI
2011 United Kingdom Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
United Kingdom Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T
2012 France Yvan Muller Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
Switzerland Alain Menu Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T
2013 France Yvan Muller Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
United Kingdom Robert Huff SEAT León WTCC
2014 Argentina José María López Citroën C-Elysée WTCC Report
United Kingdom Robert Huff Lada Granta WTCC
TCR International Series
2015 United Kingdom Robert Huff Honda Civic TCR Report
Switzerland Stefano Comini SEAT León Cup Racer
2016 Switzerland Stefano Comini Volkswagen Golf GTI TCR Report
Portugal Tiago Monteiro Honda Civic TCR

Motorcycles[edit]

Macau is a special event for motorcycle riders. The Motorcycle Grand Prix has featured many famous riders such as Kevin Schwantz, Carl Fogarty, Ron Haslam and Michael Rutter.

Winners[edit]

Year Motorcycle GP Winner Bike Tyres Report
1967 Japan Hiroshi Hasegawa Yamaha RD56
1968 Japan Hiroshi Hasegawa Yamaha 250
1969 Hong Kong John MacDonald Yamaha
1970 Indonesia Benny Hidayat Yamaha YSI
1971 Japan Akiyasu Motohashi Yamaha
1972 Japan Ikujiro Takai (ja) Yamaha TR3
1973 Japan Ken Araoka (ja) Suzuki RG500
1974 Japan Hiroyuki Kawasaki (ja) Yamaha
1975 Japan Hideo Kanaya Yamaha
1976 United Kingdom Chas Mortimer Yamaha
1977 United Kingdom Mick Grant Kawasaki KR750
1978 Japan Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1979 Japan Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1980 Japan Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1981 United Kingdom Ron Haslam Honda RS1123
1982 United Kingdom Ron Haslam Honda RS1123
1983 United Kingdom Ron Haslam Honda NS500
1984 United Kingdom Mick Grant Suzuki RGB500
1985 United Kingdom Ron Haslam Honda RS500
1986 United Kingdom Ron Haslam Elf Honda 500
1987 United Kingdom Ron Haslam ROC Elf Honda 4
1988 United States Kevin Schwantz Suzuki RGV500 Michelin
1989 United Kingdom Robert Dunlop Honda RC30
1990 United Kingdom Steve Hislop Honda RC30
1991 Belgium Didier de Radiguès Suzuki RGV500
1992 United Kingdom Carl Fogarty Harris Yamaha 500
1993 United Kingdom Steve Hislop ROC Yamaha 500
1994 United Kingdom Steve Hislop Harris Yamaha 500
1995 United Kingdom Mike Edwards ROC Yamaha 500 Michelin
1996 United Kingdom Phillip McCallen Yamaha YZR500 Michelin
1997 Switzerland Andreas Hofmann Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R Michelin
1998 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Honda RVF750 RC45
1999 United Kingdom David Jefferies Yamaha YZF-R1
2000 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2001 United Kingdom John McGuinness Honda CBR954RR Dunlop
2002 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Ducati 998 Dunlop
2003 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Ducati 998 Dunlop
2004 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Michelin
2005 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Michelin
2006 United Kingdom Steve Plater Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2007 United Kingdom Steve Plater Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2008 United Kingdom Stuart Easton Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2009 United Kingdom Stuart Easton Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2010 United Kingdom Stuart Easton Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10R Pirelli
2011 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Ducati 1098 Pirelli
2012 United Kingdom Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2013 United Kingdom Ian Hutchinson Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2014 United Kingdom Stuart Easton Kawasaki ZX-10R Metzeler
2015 United Kingdom Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Dunlop
2016 United Kingdom Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Metzeler

GT Cup[edit]

The FIA GT World Cup is a race for GT3-spec cars, organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisation (SRO) and the Automobile General Association Macau-China (AAMC). The event was confirmed by the FIA at the World Motor Sport Council in Geneva on 20 March 2015.[9] The winning driver of the event is the winning driver of the Main Race, but the award for the FIA GT World Cup for Manufacturers is presented to the manufacturer supplying the cars with a manufacturer entry with the highest number of points after addition of the points of its two best cars awarded according to the result of the Main Race.

Winners[edit]

Year Winning Driver Winning Manufacturer Car
Macau GT Cup
2008 Hong Kong Darryl O'Young not applicable Porsche 997 GT3 Cup
2009 Japan Keita Sawa Lamborghini Gallardo GT3
2010 Japan Keita Sawa Lamborghini Gallardo GT3
2011 Italy Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2012 Italy Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2013 Italy Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2014 Germany Maro Engel Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3
FIA GT World Cup
2015 Germany Maro Engel Germany Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3
2016 Belgium Laurens Vanthoor Germany Audi[10] Audi R8 LMS

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chan, Pedro (19 November 2016). "Hickman wins Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  2. ^ Takuma Sato's demonstration of a hot lap around the Guia Circuit, Macau Grand Prix Committee official website
  3. ^ "Fernando Macedo Pinto, one of the founders of the Macau Grand Prix" (in Portuguese). Blog Macau Antigo. Retrieved 2010-10-20. 
  4. ^ Smith, Roy (2010). Alpine & Renault: The Sports Prototypes, Volume 1, 1963–1969. Veloce Publishing Limited. pp. 108–110. ISBN 978-1-84584-191-1. 
  5. ^ Smith, Roy (2010). Alpine & Renault: The Sports Prototypes, Volume 1, 1963–1969. Dorchester, Dorset, England: Veloce Publishing Limited. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-84584-191-1. 
  6. ^ http://www.advan.com/english/event/macaugp/2012/his/index.html
  7. ^ "Lewis Hamilton column: Racing has become more strategic". 
  8. ^ Chan, Pedro (20 November 2016). "Portuguese Antonio Felix da Costa clinches second Macau victory". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  9. ^ "GT World Cup in Macau confirmed". Motorsport.com. Smith, Sam. March 21, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015. 
  10. ^ http://www.fia.com/news/fia-gt-world-cup-won-driver-his-roof

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prior to 1972, production car race

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°11′50″N 113°33′10″E / 22.19722°N 113.55278°E / 22.19722; 113.55278