Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric

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Macedonian Orthodox Church
–Ohrid Archbishopric
Македонска православна црква
–Охридска архиепископија
St Sophia (Ohrid).jpg
Church of St. Sophia, Ohrid, the first synod church of the Archbishopric of Ohrid, depicted on the church's emblem
AbbreviationMOC
TypeEastern Orthodox
ClassificationIndependent Eastern Orthodox (De jure)
TheologyEastern Orthodox theology
PrimateStefan, Metropolitan of Skopje
LanguageChurch Slavonic and Macedonian
HeadquartersSkopje and Ohrid
TerritoryNorth Macedonia
PossessionsUnited States
Canada
Australia
European Union
Founder
Independence1967 from the Serbian Orthodox Church
Recognition
  • Autonomy recognized in 1959
  • Autocephaly not recognized[1][2][3]
Separated fromSerbian Orthodox Church (1967)
Membersapprox. 2,000,000+
Official websitempc.org.mk/

The Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (MOC-OA; Macedonian: Македонска православна црква – Охридска архиепископија (МПЦ-ОА), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva – Ohridska arhiepiskopija (MPC-OA)), or simply the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC; Macedonian: Македонска православна црква (МПЦ), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva (MPC)), is the largest body of Christians in the Republic of North Macedonia. It claims ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Republic of North Macedonia and is also represented in the Macedonian diaspora. In 1959, the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church granted autonomy to the Macedonian Orthodox Church in the then-Socialist Republic of Macedonia as the restoration of the historic Archbishopric of Ohrid,[1] and it remained in canonical unity with the Serbian Church under their Patriarch. In 1967, on the bicentennial anniversary of the abolition of the Archbishopric of Ohrid, the Macedonian Holy Synod unilaterally announced its autocephaly and independence from the Serbian Orthodox Church. The Serbian Holy Synod denounced the decision and condemned the clergy as schismatic.[4] Thenceforth, the Macedonian Church has remained unrecognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and all the other canonical Orthodox churches in defense of Serbian opposition.[1] Since May 2018 however, the Church′s status has been under examination by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.[5][6] The primate of the Macedonian Orthodox Church is the Metropolitan of Skopje and Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia and of Justiniana Prima.

Background[edit]

The Archbishopric of Ohrid circa 1020
Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Alexy I performing a joint ceremony with Metropolitan of Skopje Dositheus II in Skopje, 1962

After the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire, Byzantine Emperor Basil II acknowledged the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and by virtue of special imperial decrees set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges. The Archibishopric was seated in Ohrid in the Byzantine theme of Bulgaria and was established in AD 1019 by lowering the rank of the autocephalous Bulgarian Patriarchate and its subjugation to the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[7][8] In 1767 the Archbishopric was abolished by the Ottoman authorities and annexed to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Efforts were made throughout the nineteenth and the first part of the twentieth centuries to restore the Archdiocese, and in 1874 it became part of the newly established Bulgarian Exarchate. The Christian population of the bishoprics of Skopje and Ohrid voted in 1874 overwhelmingly in favour of joining the Exarchate, and the Bulgarian Exarchate became in control of most of the Macedonian region.

Following Vardar Macedonia's incorporation into Serbia in 1913, several of the Bulgarian Exarchate's dioceses were forcefully taken over by the Serbian Orthodox Church. While the region was occupied by Bulgaria during World War I and World War II, the local dioceses temporarily came under the control of the Bulgarian Exarchate.

Struggle for autocephaly[edit]

Letter from Initiative board addressed to Presidium of ASNOM, asking to organize independent Macedonian orthodox church, February 1945

The first modern assembly of Macedonian clergy was held near Ohrid in 1943.[9] In 1944, an Initiative Board for the organization of the Macedonian Orthodox Church was officially formed.[1] In 1945, the First Clergy and People's Synod met and adopted a Resolution for the restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric as a Macedonian Orthodox Church. It was submitted to the Serbian Orthodox Church, which since 1919 had been the sole church in Vardar Macedonia. The resolution was rejected, but a later one, submitted in 1958 at the Second Clergy and People's Synod, was accepted on June 17, 1959 by the Serbian Orthodox Church under pressure from the Socialist authorities. Dimitrija Stojkovski, a Macedonian, was appointed the first archbishop of Ohrid and Metropolitan of Macedonia under the name Dositheus II.[1] The Macedonian Orthodox Church at that time only held autonomous status.

After the Serbian Church agreed with the decisions, the agreement was celebrated in a common liturgy by the Macedonian priests and the Serbian Patriarch German in Skopje, a sign that the Serbian church recognized the autonomy of the Macedonian Church. In 1962, Serbian Patriarch German II and Russian Patriarch Alexy visited the Macedonian republic.

At its third synod in 1967, on the bicentennial anniversary of the abolition of the Archbishopric of Ohrid, the Macedonian Church proclaimed its autocephaly (full administrative independence). The Serbian Church bishops denounced the decision and condemned the clergy as schismatic.[4] For all the subsequent efforts to gain recognition, the autocephaly of the Macedonian Church is not recognized by other canonical Orthodox churches in defense of Serbian opposition.[1]

Recent history[edit]

The Macedonian Orthodox Church has about 1,200 churches in North Macedonia organized in 10 eparchies, whose bishops make up the "Holy Synod of Bishops", headed by the "Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia". At its session in 1994, the Holy Synod stated that

The autocephalous status of the Macedonian Orthodox Church and the interest of the Macedonian people and state are holy and inalienable values, which it has no intentions of ever giving up.[1]

After Archbishop Mihail was elected in as head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church in 1993, he stated that the church wanted to cooperate with neighboring Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian churches. He hoped that:

we will find understanding after we give our true information about the restoration and autocephaly of the Ohrid Archbishopric and the activities of our dear Macedonian Orthodox Church... the Macedonians are an ancient nation, we are an ancient church, we did not create a church, we renewed our illegally abolished Ohrid Archbishopric.[10]

The church also pays special attention in preserving the national identity and cultural traditions among Macedonian expatriates in Western countries. Many Orthodox churches who are recognized with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople admit the faithful of the Macedonian Orthodox Church to holy communion. The hierarchy of some churches serve with the Macedonian Orthodox priests, but will not serve liturgically with the hierarchy.

Relations with the Serbian Orthodox Church[edit]

Macedonian Cross - one of the symbols of the church.

Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Serbian Patriarchate has sought to restore its control over the Macedonian Church.[10] The Macedonian church sees these efforts, supported by other Orthodox churches,[10] as closely connected to the Serbian government agenda. The main issue of dispute mainly revolves around the church's autocephaly, although there are some other minor issues including North Macedonia's Serb Orthodox minority (according to the last census, there are 40,000 citizens of the country declared as Serbs) and the question of some hundreds of Serb Orthodox shrines from the medieval Nemanjić period.

The two Churches had negotiated the details of a compromise agreement reached in Niš, Serbia, in 2002, which would have given the ethnic Macedonians a de facto independent status just short of canonical autocephaly. The agreement was signed and agreed upon by three Bishops in the Macedonian Orthodox Church (Metropolitan Petar of Australia, Metropolitan Timotej of Debar and Kicevo; and Metropolitan Naum of Strumica). After political officials exerted pressure on the clergy of the MOC for accepting the agreement, the Bishops later reneged on the agreement, leaving only Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid from the Macedonian side in agreement. Suddenly the signed agreement was rejected by the Macedonian government and the Holy Synod of MOC. In turn, the Serbian Orthodox Church granted full autonomy to the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric, its embattled branch in the Republic of North Macedonia, in late May 2005 and appointed Jovan as its Archbishop.

The later chain of events turned into a vicious circle of mutual accusations and incidents involving SOC and, partly, the Serbian government on one side, and MOC, backed by the Macedonian government on the other. The Macedonian side regarded Jovan as a traitor and Serbian puppet. Jovan complained of a new state-backed media campaign against his Church. "They are creating an unstable, explosive atmosphere among the population and are virtually inviting people to lynch us," he told Forum 18 News Service.[11] The government has denied registration to his Church,[12] attacked[clarification needed] its places of worship and launched a criminal case against him. He was arrested, removed from his bishopric and then expelled from the country. He returned in 2005 and, after attempting to perform a baptism, he was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison[13] and jailed[14] with "extremely limited visitation rights".[15] On March 19, 2006, after spending 220 days in prison, archbishop Jovan was released.[16]

In turn, SOC denied a Macedonian delegation access to the monastery of Prohor Pčinjski, which was the usual site of Macedonian celebration of the national holiday of Ilinden (literally meaning St. Elijah Day) on August 2[17] and the site where the First Session of ASNOM was held. Macedonian border police often denied Serbian priests entry into the country in clerical garb.[18]

Despite public appeals from both churches for "Christian brotherhood and unity", both sides did little to settle the dispute.

On 12 November 2009, the Macedonian Orthodox Church added "Ohrid Archbishopric" to its name and changed its coat of arms[19] and flag.

Relations with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church[edit]

On November 18, 2017, Bulgarian National Television announced a letter that it called a "historic document". The Macedonian Church sent it on November 9 to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. It asked to discuss the issue of recognition of the Macedonian Orthodox Church and includes a proposal that the Bulgarian Orthodox Church become Macedonia's 'Mother Church'. The letter was signed by the Macedonian Archbishop Stefan. Bulgarian National Television has supposed that if the Bulgarian Orthodox Church were to agree to this proposal, it would face resistance from the Serbian and Russian Orthodox Churches as well that from the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Among other things, it is claimed in the letter:

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church - Bulgarian Patriarchate, taking into account the unity of the Orthodox Church and the real spiritual and pastoral needs, should establish eucharistic unity with the restored Ohrid Archbishopric in the face of the Macedonian Orthodox Church.[20]

At its meeting on November 27, the Holy Synod accepted the idea of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church becoming Macedonia's Mother Church and agreed to cooperate with it and to advocate before all the Orthodox Churches for the establishment of the canonical status of the Macedonian Church and for its recognition.[21][22][23][24] The MOC thanked the Mother Church BOC.[25][26] The Serbian Church expressed its surprise over the Bulgarian decision to be “mother” to the Macedonian Church.[27]

Organization[edit]

Map of the eight dioceses of North Macedonia (2013-present)

As of 1999, the Macedonian Orthodox Church was headed by Archbishop Stephen of Ohrid and Macedonia. He presides over the Holy Synod of Hierarchs of the church, consisting of 10 metropolitans and 2 titular (vicar) bishops.

Dioceses on the territory of Republic of North Macedonia
  1. Diocese of Skopje, headed by Archbishop Stefan of Ohrid and Macedonia;
  2. Diocese of Tetovo and Gostivar, headed by Metropolitan Joseph;
  3. Diocese of Kumanovo and Osogovo, headed by Metropolitan Joseph;
  4. Diocese of Debar and Kičevo, headed by Metropolitan Timothy;
  5. Diocese of Prespa and Pelagonia, headed by Metropolitan Peter;
  6. Diocese of Strumica, headed by Metropolitan Naum;
  7. Diocese of Bregalnica, headed by Metropolitan Ilarion;
  8. Diocese of Povardarie, headed by Metropolitan Agathangelus
Vicar Bishops
North America
Europe
Australasia

Outside the country, the church is active in 3 dioceses in the Macedonian diaspora. The 10 dioceses of the church are governed by ten Episcopes, with around 500 active priests in about 500 parishes with over 2000 churches and monasteries. The church claims jurisdiction of about twenty living monasteries, with more than 100 monks.

Church calendars follow the old Julian Calendar, and use the archaic names of the months of the year instead of the common Latin-derived names

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. By Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley. p. 381
  2. ^ Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric
  3. ^ "Politics, Power and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe". google.bg.
  4. ^ a b "РУССКАЯ ПРАВОСЛАВНАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ XX ВЕК. 10 ОКТЯБРЯ". Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  5. ^ Orthodox Church of fYROMacedonia returns to normality ibna, 31 May 2018.
  6. ^ The Ecumenical Patriarchate accepts the request of the Schismatic Church of Macedonia (FYROM) to examine its canonical status orthodoxie.com, 31 May 2018.
  7. ^ Nevill Forbes; Arnold J. Toynbee; D. Mitrany; D. G. Hogarth (2004). The Balkans: A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Turkey. Digital Antiquaria. pp. 28–29. ISBN 1-58057-314-2.
  8. ^ Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 528. ISBN 1-58057-314-2.
  9. ^ Macedonia and Greece: the struggle to define a new Balkan nation By John Shea, p. 174
  10. ^ a b c Macedonia and Greece: the struggle to define a new Balkan nation. By John Shea. P. 174
  11. ^ "Forum 18 Search/Archive". Forum18.org. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  12. ^ "Forum 18 Search/Archive". Forum18.org. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  13. ^ "IWPR Institute for War & Peace Reporting". Iwpr.net. 1980-12-25. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  14. ^ "Christianity - Faith in God, Jesus Christ - Christian Living, Trivia". Archived from the original on 25 March 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  15. ^ "Southeast Europe Online". Southeasteurope.org. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  16. ^ "Free Archbishop Jovan (John) VI » Archbishop kyr kyr Jovan (John) VI is released from prison". freearchbishop.com.
  17. ^ "Press Online". Lobi.com.mk. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  18. ^ "Eca 15". Hrw.org. 1999-10-31. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  19. ^ "Македонската Православна Црква со нов грб - Македонско хералдичко здружение". heraldika.org.mk.
  20. ^ Македонската архиепископия е готова да признае БПЦ за Църква-майка. "Вяра и общество с Горан Благоев" - 18.11.2017.
  21. ^ Рeшение на Св. Синод по повод отправено писмо от Македонската православна църква, 27 ноември 2017, Българска Патриаршия.
  22. ^ Orthodox Christianity, Bulgarian Holy synod will do all it can to make Macedonian church canonical, Sofia, November 27, 2017.
  23. ^ Kurir News Agency, 28.11.2017. BOC accepted to be mother-church of MOC-OA
  24. ^ Светият синод реши БПЦ да стане "майка" на македонската църква Мия Димитрова 27 Ноември 2017, Нова телевизия - NOVA.
  25. ^ Вести и настани. Македонска Православна Црква. 27.11.2017, МПЦ ѝ благодари на Мајката-Црква БПЦ.
  26. ^ МПЦ благодарна на Мајката-Црква БПЦ, 27.11.2017, автор Катерина Блажевска, Deutsche Welle.
  27. ^ Bulgarian Orthodox Synod supports the Macedonian Church strive for recognition. Vlady Raichinov, 30 Nov. 2017, EVANGELICAL FOCUS.
  28. ^ Д-р Славко Димевски, Митрополитот скопски Теодосиј - Живот и дејност - (1846-1926), Скопје 1965, 138.

External links[edit]

Dioceses[edit]

Churches and monasteries[edit]

Coordinates: 41°59′54″N 21°25′37″E / 41.99833°N 21.42694°E / 41.99833; 21.42694