Jump to content

Macedonians (ethnic group)

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world
Regions with significant populations
North Macedonia North Macedonia 1,073,375[1]
 Australia111,352 (2021 census)–200,000[2][3]
 Germany115,210 (2020)[3][4]
 Italy65,347 (2017)[5]
 United States61,753–200,000[6][3]
 Canada43,110 (2016 census)–200,000[9][10]
 Turkey31,518 (2001 census)[11]
 Serbia22,755 (2011 census)[13]
 United Kingdom9,000 (est.)[3]
 Albania2,281 (2023 census)[17]
 Denmark5,392 (2018)[18]
 Sweden4,491 (2009)[20]
 Croatia4,138 (2011 census)[21]
 Slovenia3,972 (2002 census)[22]
 Belgium3,419 (2002)[23]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina2,278 (2005)[26]
 Czech Republic2,011[27]
 Romania1,264 (2011 census)[30]
 Bulgaria1,143 (2021 census)[31]
 Montenegro900 (2011 census)[32]
 New Zealand807–1,500[33][34]
Predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christianity
(Macedonian Orthodox Church)
Minority Sunni Islam (Torbeši)
(Roman Catholic and Macedonian Greek Catholic)
Related ethnic groups
Other South Slavs, especially Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia, Bulgarians[a] and Torlak speakers in Serbia

Macedonians (Macedonian: Македонци, romanizedMakedonci) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe. They speak Macedonian, a South Slavic language. The large majority of Macedonians identify as Eastern Orthodox Christians, who share a cultural and historical "Orthodox Byzantine–Slavic heritage" with their neighbours. About two-thirds of all ethnic Macedonians live in North Macedonia and there are also communities in a number of other countries.

The concept of a Macedonian ethnicity, distinct from their Orthodox Balkan neighbours, is seen to be a comparatively newly emergent one.[b] The earliest manifestations of an incipient Macedonian identity emerged during the second half of the 19th century[46][47][48] among limited circles of Slavic-speaking intellectuals, predominantly outside the region of Macedonia. They arose after the First World War and especially during the 1930s, and thus were consolidated by Communist Yugoslavia's governmental policy after the Second World War.[c] The formation of the ethnic Macedonians as a separate community has been shaped by population displacement[54] as well as by language shift,[55][dubiousdiscuss] both the result of the political developments in the region of Macedonia during the 20th century. Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the decisive point in the ethnogenesis of the South Slavic ethnic group was the creation of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia after World War II, a state in the framework of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This was followed by the development of a separate Macedonian language and national literature, and the foundation of a distinct Macedonian Orthodox Church and national historiography.


Ancient and Roman period

In antiquity, much of central-northern Macedonia (the Vardar basin) was inhabited by Paionians who expanded from the lower Strymon basin. The Pelagonian plain was inhabited by the Pelagones and the Lyncestae, ancient Greek tribes of Upper Macedonia; whilst the western region (Ohrid-Prespa) was said to have been inhabited by Illyrian tribes, such as the Enchelae.[56] During the late Classical Period, having already developed several sophisticated polis-type settlements and a thriving economy based on mining,[57] Paeonia became a constituent province of the ArgeadMacedonian kingdom.[58] In 310 BC, the Celts attacked deep into the south, subduing various local tribes, such as the Dardanians, the Paeonians and the Triballi. Roman conquest brought with it a significant Romanization of the region. During the Dominate period, 'barbarian' foederati were settled on Macedonian soil at times; such as the Sarmatians settled by Constantine the Great (330s AD)[59] or the (10 year) settlement of Alaric I's Goths.[60] In contrast to 'frontier provinces', Macedonia (north and south) continued to be a flourishing Christian, Roman province in Late Antiquity and into the Early Middle Ages.[60][61]

Medieval period

Linguistically, the South Slavic languages from which Macedonian developed are thought to have expanded in the region during the post-Roman period, although the exact mechanisms of this linguistic expansion remains a matter of scholarly discussion.[62] Traditional historiography has equated these changes with the commencement of raids and 'invasions' of Sclaveni and Antes from Wallachia and western Ukraine during the 6th and 7th centuries.[63] However, recent anthropological and archaeological perspectives have viewed the appearance of Slavs in Macedonia, and throughout the Balkans in general, as part of a broad and complex process of transformation of the cultural, political and ethnolinguistic Balkan landscape before the collapse of Roman authority. The exact details and chronology of population shifts remain to be determined.[64][65] What is beyond dispute is that, in contrast to "barbarian" Bulgaria, northern Macedonia remained Roman in its cultural outlook into the 7th century.[61] Yet at the same time, sources attest numerous Slavic tribes in the environs of Thessaloniki and further afield, including the Berziti in Pelagonia.[66] Apart from Slavs and late Byzantines, Kuver's "Sermesianoi"[67] – a mix of Byzantine Greeks, Bulgars and Pannonian Avars – settled the "Keramissian plain" (Pelagonia) around Bitola in the late 7th century.[68][69][70][71] Later pockets of settlers included "Danubian" Bulgars[72][73] in the 9th century; Magyars (Vardariotai)[74] and Armenians in the 10th–12th centuries,[75] Cumans and Pechenegs in the 11th–13th centuries,[76] and Saxon miners in the 14th and 15th centuries.[77] Vlachs (Aromanians) and Arbanasi (Albanians) also inhabited this area in the Middle ages and mingeled with the local Slavic-speakers.[78][79]

Having previously been Byzantine clients, the Sklaviniae of Macedonia switched their allegiance to the Bulgarians with their incorporation into the Bulgarian Empire in the mid-800s.[80] In the 860s, Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius, created the Glagolitic alphabet and Slavonic liturgy based on the Slavic dialect around Thessaloniki for a mission to Great Moravia.[81][82][83] After the demise of the Great Moravian mission in 886, exiled students of the two apostles brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the Bulgarian Empire, where Khan Boris I of Bulgaria (r. 852–889) welcomed them. As part of his efforts to limit Byzantine influence and assert Bulgarian independence, he adopted Slavic as official ecclesiastical and state language and established the Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School, which taught Slavonic liturgy and the Glagolitic and subsequently the Cyrillic alphabet.[84][85][86] The success of Boris I's efforts was a major factor in making the Slavs in Macedonia—and the other Slavs within the First Bulgarian State—into Bulgarians and transforming the Bulgar state into a Bulgarian state.[87][88] Subsequently, the literary and ecclesiastical centre in Ohrid became a second cultural capital of medieval Bulgaria.[89][90]

Ottoman period

After the final Ottoman conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans in the 14/15th century, all Eastern Orthodox Christians were included in a specific ethno-religious community under Graeco-Byzantine jurisdiction called Rum Millet. Belonging to this religious commonwealth was so important that most of the common people began to identify themselves as Christians.[91] However ethnonyms never disappeared and some form of primary ethnic identity was available.[92] This is confirmed from a Sultan's Firman from 1680 which describes the ethnic groups in the Balkan territories of the Empire as follows: Greeks, Albanians, Serbs, Vlachs and Bulgarians.[93]

Throughout the Middle Ages and Ottoman rule up until the early 20th century[52][53][94] the Slavic-speaking population majority in the region of Macedonia were more commonly referred to (both by themselves and outsiders) as Bulgarians.[95][96][97] However, in pre-nationalist times, terms such as "Bulgarian" did not possess a strict ethno-nationalistic meaning, rather, they were loose, often interchangeable terms which could simultaneously denote regional habitation, allegiance to a particular empire, religious orientation, membership in certain social groups.[d] Similarly, a "Byzantine" was a Roman subject of Constantinople, and the term bore no strict ethnic connotations, Greek or otherwise.[102] Overall, in the Middle Ages, "a person's origin was distinctly regional",[103] and in Ottoman era, before the 19th-century rise of nationalism, it was based on the corresponding confessional community.

The rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century brought opposition to this continued situation. At that time, the classical Rum Millet began to degrade. The coordinated actions, carried out by Bulgarian national leaders and supported by the majority of the Slavic-speaking population in today's Republic of North Macedonia (the second anti-Greek revolt was in Skopje) to have a separate "Bulgarian Millet", finally bore fruit in 1870 when a firman for the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate was issued.[104] In September 1872, the Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI declared the Exarchate schismatic and excommunicated its adherents, accusing them of having “surrendered Orthodoxy to ethnic nationalism”, i.e., "ethnophyletism" (Greek: εθνοφυλετισμός).[105] At the time of its creation, the only Vardar Macedonian bishopric included in the Exarchate was Veles.[106]

However, in 1874, the Christian population of the bishoprics of Skopje and Ohrid were given the chance to participate in a plebiscite, where they voted overwhelmingly in favour of joining the Exarchate (Skopje by 91%, Ohrid by 97%)[107][108] Referring to the results of the plebiscites, and on the basis of statistical and ethnological indications, the 1876 Conference of Constantinople included all of present-day North Macedonia (except for the Debar region) and parts of present-day Greek Macedonia.[109] The borders of new Bulgarian state, drawn by the 1878 Treaty of San Stefano, also included Macedonia, but the treaty was never put into effect and the Treaty of Berlin (1878) "returned" Macedonia to the Ottoman Empire.

For Christian Slav peasants, however, the choice between the Patriarchate and the Exarchate was not tainted with national meaning, but was a choice of Church or millet. Thus adherence to the Bulgarian national cause was attractive as a means of opposing oppressive Christian chiflik owners and urban merchants, who usually identified with the Greek nation, as a way to escape arbitrary taxation by Patriarchate bishops, via shifting allegiance to the Exarchate and on account of the free (and, occasionally, even subsidized) provision of education in Bulgarian schools.[110][111] Alignment of the Slavs of Macedonia with the Bulgarian, the Greek or sometimes the Serbian national camp did not imply adherence to different national ideologies: these camps were not stable, culturally distinct groups, but parties with national affiliations, described by contemporaries as "sides", "wings", "parties" or "political clubs".[112]


Georgi Pulevski is the first known person, who in 1875 put forward the idea on the existence of a separate (Slavic) Macedonian language and ethnicity.[113]

The first expressions of Macedonian nationalism occurred in the second half of the 19th century mainly among intellectuals in Belgrade, Sofia, Thessaloniki and St. Petersburg.[114] Since the 1850s some Slavic intellectuals from the area adopted the Greek designation Macedonian as a regional label, and it began to gain popularity.[115] In the 1860s, according to Petko Slaveykov, some young intellectuals from Macedonia were claiming that they are not Bulgarians, but rather Macedonians, descendants of the Ancient Macedonians.[116] Slaveikov, himself with Macedonian roots,[117] started in 1866 the publication of the newspaper Makedoniya. Its main task was "to educate these misguided [sic] Grecomans there", who he called also Macedonists.[118] In a letter written to the Bulgarian Exarch in February 1874 Petko Slaveykov reports that discontent with the current situation "has given birth among local patriots to the disastrous idea of working independently on the advancement of their own local dialect and what's more, of their own, separate Macedonian church leadership."[119] The activities of these people were also registered by the Serbian politician Stojan Novaković,[120] who promoted the idea to use the Macedonian nationalism in order to oppose the strong pro-Bulgarian sentiments in the area.[121] The nascent Macedonian nationalism, illegal at home in the theocratic Ottoman Empire, and illegitimate internationally, waged a precarious struggle for survival against overwhelming odds: in appearance against the Ottoman Empire, but in fact against the three expansionist Balkan states and their respective patrons among the great powers.[122]

The first known author that overtly speaks of a Macedonian nationality and language was Georgi Pulevski, who in 1875 published in Belgrade a Dictionary of Three languages: Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, in which he wrote that the Macedonians are a separate nation and the place which is theirs is called Macedonia.[123] In 1880, he published in Sofia a Grammar of the language of the Slavic Macedonian population, a work that is today known as the first attempt at a grammar of Macedonian. However, he alternately described his language as "Serbo-Albanian"[124] and "Slavo-Macedonian"[125] and himself as a "Mijak from Galičnik",[126] a "Serbian patriot"[127] and a "Bulgarian from the village of Galičnik",[128][129] i.e. changing ethnicity multiple times during his lifetime.[130] Therefore, his Macedonian self-identification is considered by historians to be inchoate[131][132] and to resemble a regional phenomenon.[133] In 1885, Theodosius of Skopje, a priest who held a high-ranking position within the Bulgarian Exarchate, was chosen as a bishop of the episcopacy of Skopje. In 1890 he renounced de facto the Bulgarian Exarchate and attempted to restore the Archbishopric of Ohrid as a separate Macedonian Orthodox Church in all eparchies of Macedonia,[134] responsible for the spiritual, cultural and educational life of all Macedonian Orthodox Christians.[122] During this time period Metropolitan Bishop Theodosius of Skopje made a plea to the Greek Patriarchate of Constantinople to allow a separate Macedonian church, and ultimately on 4 December 1891 he sent a letter to the Pope Leo XIII to ask for a recognition and a protection from the Roman Catholic Church, but failed. Soon after, he repented and returned to pro-Bulgarian positions.[135] In the 1880s and 1890s, Isaija Mažovski designated Macedonian Slavs as "Macedonians" and "Old Slavic Macedonian people", and also distinguished them from Bulgarians as follows: "Slavic-Bulgarian" for Mažovski was synonymous with "Macedonian", while only "Bulgarian" was a designation for the Bulgarians in Bulgaria.[136]

In 1890, Austrian researcher of Macedonia Karl Hron reported that the Macedonians constituted a separate ethnic group by history and language. Within the next few years, this concept was also welcomed in Russia by linguists including Leonhard Masing, Pyotr Lavrov, Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, and Pyotr Draganov.[137][138] Draganov, of Bulgarian descent, conducted research in Macedonia and determined that the local language had its own identifying characteristics compared to Bulgarian and Serbian. He wrote in a Saint Petersburg newspaper that the Macedonians should be recognized by Russia in a full national sense.[139]

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization leader Boris Sarafov in 1901 stated that Macedonians had a unique "national element" and, the following year, he stated "We the Macedonians are neither Serbs nor Bulgarians, but simply Macedonians... Macedonia exists only for the Macedonians." However after the failure of the Ilinden Uprising, Sarafov wanted to keep closer ties with Bulgaria, supporting the Bulgarian aspirations towards the area.[140][141] Gyorche Petrov, another IMRO member, stated Macedonia was a "distinct moral unit" with its own "aspirations",[142] while describing its Slavic population as Bulgarian.[143]

National antagonisms and Macedonian separatism

Macedonian separatism

Krste Misirkov in 1903 attempted to codify a standard Macedonian language and appealed for eventual recognition of a separate Macedonian nation when the necessary historical circumstances would arise.

In 1903, Krste Misirkov published in Sofia his book On Macedonian Matters, wherein he laid down the principles of the modern Macedonian nationhood and language. This book, written in the standardized central dialect of Macedonia, is considered by ethnic Macedonians as a milestone of the process of Macedonian awakening. Misirkov argued that the dialect of central Macedonia (Veles-Prilep-Bitola-Ohrid) should be adopted as a basis for a standard Macedonian literary language, in which Macedonians should write, study, and worship; the autocephalous Archbishopric of Ohrid should be restored; and the Slavic people of Macedonia should be recognized as a separate ethnic community, when the necessary historical circumstances would arise.[144]

However, throughout the book, Misirkov lamented that "no local Macedonian patriotism exists" and stated that the Slavic Macedonian population had always called itself "Bulgarian".[145] He also claimed that it was first the Byzantine Greeks who starting calling the local Slavs "Bulgarians" because of their alliance with the Bulgars, during the incessant Byzantine–Bulgarian conflict which in the eyes of the Byzantine Greeks eventually forged both Slavs and Bulgars into one people with a Bulgarian name and a Slavonic language.[146] Misirkov's primary motivation for a separate Macedonian nationhood and language was Serbia and Bulgaria's conflict over Macedonia, which according to Misirkov would eventually lead to its partition.[147][148] Therefore, he argued, it would be better for both Macedonians and Bulgarians if there was a united Macedonian Macedonia than a partitioned Bulgarian one, where Bulgaria would not be allowed to go any further than the left bank of the Vardar.[149][150] In 1905, he returned to a pro-Bulgarian stance and renounced the positions he espoused in On Macedonian Matters.[151][152] Later in his life, Misirkov oscillated between a pro-Macedonist and Greater Bulgarian stance, including controversially claimed that all Macedonian and Torlakian dialects were, in fact, Bulgarian.[153]

Another major figure of the Macedonian awakening was Dimitrija Čupovski, one of the founders of the Macedonian Literary Society, established in Saint Petersburg in 1902. One of the members was also Krste Misirkov. In 1905 the Society published Vardar, the first scholarly, scientific and literary journal in the central dialects of Macedonia, which later would contribute in the standardization of Macedonian language.[154] In 1913, the Macedonian Literary Society submitted the Memorandum of Independence of Macedonia to the British Foreign Secretary and other European ambassadors, and it was printed in many European newspapers. In the period 1913–1914, Čupovski published the newspaper Македонскi Голосъ (Macedonian Voice) in which he and fellow members of the Saint Petersburg Macedonian Colony propagated the existence of a Macedonian people separate from the Greeks, Bulgarians and Serbs, and sought to popularize the idea for an independent Macedonian state.

The "Macedonian Slavs" in cartography

From 1878 until 1918 most independent European observers viewed the Slavs of Macedonia as Bulgarians or as Macedonian Slavs, while their association with Bulgaria was almost universally accepted.[155] Original manuscript versions of population data mentioned "Macedonian Slavs", though the term was changed to "Bulgarians" in the official printing.[156] Western publications usually presented the Slavs of Macedonia as Bulgarians, as happened, partly for political reasons, in Serbian ones.[157] Prompted by the publication of a Serbian map by Spiridon Gopčević claiming the Slavs of Macedonia as Serbs, a version of a Russian map, published in 1891, in a period of deterioration of Bulgarian-Russian relations, first presented Macedonia inhabited not by Bulgarians, but by Macedonian Slavs.[158] Austrian-Hungarian maps followed suit in an effort to delegitimize the ambitions of Russophile Bulgaria, returning to presenting the Macedonian Slavs as Bulgarians when Austria-Bulgaria relations ameliorated, only to renege and employ the designation "Macedonian Slavs" when Bulgaria changed its foreign policy and Austria turned to envisaging an autonomous Macedonia under Austrian influence within the Murzsteg process.[159]

The term "Macedonian Slavs" was used either as a middle solution between conflicting Serbian and Bulgarian claims, to denote an intermediary grouping of Slavs, associated with the Bulgarians, or to describe a separate Slavic group with no ethnic, national or political affiliation.[160] The differentiation of ethnographic maps representing rival national views produced to satisfy the curiosity of European audience for the inhabitants of Macedonia, after the Ilinden uprising of 1903, indicated the complexity of the issue.[161] Influenced by the conclusions of the research of young Serb Jovan Cvijić, that Macedonia's culture combined Byzantine influence with Serbian traditions, a map of 1903 by Austrian cartographer Karl Peucker depicted Macedonia as a peculiar area, where zones of linguistic influence overlapped.[162] In his first ethnographic map of 1906, Cvijic presented all Slavs of Serbia and Macedonia merely as "Slavs".[163] In a pamphlet translated and circulated in Europe the same year, he elaborated his ostensibly impartial views and described the Slavs living south of the Babuna and Plačkovica mountains as "Macedo-Slavs" arguing that the appellation "Bugari" meant simply "peasant" to them, that they had no national consciousness and could become Serbs or Bulgarians in the future.[164] Cvijić thus transformed the political character of the IMRO's appeals to "Macedonians" into an ethnic one.[165] Bulgarian cartographer Anastas Ishirkov countered Cvijić's views, pointing to the involvement of Macedonian Slavs in Bulgarian nationalist uprisings and the Macedonian origins of Bulgarian nationalists before 1878. Although Cvijic's arguments attracted the attention of Great Powers, they did not endorse at the time his view on the Macedo-Slavs.[166]

Cvijić further elaborated the idea that had first appeared in Peucker's map and in his map of 1909 he ingeniously mapped the Macedonian Slavs as a third group distinct from Bulgarians and Serbians, and part of them "under Greek influence".[167][168] Envisioning a future agreement with Greece, Cvijic depicted the southern half of the Macedo-Slavs "under Greek unfluence", while leaving the rest to appear as a subset of the Serbo-Croats.[169][170] Cvijić's view was reproduced without acknowledgement by Alfred Stead, with no effect on British opinion,[171][172] but, reflecting the reorientation of Serbian aims towards dividing Macedonia with Greece, Cvijić eliminated the Macedo-Slavs from a subsequent edition of his map.[173] However, in 1913, before the conclusion of the Treaty of Bucharest he published his third ethnographic map distinguishing the Macedo-Slavs between Skopje and Salonica from both Bulgarians and Serbo-Croats, on the basis of the transitional character of their dialect per the linguistic researches of Vatroslav Jagić and Aleksandar Belić, and the Serb features of their customs, such as the zadruga.[174] For Cvijić, the Macedo-Slavs were a transitional population, with any sense of nationality they displayed being weak, superficial, externally imposed and temporary.[175] Despite arguing that they should be considered neutral, he postulated their division into Serbs and Bulgarians based on dialectical and cultural features in anticipation of Serbian demands regarding the delimitation of frontiers.[176]

A Balkan committee of experts rejected Cvijić's concept of the Macedo-Slavs in 1914.[177] However, Bulgaria's entry into World War I on the side of the Central Powers in 1915, after the Allies failed to convince Serbia to hand over the Uncontested Zone in Macedonia to Bulgaria, precipitated a complete turnaround in the Allies' opinion of Macedonian ethnography, and several British and French maps echoing Cvijić were released within months.[178] Thus, as the Entente approached victory in the First World War, a number other maps and atlases, including those produced by the Allies replicated Cvijić's ideas, especially its depiction of the Macedo-Slavs.[179][180] The prevalence of the Yugoslav point of view, obliged Georgios Sotiriades, a professor of History at the University of Athens, to map the Macedo-Slavs as a distinct group in his work of 1918, that mirrored Greek views of the time and was used as an official document to advocate for Greece's positions in the Paris peace conference.[181][182] After World War I, Cvijić's map became the point of reference for all Balkan ethnographic maps,[183] while his concept of Macedo-Slavs was reproduced in almost all maps,[184] including German maps, that acknowledged a Macedonian nation.[185]

Macedonian Nationalism and Interwar Communism

After the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and the World War I (1914–1918), following the division of the region of Macedonia amongst the Kingdom of Greece, the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Serbia, the idea of belonging to a separate Macedonian nation was further spread among the Slavic-speaking population. The suffering during the wars, the endless struggle of the Balkan monarchies for dominance over the population increased the Macedonians' sentiment that the institutionalization of an independent Macedonian nation would put an end to their suffering. On the question of whether they were Serbs or Bulgarians, the people more often started answering: "Neither Bulgar, nor Serb... I am Macedonian only, and I'm sick of war."[186][187] Stratis Myrivilis noted a specific instance of a Slav-speaking family wanting to be referred to, not as "Bulgar, Srrp, or Grrts", but as "Makedon ortodox".[188] By the 1920s, following a negative reaction to the national proselytization of the previous decades, a majority of Christian Slavs inhabiting Greek and Vardar Macedonia used the collective name "Macedonians" to describe themselves, either as a nation or as a distinct ethnicity.[189] The 1928 Greek census recorded 81,844 Slavo-Macedonian speakers, distinct from 16,755 Bulgarian speakers.[190] In 1924 the Politis–Kalfov Protocol was signed between Greece and Bulgaria, concerning the protection of the Bulgarian minority In Greece. However, it was not ratified by the Greek side, because public opinion stood against the recognition of any “Bulgarian” minority".[191] Prior to the 1930s, "it seems to have been acceptable" for Greeks to refer to Slavophones of Macedonia as Macedonians and their language as Macedonian. Ion Dragoumis had argued this viewpoint.

Dimitar Vlahov played a crucial role in the adoption of the Resolution of the Comintern on the Macedonian question that, for the first time by an international organization, recognized the existence of a separate Macedonian nation, in 1934

The consolidation of an international Communist organization (the Comintern) in the 1920s led to some failed attempts by the Communists to use the Macedonian Question as a political weapon. In the 1920 Yugoslav parliamentary elections, 25% of the total Communist vote came from Macedonia, but participation was low (only 55%), mainly because the pro-Bulgarian IMRO organised a boycott against the elections. In the following years, the communists attempted to enlist the pro-IMRO sympathies of the population in their cause. In the context of this attempt, in 1924 the Comintern organized the filed signing of the so-called May Manifesto, in which independence of partitioned Macedonia was required.[192] In 1925 with the help of the Comintern, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (United) was created, composed of former left-wing Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) members. This organization promoted for the first time in 1932 the existence of a separate ethnic Macedonian nation.[193][194][195] In 1933 the Communist Party of Greece, in a series of articles published in its official newspaper, the Rizospastis, criticizing Greek minority policy towards Slavic-speakers in Greek Macedonia, recognized the Slavs of the entire region of Macedonia as forming a distinct Macedonian ethnicity and their language as Macedonian.[196] The idea of a Macedonian nation was internationalized and backed by the Comintern which issued in 1934 a resolution supporting the development of the entity.[197] This action was attacked by the IMRO, but was supported by the Balkan communists. The Balkan communist parties supported the national consolidation of the ethnic Macedonian people and created Macedonian sections within the parties, headed by prominent IMRO (United) members.

World War II and Yugoslav nation-state building

The sense of belonging to a separate Macedonian nation gained credence during World War II when ethnic Macedonian communist partisan detachments were formed. In 1943 the Communist Party of Macedonia was established and the resistance movement grew up.[198][199] On the other hand, due to the different trajectories of Macedonian Slavs in the three nation-states that ruled the region, the designation "Macedonian" acquired different meanings for them by the time of the National Liberation War of Macedonia in the 1940s. According to historian Ivan Katardžiev those who came from the Bulgarian part or were members of the IMRO (United) practically felt themselves as Bulgarians, while those who had experienced Serbian rule and had interacted with the Croatian and Slovenian national movements within Yugoslavia had developed a stronger Macedonian consciousness.[200] After the World War II ethnic Macedonian institutions were created in the three parts of the region of Macedonia, then under communist control,[201] including the establishment of the People's Republic of Macedonia within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ).

Metodija Andonov-Čento was the first president of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.

The available data indicates that despite the policy of assimilation, pro-Bulgarian sentiments among the Macedonian Slavs in Yugoslavia were still sizable during the interwar period.[e] However, if the Yugoslavians would recognize the Slavic inhabitants of Vardar Macedonia as Bulgarians, it would mean that the area should be part of Bulgaria. Practically in post-World War II Macedonia, Yugoslavia's state policy of forced Serbianisation was changed with a new one — of Macedonization. The codification of Macedonian and the recognition of the Macedonian nation had the main goal: finally to ban any Bulgarophilia among the Macedonians and to build a new consciousness, based on identification with Yugoslavia. As a result, Yugoslavia introduced again an abrupt de-Bulgarization of the people in the PR Macedonia, such as it already had conducted in the Vardar Banovina during the Interwar period. Bulgarian sources claim around 100,000 pro-Bulgarian elements were imprisoned for violations of the special Law for the Protection of Macedonian National Honour, and over 1,200 were allegedly killed.[210][211] In this way generations of students grew up educated in a strong anti-Bulgarian sentiment which during the times of Communist Yugoslavia, increased to the level of state policy. Its main agenda was a result from the need to distinguish between the Bulgarians and the new Macedonian nation, because Macedonians could confirm themselves as a separate community with its own history, only through differentiating itself from Bulgaria. This policy has continued in the new Republic of Macedonia after 1990, although with less intensity. Thus, the Bulgarian part of the identity of the Slavic-speaking population in Vardar Macedonia has died out.

Contemporary state of identity and polemics

Kiro Gligorov was the first president of the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia) after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.

Following the collapse of Yugoslavia, the issue of Macedonian identity emerged again. Nationalists and governments alike from neighbouring countries, especially Greece and Bulgaria, espouse the view that the Macedonian ethnicity is a modern, artificial creation. Such views have been seen by Macedonian historians to represent irredentist motives on Macedonian territory.[122] Moreover, some historians point out that all modern nations are recent, politically motivated constructs based on creation "myths",[212] that the creation of Macedonian identity is "no more or less artificial than any other identity",[213] and that, contrary to the claims of Romantic nationalists, modern, territorially bound and mutually exclusive nation-states have little in common with their preceding large territorial or dynastic medieval empires, and any connection between them is tenuous at best.[214] In any event, irrespective of shifting political affiliations, the Macedonian Slavs shared in the fortunes of the Byzantine commonwealth and the Rum millet and they can claim them as their heritage.[122] Loring Danforth states similarly, the ancient heritage of modern Balkan countries is not "the mutually exclusive property of one specific nation" but "the shared inheritance of all Balkan peoples".[215]

A more radical and uncompromising strand of Macedonian nationalism has recently emerged called "ancient Macedonism", or "Antiquisation". Proponents of this view see modern Macedonians as direct descendants of the ancient Macedonians. This view faces criticism by academics as it is not supported by archaeology or other historical disciplines and also could marginalize the Macedonian identity.[216][217] Surveys on the effects of the controversial nation-building project Skopje 2014 and on the perceptions of the population of Skopje revealed a high degree of uncertainty regarding the latter's national identity. A supplementary national poll showed that there was a great discrepancy between the population's sentiment and the narrative the state sought to promote.[218]

Additionally, during the last two decades, tens of thousands of citizens of North Macedonia have applied for Bulgarian citizenship.[219] In the period since 2002 some 97,000 acquired it, while ca. 53,000 applied and are still waiting.[220] Bulgaria has a special ethnic dual-citizenship regime which makes a constitutional distinction between ethnic Bulgarians and Bulgarian citizens. In the case of the Macedonians, merely declaring their national identity as Bulgarian is enough to gain a citizenship.[221] By making the procedure simpler, Bulgaria stimulates more Macedonian citizens (of Slavic origin) to apply for a Bulgarian citizenship.[222] However, many Macedonians who apply for Bulgarian citizenship as Bulgarians by origin,[223] have few ties with Bulgaria.[224] Further, those applying for Bulgarian citizenship usually say they do so to gain access to member states of the European Union rather than to assert Bulgarian identity.[225] This phenomenon is called placebo identity.[226] Some Macedonians view the Bulgarian policy as part of a strategy to destabilize the Macedonian national identity.[227] As a nation engaged in a dispute over its distinctiveness from Bulgarians, Macedonians have always perceived themselves as threatened by their neighbor.[228] Bulgaria insists its neighbor admit the common historical roots of their languages and nations, a view Skopje continues to reject.[229] As a result, Bulgaria blocked the official start of EU accession talks with North Macedonia.[230]

Despite sizable number of Macedonians that have acquired Bulgarian citizenship since 2002 (ca. 9.7% of the Slavic population), only 3,504 citizens of North Macedonia declared themselves as ethnic Bulgarians in the 2021 census (roughly 0.31% from the Slavic population).[231] The Bulgarian side does not accept these results as completely objective, citing as an example the census has counted less than 20,000 people with Bulgarian citizenship in the country, while in fact they are over 100,000.[232]


The national name derives from the Greek term Makedonía, related to the name of the region, named after the ancient Macedonians and their kingdom. It originates from the ancient Greek adjective makednos, meaning "tall",[233] which shares its roots with the adjective makrós, meaning the same.[234] The name is originally believed to have meant either "highlanders" or "the tall ones", possibly descriptive of these ancient people.[235][236][237] In the Late Middle Ages the name of Macedonia had different meanings for Western Europeans and for the Balkan people. For the Westerners it denoted the historical territory of the Ancient Macedonia, but for the Balkan Christians, it covered the territories of the former Byzantine province of Macedonia, situated around modern Turkish Edirne.[238]

With the conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans in the late 14th century, the name of Macedonia disappeared as a geographical designation for several centuries. The name was revived just during the early 19th century, after the foundation of the modern Greek state with its Western Europe-derived obsession with Ancient Greece.[239][240] As a result of the rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire, massive Greek religious and school propaganda occurred, and a process of Hellenization was implemented among Slavic-speaking population of the area.[241][242] In this way, the name Macedonians was applied to the local Slavs, aiming to stimulate the development of close ties between them and the Greeks, linking both sides to the ancient Macedonians, as a counteract against the growing Bulgarian cultural influence into the region.[243][244]

Although the local intellectuals initially rejected the Macedonian designation as Greek,[245] since the 1850s some of them, adopted it as a regional identity, and this name began to gain popularity.[115] Serbian politics then, also encouraged this kind of regionalism to neutralize the Bulgarian influx, thereby promoting Serbian interests there.[246] The local educator Kuzman Shapkarev concluded that since the 1870s this foreign ethnonym began to replace the traditional one Bulgarians.[247] At the dawn of the 20th century the Bulgarian teacher Vasil Kanchov marked that the local Bulgarians and Koutsovlachs call themselves Macedonians, and the surrounding people also call them in the same way.[248] During the interbellum Bulgaria also supported to some extent the Macedonian regional identity, especially in Yugoslavia. Its aim was to prevent the Serbianization of the local Slavic speakers, because the very name Macedonia was prohibited in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[249][250] Ultimately the designation Macedonian, changed its status in 1944, and went from being predominantly a regional, ethnographic denomination, to a national one.[251]


The vast majority of Macedonians live along the valley of the river Vardar, the central region of the Republic of North Macedonia. They form about 64.18% of the population of North Macedonia (1,297,981 people according to the 2002 census). Smaller numbers live in eastern Albania, northern Greece, and southern Serbia, mostly abutting the border areas of the Republic of North Macedonia. A large number of Macedonians have immigrated overseas to Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand and to many European countries: Germany, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Austria among others.



The existence of an ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece is rejected by the Greek government. The number of people speaking Slavic dialects has been estimated at somewhere between 10,000 and 250,000.[f] Most of these people however do not have an ethnic Macedonian national consciousness, with most choosing to identify as ethnic Greeks[260] or rejecting both ethnic designations and preferring terms such as "natives" instead.[261] In 1999 the Greek Helsinki Monitor estimated that the number of people identifying as ethnic Macedonians numbered somewhere between 10,000 and 30,000,[12][262] Macedonian sources generally claim the number of ethnic Macedonians living in Greece at somewhere between 200,000 and 350,000.[263] The ethnic Macedonians in Greece have faced difficulties from the Greek government in their ability to self-declare as members of a "Macedonian minority" and to refer to their native language as "Macedonian".[261]

Since the late 1980s there has been an ethnic Macedonian revival in Northern Greece, mostly centering on the region of Florina.[264] Since then ethnic Macedonian organisations including the Rainbow political party have been established.[265] Rainbow first opened its offices in Florina on 6 September 1995. The following day, the offices had been broken into and had been ransacked.[266] Later Members of Rainbow had been charged for "causing and inciting mutual hatred among the citizens" because the party had bilingual signs written in both Greek and Macedonian.[267] On 20 October 2005, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) ordered the Greek government to pay penalties to the Rainbow Party for violations of 2 ECHR articles.[261] Rainbow has seen limited success at a national level, its best result being achieved in the 1994 European elections, with a total of 7,263 votes. Since 2004 it has participated in European Parliament elections and local elections, but not in national elections. A few of its members have been elected in local administrative posts. Rainbow has recently re-established Nova Zora, a newspaper that was first published for a short period in the mid-1990s, with reportedly 20,000 copies being distributed free of charge.[268][269][270]


Within Serbia, Macedonians constitute an officially recognised ethnic minority at both a local and national level. Within Vojvodina, Macedonians are recognised under the Statute of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, along with other ethnic groups. Large Macedonian settlements within Vojvodina can be found in Plandište, Jabuka, Glogonj, Dužine and Kačarevo. These people are mainly the descendants of economic migrants who left the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in the 1950s and 1960s. The Macedonians in Serbia are represented by a national council and in recent years Macedonian has begun to be taught. The most recent census recorded 22,755 Macedonians living in Serbia.[271]


Macedonians represent the second largest ethnic minority population in Albania. Albania recognises the existence of a Macedonian minority within the Mala Prespa region, most of which is comprised by Pustec Municipality. Macedonians have full minority rights within this region, including the right to education and the provision of other services in Macedonian. There also exist unrecognised Macedonian populations living in the Golo Brdo region, the "Dolno Pole" area near the town of Peshkopi, around Lake Ohrid and Korce as well as in Gora. 4,697 people declared themselves Macedonians in the 1989 census.[272]


Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighboring Macedonians, and it is sometimes claimed that there is no clear ethnic difference between them.[273] A total of 1,143 people officially declared themselves to be ethnic Macedonians in the last Bulgarian census in 2021.[31] During the same year, there were five times as many Bulgarian residents born in North Macedonia, 5,450.[274] Most of them held Bulgarian citizenship, with only 1,576 of them being citizens of the Republic of North Macedonia.[275] According to the 2011 Bulgarian census, there were 561 ethnic Macedonians (0.2%) in the Blagoevgrad Province,[276] the Bulgarian part of the geographical region of Macedonia, out of a total of 1,654 Macedonians in the entire country.[277] Also, a total of 429 citizens of the Republic of North Macedonia resided in the province.[278]

In 1998, Krassimir Kanev, chairman of the non-governmental organization Bulgarian Helsinki Committee, claimed that there were 15,000–25,000 ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria (see here). In the same report, Macedonian nationalists (Popov et al., 1989) claimed that 200,000 ethnic Macedonians lived in Bulgaria. However, according to the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee, the vast majority of the Slavic-speaking population in Pirin Macedonia had a Bulgarian national self-consciousness and a regional Macedonian identity similar to the Macedonian regional identity in Greek Macedonia. According to ethnic Macedonian political activist, Stoyko Stoykov, the number of Bulgarian citizens with ethnic Macedonian self-consciousness in 2009 was between 5,000 and 10,000.[279] In 2000, the Bulgarian Constitutional Court banned UMO Ilinden-Pirin, a small Macedonian political party, as a separatist organization. Subsequently, activists attempted to re-establish the party but could not gather the required number of signatures.


Macedonian diaspora in the world (includes people with Macedonian ancestry or citizenship).
  North Macedonia
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

Significant Macedonian communities can also be found in the traditional immigrant-receiving nations, as well as in Western European countries. Census data in many European countries (such as Italy and Germany) does not take into account the ethnicity of émigrés from the Republic of North Macedonia.


Most Macedonians can be found in Buenos Aires, the Pampas and Córdoba. An estimated 30,000 Macedonians can be found in Argentina.[280]


The official number of Macedonians in Australia by birthplace or birthplace of parents is 83,893 (2001). The main Macedonian communities are found in Melbourne, Geelong, Sydney, Wollongong, Newcastle, Canberra and Perth. The 2006 census recorded 83,983 people of Macedonian ancestry and the 2011 census recorded 93,570 people of Macedonian ancestry.[281]


An estimated 45,000 people in Brazil are of Macedonian ancestry.[282] The Macedonians can be primarily found in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Curitiba.


The Canadian census in 2001 records 37,705 individuals claimed wholly or partly Macedonian heritage in Canada,[283] although community spokesmen have claimed that there are actually 100,000–150,000 Macedonians in Canada.[284]

United States

A significant Macedonian community can be found in the United States. The official number of Macedonians in the US is 49,455 (2004). The Macedonian community is located mainly in Michigan, New York, Ohio, Indiana and New Jersey[285]


There are an estimated 61,000 citizens of North Macedonia in Germany (mostly in the Ruhrgebiet) (2001).


There are 74,162 citizens of North Macedonia in Italy (Foreign Citizens in Italy).


In 2006 the Swiss Government recorded 60,362 Macedonian Citizens living in Switzerland.[286]


Macedonians are an officially recognised minority group in Romania. They have a special reserved seat in the nation's parliament. In 2002, they numbered 731.


Macedonians began relocating to Slovenia in the 1950s when the two regions formed a part of a single country, Yugoslavia.

Other countries

Other significant Macedonian communities can also be found in the other Western European countries such as Austria, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the whole European Union. [citation needed] Also in Uruguay, with a significant population in Montevideo.[citation needed]


The culture of the people is characterized with both traditionalist and modernist attributes. It is strongly bound with their native land and the surrounding in which they live. The rich cultural heritage of the Macedonians is accented in the folklore, the picturesque traditional folk costumes, decorations and ornaments in city and village homes, the architecture, the monasteries and churches, iconostasis, wood-carving and so on. The culture of Macedonians can roughly be explained as Balkanic, closely related to that of Bulgarians and Serbs.


Ottoman architecture in Ohrid.
Macedonian girls in traditional folk costumes.

The typical Macedonian village house is influenced by Ottoman Architecture. Presented as a construction with two floors, with a hard facade composed of large stones and a wide balcony on the second floor. In villages with predominantly agricultural economy, the first floor was often used as a storage for the harvest, while in some villages the first floor was used as a cattle-pen.

The stereotype for a traditional Macedonian city house is a two-floor building with white façade, with a forward extended second floor, and black wooden elements around the windows and on the edges.

Cinema and theater

The history of film making in North Macedonia dates back over 110 years. The first film to be produced on the territory of the present-day the country was made in 1895 by Janaki and Milton Manaki in Bitola. In 1995 Before the Rain became the first Macedonian movie to be nominated for an Academy Award.[287]

From 1993 to 1994, 1,596 performances were held in the newly formed republic, and more than 330,000 people attended. The Macedonian National Theater (drama, opera, and ballet companies), the Drama Theater, the Theater of the Nationalities (Albanian and Turkish drama companies) and the other theater companies comprise about 870 professional actors, singers, ballet dancers, directors, playwrights, set and costume designers, etc. There is also a professional theatre for children and three amateur theaters. For the last thirty years a traditional festival of Macedonian professional theaters has been taking place in Prilep in honor of Vojdan Černodrinski, the founder of the modern Macedonian theater. Each year a festival of amateur and experimental Macedonian theater companies is held in Kočani.

Music and art

Macedonian music has many things in common with the music of neighboring Balkan countries, but maintains its own distinctive sound.

The founders of modern Macedonian painting included Lazar Licenovski, Nikola Martinoski, Dimitar Pandilov, and Vangel Kodzoman. They were succeeded by an exceptionally talented and fruitful generation, consisting of Borka Lazeski, Dimitar Kondovski, Petar Mazev who are now deceased, and Rodoljub Anastasov and many others who are still active. Others include: Vasko Taskovski and Vangel Naumovski. In addition to Dimo Todorovski, who is considered to be the founder of modern Macedonian sculpture, the works of Petar Hadzi Boskov, Boro Mitrikeski, Novak Dimitrovski and Tome Serafimovski are also outstanding.


In the past, the Macedonian population was predominantly involved with agriculture, with a very small portion of the people who were engaged in trade (mainly in the cities). But after the creation of the People's Republic of Macedonia which started a social transformation based on Socialist principles, middle and heavy industries were started.


Macedonian (македонски јазик) is a member of the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia after being codified in the 1940s, and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition.

The closest relative of Macedonian is Bulgarian,[288] followed by Serbo-Croatian. All the South Slavic languages form a dialect continuum, in which Macedonian and Bulgarian form an Eastern subgroup. The Torlakian dialect group is intermediate between Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian, comprising some of the northernmost dialects of Macedonian as well as varieties spoken in southern Serbia and western Bulgaria. Torlakian is often classified as part of the Eastern South Slavic dialects.

The Macedonian alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation. It is rarely Romanized.


One of the well-known monasteries – St. Panteleimon in Ohrid.

Most Macedonians are members of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. The official name of the church is Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric and is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and North Macedonia, exercising jurisdiction over Macedonian Orthodox Christians in the Republic of North Macedonia and in exarchates in the Macedonian diaspora.

The church gained autonomy from the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1959 and declared the restoration of the historic Archbishopric of Ohrid. On 19 July 1967, the Macedonian Orthodox Church declared autocephaly from the Serbian church. Due to protest from the Serbian Orthodox Church, the move was not recognised by any of the churches of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. Thereafter, Macedonian Orthodox Church was not in communion with any Orthodox Church, until 2022 when it was reintegrated.[289] A small number of Macedonians belong to the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches.

Between the 15th and the 20th centuries, during Ottoman rule, a number of Orthodox Macedonian Slavs converted to Islam. Today in the Republic of North Macedonia, they are regarded as Macedonian Muslims, who constitute the second largest religious community of the country.



Tavče Gravče, the national dish of Macedonians.

Macedonian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of the Balkans—reflecting Mediterranean (Greek) and Middle Eastern (Turkish) influences, and to a lesser extent Italian, German and Eastern European (especially Hungarian) ones. The relatively warm climate in North Macedonia provides excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits. Thus, Macedonian cuisine is particularly diverse.

Shopska salad, a food from Bulgaria, is an appetizer and side dish which accompanies almost every meal.[citation needed] Macedonian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of its dairy products, wines, and local alcoholic beverages, such as rakija. Tavče Gravče and mastika are considered the national dish and drink of North Macedonia, respectively.


Symbols used by members of the ethnic group include:

  • Lion: The lion first appears in the Fojnica Armorial from the 17th century, where the coat of arms of Macedonia is included among those of other entities. On the coat of arms is a crown; inside a yellow crowned lion is depicted standing rampant, on a red background. On the bottom enclosed in a red and yellow border is written "Macedonia". The use of the lion to represent Macedonia was continued in foreign heraldic collections throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.[290][291] Nevertheless, during the late 19th century the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization arose, which modeled itself after the earlier Bulgarian revolutionary traditions and adopted their symbols as the lion, etc.[292][293] Modern versions of the historical lion has also been added to the emblem of several political parties, organizations and sports clubs. However, this symbol is not totally accepted while the state coat of arms of Bulgaria is somewhat similar.
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (1992–1995) depicting the Vergina Sun
  • Vergina Sun: (official flag, 1992–1995) The Vergina Sun is used unofficially by various associations and cultural groups in the Macedonian diaspora. The Vergina Sun is believed to have been associated with ancient Greek kings such as Alexander the Great and Philip II, although it was used as an ornamental design in ancient Greek art long before the Macedonian period. The symbol was depicted on a golden larnax found in a 4th-century BC royal tomb belonging to either Philip II or Philip III of Macedon in the Greek region of Macedonia. The Greeks regard the use of the symbol by North Macedonia as a misappropriation of a Hellenic symbol, unrelated to Slavic cultures, and a direct claim on the legacy of Philip II. However, archaeological items depicting the symbol have also been excavated in the territory of North Macedonia.[294] Toni Deskoski, Macedonian professor of International Law, argues that the Vergina Sun is not a Macedonian symbol but it's a Greek symbol that is used by Macedonians in the nationalist context of Macedonism and that the Macedonians need to get rid of it.[295] In 1995, Greece lodged a claim for trademark protection of the Vergina Sun as a state symbol under WIPO.[296] In Greece the symbol against a blue field is used vastly in the area of Macedonia and it has official status.The Vergina sun on a red field was the first flag of the independent Republic of Macedonia, until it was removed from the state flag under an agreement reached between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece in September 1995.[297] On 17 June 2018, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia signed the Prespa Agreement, which stipulates the removal of the Vergina Sun's public use across the latter's territory.[298][299] In a session held on early July 2019, the government of North Macedonia announced the complete removal of the Vergina Sun from all public areas, institutions and monuments in the country, with the deadline for its removal being set to 12 August 2019, in line with the Prespa Agreement.[300][301][302]


Balto-Slavic populations comprised genetically by: A (autosomal DNA), B (Y-DNA) and C (mtDNA) on the plots (Macedonian samples are marked as Mc in brown colored circle).

Anthropologically, Macedonians possess genetic lineages postulated to represent Balkan prehistoric and historic demographic processes.[303] Such lineages are also typically found in neighboring South Slavs such as Bulgarians and Serbs, in addition to Greeks, Albanians, Romanians and Gagauzes.[g]

Y-DNA studies suggest that Macedonians along with neighboring South Slavs are distinct from other Slavic-speaking populations in Europe and near half of their Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are likely to be inherited from inhabitants of the Balkans that predated sixth-century Slavic migrations.[313] A diverse set of Y-DNA haplogroups are found in Macedonians at significant levels, including I2a1b, E-V13, J2a, R1a1, R1b, G2a, encoding a complex pattern of demographic processes.[314] Similar distributions of the same haplogroups are found in neighboring populations.[315][316] I2a1b and R1a1 are typically found in Slavic-speaking populations across Europe[317][318] while haplogroups such as E-V13 and J2 occur at high frequencies in neighboring non-Slavic populations.[315] On the other hand R1b is the most frequently occurring haplogroup in Western Europe and G2a is most frequently found in Caucasus and the adjacent areas. According to a DNA data for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Macedonians, in comparison to other South Slavs and Kosovo Albanians, the Macedonian population had the lowest genetic (Y-STR) distance against the Bulgarian population while having the largest distance against the Croatian population. However, the observed populations did not have significant differentiation in Y-STR population structure, except partially for Kosovo Albanians.[319] Genetic similarity, irrespective of language and ethnicity, has a strong correspondence to geographic proximity in European populations.[310][311][320]

In regard to population genetics, not all regions of Southeastern Europe had the same ratio of native Byzantine and invading Slavic population, with the territory of the Eastern Balkans (Macedonia, Thrace and Moesia) having a significant percentage of locals compared to Slavs. Considering that the majority of Balkan Slavs came via the Eastern Carpathian route, lower percentage in the east does not imply that the number of the Slavs there was lesser than among the Western South Slavs. Most probably on the territory of Western South Slavs was a state of desolation which produced there a founder effect.[321][322] The region of Macedonia suffered less disruption than frontier provinces closer to the Danube, with towns and forts close to Ohrid, Bitola and along the Via Egnatia. Re-settlements and the cultural links of the Byzantine Era further shaped the demographic processes which the Macedonian ancestry is linked to.[323] Nevertheless, even present-day Peloponnesian Greeks carry a small, but significant amount of Slavic ancestry; the admixture ranged from 0.2% to 14.4%.[324]

See also


  1. ^ State Statistical Office
  2. ^ "Cultural diversity: Census". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Republic of Macedonia MFA estimate Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ 2006 figures Archived 19 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Foreign Citizens in Italy, 2017 Archived 6 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ 2020 Community Survey
  7. ^ 2005 Figures Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora; Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Македонски Иселенички Алманах '95. Skopje: Матица на Иселениците на Македонија. pp. 52–53.
  9. ^ "My Info Agent". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  10. ^ 2006 census Archived 25 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ 2001 census Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Greece) – GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM) Archived 23 May 2003 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Попис у Србији 2011". Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  14. ^ Tabelle 13: Ausländer nach Staatsangehörigkeit (ausgewählte Staaten), Altersgruppen und Geschlecht — p. 74.
  15. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". un.org. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  16. ^ 1996 estimate Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "Population and Housing Census 2023" (PDF). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT).
  18. ^ Population by country of origin
  19. ^ OECD Statistics.
  20. ^ Population by country of birth 2009.
  21. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  22. ^ 2002 census (stat.si).
  23. ^ "Belgium population statistics". dofi.fgov.be. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
  24. ^ 2008 figures Archived 12 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ 2003 census Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine,Population Estimate from the MFA Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ 2005 census Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ czso.cz
  28. ^ a b Makedonci vo Svetot Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Polands Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947, p. 260.
  30. ^ "Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 – Tab8. Populaţia stabilă după etnie – judeţe, municipii, oraşe, comune" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 5 July 2013. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  31. ^ a b Ива Капкова, Етноанализът на НСИ: 8,4% в България се определят към турския етнос, 4,4% казват, че са роми; 24.11.2022, Dir.bg
  32. ^ Montenegro 2011 census.
  33. ^ "2006 census". Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  34. ^ Population Estimate from the MFA Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "República de Macedonia - Emigrantes totales".
  36. ^ {{https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=https%3A%2F%2Frosstat.gov.ru%2Fstorage%2Fmediabank%2FTom5_tab1_VPN-2020.xlsx&wdOrigin=BROWSELINK}}
  37. ^ "Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States", p. 517 The Macedonians are a Southern Slav people, closely related to Bulgarians.
  38. ^ "Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook", p. 54 Macedonians are a Slavic people closely related to the neighboring Bulgarians.
  39. ^ Day, Alan John; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2002). Political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 9780203403747.
  40. ^ Krste Misirkov, On the Macedonian Matters (Za Makedonckite Raboti), Sofia, 1903: "And, anyway, what sort of new Macedonian nation can this be when we and our fathers and grandfathers and great-grandfathers have always been called Bulgarians?"
  41. ^ Sperling, James; Kay, Sean; Papacosma, S. Victor (2003). Limiting institutions?: the challenge of Eurasian security governance. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7190-6605-4. Macedonian nationalism Is a new phenomenon. In the early twentieth century, there was no separate Slavic Macedonian identity
  42. ^ Titchener, Frances B.; Moorton, Richard F. (1999). The eye expanded: life and the arts in Greco-Roman antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-520-21029-5. On the other hand, the Macedonians are a newly emergent people in search of a past to help legitimize their precarious present as they attempt to establish their singular identity in a Slavic world dominated historically by Serbs and Bulgarians. ... The twentieth-century development of a Macedonian ethnicity, and its recent evolution into independent statehood following the collapse of the Yugoslav state in 1991, has followed a rocky road. In order to survive the vicissitudes of Balkan history and politics, the Macedonians, who have had no history, need one.
  43. ^ Kaufman, Stuart J. (2001). Modern hatreds: the symbolic politics of ethnic war. New York: Cornell University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-8014-8736-6. The key fact about Macedonian nationalism is that it is new: in the early twentieth century, Macedonian villagers defined their identity religiously—they were either "Bulgarian," "Serbian," or "Greek" depending on the affiliation of the village priest. ... According to the new Macedonian mythology, modern Macedonians are the direct descendants of Alexander the Great's subjects. They trace their cultural identity to the ninth-century Saints Cyril and Methodius, who converted the Slavs to Christianity and invented the first Slavic alphabet, and whose disciples maintained a centre of Christian learning in western Macedonia. A more modern national hero is Gotse Delchev, leader of the turn-of-the-century Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), which was actually a largely pro-Bulgarian organization but is claimed as the founding Macedonian national movement.
  44. ^ Rae, Heather (2002). State identities and the homogenisation of peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0-521-79708-X. Despite the recent development of Macedonian identity, as Loring Danforth notes, it is no more or less artificial than any other identity. It merely has a more recent ethnogenesis – one that can therefore more easily be traced through the recent historical record.
  45. ^ Zielonka, Jan; Pravda, Alex (2001). Democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-19-924409-6. Unlike the Slovene and Croatian identities, which existed independently for a long period before the emergence of SFRY Macedonian identity and language were themselves a product federal Yugoslavia, and took shape only after 1944. Again unlike Slovenia and Croatia, the very existence of a separate Macedonian identity was questioned—albeit to a different degree—by both the governments and the public of all the neighboring nations (Greece being the most intransigent)
  46. ^ Bonner, Raymond (14 May 1995). "The World; The Land That Can't Be Named". The New York Times. New York. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019. Macedonian nationalism did not arise until the end of the last century.
  47. ^ Rossos, Andrew (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History (PDF). Hoover Institution Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0817948832. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019. They were also insisting that the Macedonians sacrifice their national name, under which, as we have seen throughout this work, their national identity and their nation formed in the nineteenth century.
  48. ^ Rossos, Andrew (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History (PDF). Hoover Institution Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-0817948832. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019. Under very trying circumstances, most ethnic Macedonians chose a Macedonian identity. That identity began to form with the Slav awakening in Macedonia in the first half of the nineteenth century.
  49. ^ Loring M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, 1995, Princeton University Press, p.65, ISBN 0-691-04356-6
  50. ^ Stephen Palmer, Robert King, Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian question, Hamden, Connecticut Archon Books, 1971, p.p.199-200
  51. ^ Livanios, Dimitris (17 April 2008). The Macedonian Question: Britain and the Southern Balkans 1939–1949. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191528729. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  52. ^ a b Woodhouse, Christopher M. (2002). The Struggle for Greece, 1941–1949. Hurst. ISBN 9781850654926. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  53. ^ a b Poulton, Hugh (1995). Who are the Macedonians?. Hurst. ISBN 9781850652380. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  54. ^ James Horncastle, The Macedonian Slavs in the Greek Civil War, 1944–1949; Rowman & Littlefield, 2019, ISBN 1498585051, p. 130.
  55. ^ Stern, Dieter and Christian Voss (eds). 2006. "Towards the peculiarities of language shift in Northern Greece". In: "Marginal Linguistic Identities: Studies in Slavic Contact and Borderland Varieties." Eurolinguistische Arbeiten. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag; ISBN 9783447053549, pp. 87–101.
  56. ^ A J Toynbee. Some Problems of Greek History, Pp 80; 99–103
  57. ^ The Problem of the Discontinuity in Classical and Hellenistic Eastern Macedonia, Marjan Jovanonv. УДК 904:711.424(497.73)
  58. ^ A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Wiley -Blackwell, 2011. Map 2
  59. ^ Peter Heather, Goths and Romans 332–489. p. 129
  60. ^ a b Macedonia in Late Antiquity p. 551. In A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Wiley -Blackwell, 2011
  61. ^ a b Curta, Florin (2012). "Were there any Slavs in seventh-century Macedonia?". Journal of History. 47: 73.
  62. ^ Curta (2004, p. 148)
  63. ^ Fine (1991, p. 29)
  64. ^ T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley- Blackwell, 2010. p. 169
  65. ^ Curta (2001, pp. 335–345)
  66. ^ Florin Curta. Were there any Slavs in seventh-century Macedonia? 2013
  67. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Denis Sinor, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0521243041, pp. 215–216.
  68. ^ Fine 1991, pp. 71.
  69. ^ Во некрополата "Млака" пред тврдината во Дебреште, Прилеп, откопани се гробови со наоди од доцниот 7. и 8. век. Тие се делумно или целосно кремирани и не се ниту ромеjски, ниту словенски. Станува збор наjвероjатно, за Кутригурите. Ова протобугарско племе, под водство на Кубер, а како потчинето на аварскиот каган во Панониjа, околу 680 г. се одметнало од Аварите и тргнало кон Солун. Кубер ги повел со себе и Сермесиjаните, (околу 70.000 на број), во нивната стара татковина. Сермесиjаните биле Ромеи, жители на балканските провинции што Аварите ги заробиле еден век порано и ги населиле во Западна Панониjа, да работат за нив. На Кубер му била доверена управата врз нив. In English: In the necropolis 'Malaka' in the fortress of Debreshte, near Prilep, graves were dug with findings from the late 7th and early 8th century. They are partially or completely cremated and neither Roman nor Slavic. The graves are probably remains from the Kutrigurs. This Bulgar tribe was led by Kuber... Средновековни градови и тврдини во Македонија. Иван Микулчиќ (Скопје, Македонска цивилизација, 1996) стр. 32–33.
  70. ^ "The" Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans, East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450 – 1450, Florin Curta, Roman Kovalev, BRILL, 2008, ISBN 9004163891, p. 460.
  71. ^ W Pohl. The Avars (History) in Regna and Gentes. The Relationship Between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World. pp. 581, 587
  72. ^ They spread from the original heartland in north-east Bulgaria to the Drina in the west, and to Macedonia in the south-west.; На целиот тој простор, во маса метални производи (делови од воената опрема, облека и накит), меѓу стандардните форми користени од словенското население, одвреме-навреме се појавуваат специфични предмети врзани за бугарско болјарство како носители на новата државна управа. See: Средновековни градови и тврдини во Македонија. Иван Микулчиќ (Скопје, Македонска цивилизација, 1996) стр. 35; 364–365.
  73. ^ Dejan Bulić, The Fortifications of the Late Antiquity and the Early Byzantine Period on the Later Territory of the South-Slavic Principalities, and Their Re-occupation in Tibor Živković et al., The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD) with Srđan Rudić as ed. Istorijski institut, 2013, Belgrade; ISBN 8677431047, pp. 186–187.
  74. ^ Florin Curta. 'The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, C. 500 to 1050: The Early Middle Ages. pp. 259, 281
  75. ^ Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire edited by Hélène Ahrweiler, Angeliki E. Laiou, p. 58. Many were apparently based in Bitola, Stumnitsa and Moglena
  76. ^ Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365. Istvan Varsary. p. 67
  77. ^ Stoianovich, Traian (September 1994). Balkan Worlds. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765638519. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  78. ^ Czamanska, Ilona. (2016). Vlachs and Slavs in the Middle Ages and Modern Era. Res Historica. 41. 11. 10.17951/rh.2016.0.11.
  79. ^ Гюзелев, Боян. Албанци в Източните Балкани, София 2004, Редактор: Василка Танкова, ИМИР (Международен центур за изследване на малцинствата и културните взаимодействия), ISBN 9789548872454, стр. 10-22.
  80. ^ Fine 1991, pp. 110–111.
  81. ^ Fine 1991, pp. 113, 196 Two brothers ... Constantine and Methodius were fluent in the dialect of Slavic in the environs of Thessaloniki. They devised an alphabet to convey Slavic phonetics.
  82. ^ Francis Dvornik. The Slavs p. 167
  83. ^ Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State p. 310
  84. ^ Price, Glanville (18 May 2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-63122039-8.
  85. ^ Parry, Ken (10 May 2010). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-44433361-9.
  86. ^ Rosenqvist, Jan Olof (2004). Interaction and Isolation in Late Byzantine Culture. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-85043944-8.
  87. ^ Fine 1991, pp. 127 [The Slavonic mission was to be a major means of making these Slavs in Macedonia—and other Slavs within the Bulgarian state as well—into Bulgarians.].
  88. ^ Hupchick, Dennis (2002). The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4039-6417-5. Boris I welcomed the refugees with open arms, offered them his atronage, and helped them establish a missionary operation centered on Ohrid in Bulgar Macedonia, where they trained youths for the clergy and translated the entire Orthodox liturgy into Slavic. The newly trained Slavic-speaking priests then were sent among the state's Slav subjects. As their influence spread and the numbers of converts multiplied, a new sense of community and state was created within the population. Separate ethnic identities slowly merged into a common Bulgarian one, and regional or tribal loyalties perceptibly shifted to the state, personified by its now-Christian ruler. A state of Bulgaria, as opposed to a Bulgar state, was born.
  89. ^ Alexander Schenker. The Dawn of Slavic. pp. 188–190. Schenker argues that Ohrid was 'innovative' and 'native Slavic' whilst Preslav very much relied on Greek modelling.
  90. ^ Per Curta, Preslav was the center from which the scriptorial innovation associated with the introduction of Cyrillic spread to other regions of Bulgaria. Florin Curta (2006) Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge University Press, p. 221, ISBN 9780521894524.
  91. ^ Detrez, Raymond; Segaert, Barbara (2008). Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans. Peter Lang. ISBN 9789052013749. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  92. ^ Balkan cultural commonality and ethnic diversity. Raymond Detrez (Ghent University, Belgium).
  93. ^ История на българите. Късно средновековие и Възраждане, том 2, Георги Бакалов, TRUD Publishers, 2004, ISBN 9545284676, стр. 23. (Bg.)
  94. ^ Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe, Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE) – "Macedonians of Bulgaria", p. 14. Archived 23 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ Poulton, Hugh (2000). Who are the Macedonians?. Hurst. ISBN 9781850655343. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  96. ^ "Средновековни градови и тврдини во Македонија, Иван Микулчиќ, Македонска академија на науките и уметностите – Скопје, 1996, стр. 72". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  97. ^ Academician Dimitŭr Simeonov Angelov (1978). "Formation of the Bulgarian nation (summary)". Sofia-Press. pp. 413–415. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  98. ^ When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans. J V A Fine. pp. 3–5.
  99. ^ Relexification Hypothesis in Rumanian. Paul Wexler. p. 170
  100. ^ Cumans and Tartars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans. Istvan Vasary. p. 18
  101. ^ Byzantium's Balkan Frontier. Paul Stephenson. p. 78–79
  102. ^ The Edinburgh History of the Greeks; 500–1250: The Middle Ages. Florin Curta. 2013. p. 294 (echoing Anthony D Smith and Anthony Kaldellis) "no clear notion exists that the Greek nation survived into Byzantine times...the ethnic identity of those who lived in Greece during the Middle Ages is best described as Roman."
  103. ^ Mats Roslund. Guests in the House: Cultural Transmission Between Slavs and Scandinavians; 2008. p. 79
  104. ^ The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, Selcuk Aksin Somel, Scarecrow Press, 2010, ISBN 1461731763, p. 168.
  105. ^ Namee, Matthew (15 March 2022). "The Longest Schism in Modern Orthodoxy: Bulgarian Autocephaly & Ethnophyletism". Orthodox History. The Orthodox Church in the Modern World.
  106. ^ Tashev, Spas. "Facsimilise of Sultan's Firman with English Translation".
  107. ^ Църква и църковен живот в Македония, Петър Петров, Христо Темелски, Македонски Научен Институт, София, 2003 г.
  108. ^ The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Liberation Movements, 1893–1903, Duncan M. Perry, Duke University Press, 1988, ISBN 0822308134, p. 15.
  109. ^ The A to Z of Bulgaria, Raymond Detrez, Scarecrow Press, 2010, ISBN 0810872021, p. 271.
  110. ^ Vermeulen, Hans (1984). "Greek cultural dominance among the Orthodox population of Macedonia during the last period of Ottoman rule". In Blok, Anton; Driessen, Henk (eds.). Cultural Dominance in the Mediterranean Area. Nijmegen. pp. 225–255.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  111. ^ Gounaris, Basil G. (1995). "Social Cleavages and National "Awakening" in Ottoman Macedonia". East European Quarterly. 29 (4): 409–426.
  112. ^ Gounaris, Basil G. (1995). "Social Cleavages and National "Awakening" in Ottoman Macedonia". East European Quarterly. 29 (4): 409–426.
  113. ^ Roumen Daskalov, Alexander Vezenkov as ed., Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies; Balkan Studies Library, BRILL, 2015; ISBN 9004290362, p. 454.
  114. ^ Loring M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, 1995, Princeton University Press, p. 56, ISBN 0-691-04356-6
  115. ^ a b Roumen Daskalov, Tchavdar Marinov, Entangled Histories of the Balkans, Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies, BRILL, 2013, ISBN 900425076X, pp. 283–285.
  116. ^ The Macedonian Question an article from 1871 by Slaveykov published in the newspaper Macedonia in Carigrad he wrote: "We have many times heard from the Macedonists that they are not Bulgarians, but they are rather Macedonians, descendants of the Ancient Macedonians and we have always waited to hear some proofs of this, but we have never heard them."
  117. ^ Соня Баева, Петко Славейков: живот и творчество, 1827–1870, Изд-во на Българската академия на науките, 1968, стр. 10.
  118. ^ Речник на българската литература, том 2 Е-О. София, Издателство на Българската академия на науките, 1977. с. 324.
  119. ^ A letter from Slaveykov to the Bulgarian Exarch written in Solun in February 1874
  120. ^ Балканска питања и мање историјско-политичке белешке о Балканском полуострву 1886–1905. Стојан Новаковић, Београд, 1906.
  121. ^ "Since the Bulgarian idea, as it is well-known, is deeply rooted in Macedonia, I think it is almost impossible to shake it completely by opposing it merely with the Serbian idea. This idea, we fear, would be incapable, as opposition pure and simple, of suppressing the Bulgarian idea. That is why the Serbian idea will need an ally that could stand in direct opposition to Bulgarianism and would contain in itself the elements which could attract the people and their feelings and thus sever them from Bulgarianism. This ally I see in Macedonism...." except from the report of S. Novakovic to the Minister of Education in Belgrade in Cultural and Public Relations of the Macedonians with Serbia in the XIXth c., Skopje, 1960, p. 178.
  122. ^ a b c d Rossos, Andrew (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History (PDF). Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 978-0817948832. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  123. ^ Rečnik od tri jezika: s. makedonski, arbanski i turski [Dictionary of Three languages: Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish], U državnoj štampariji, 1875, p. 48f.
  124. ^ Речник от четири jазика. Ђ. Пулевски, Belgrade, 1873, p. 3
  125. ^ Rečnik od tri jezika: s. makedonski, arbanski i turski [Dictionary of Three languages: Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish], U državnoj štampariji, 1875, p. 48f.
  126. ^ Papers in Slavic Philology. University of Michigan. 1984. p. 102. ISBN 9780930042592. In 1875, Gorge M. Pulevski, who identifies himself as mijak galicki 'a mijak from Galicnik'
  127. ^ Daskalov, Rumen; Marinov, Tchavdar (2013). Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. p. 316. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5.
  128. ^ Chris Kostov (2010). Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, 1900–1996. Peter Lang. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-0343-0196-1.
  129. ^ Блаже Ристовски, "Портрети и процеси од македонската литературна и национална историја", том 1, Скопје: Култура, 1989 г., стр. 281, 283, 28.
  130. ^ Per Srđan Todorov he began his public work as a Mijak and then became an "Old Serbian" patriot, went later to Bulgarian identity, and finally adopted a Macedonian one. For more see: Срђан Тодоров, О народности Ђорђа Пуљевског. В Етно-културолошки зборник, уредник Сретен Петровић, књига XXIII (2020) Сврљиг, УДК 929.511:821.163 (09); ISBN 978-86-84919-42-9, стр. 133-144.
  131. ^ Raymond Detrez (2014). Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014, p. 67. ISBN 1442241802.
  132. ^ Chris Kostov (2010). Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, 1900–1996. Peter Lang. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-0343-0196-1.
  133. ^ Daskalov, Rumen; Marinov, Tchavdar (2013). Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. p. 213, ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5
  134. ^ Theodosius of Skopje Centralen D'rzhaven istoricheski archiv (Sofia) 176, op. 1. arh.ed. 595, l.5–42 – Razgledi, X/8 (1968), pp. 996–1000.
  135. ^ Писмо на Теодосий до вестника на Българската екзархия "Новини" от 04.02.1892 г.
  136. ^ Блаже Конески, Македонскиот XIX век. том 6, Составиле: Анастасија Ѓурчинова, Лидија Капушевска-ДракулевскаЫ Бобан Карапејовски, белешки и коментари: Георги Сталев, МАНУ, Скопје, 2020, стр. 72.
  137. ^ Alexis Heraclides (2020). The Macedonian Question and the Macedonians. Taylor & Francis. p. 152. ISBN 9781000289404.
  138. ^ Duncan Perry (1988). The Politics of Terror. Duke University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780822308133.
  139. ^ Marco Dogo (1985). Lingua e nazionalità in Macedonia. Jaca Book. p. 50. ISBN 9788816950115. In quella data aveva appunto fatto ritorno da una missione in Macedonia il filologo Draganov, di origine bulgaro-bassarabiana, i cui contributi scientifici avrebbero introdotto il pubblico colto della capitale russa all'esistenza di un'area linguistica slava, in quella regione dei Balcani, dotata di caratteri individuanti propri e non assimilabili a quelli serbi e bulgari; ancora in tempi recentissimi Draganov era intervenuto a sostenere, sulle colonne di un autorevole giornale di Petroburgo, il buon diritto degli Slavi macedoni - o meglio Macedoni nel pieno sneso nazionale, e non piu solo geografico, della parola - al riconoscimento da parte russa quale nazionalita a se stante ed anzi maggioritaria in casa propria, in Macedonia.
  140. ^ The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation, Keith Brown, Princeton University Press, 2003, ISBN 0691099952, p. 175
  141. ^ Mercia MacDermott, Freedom or Death, The Life of Gotsé Delchev, Journeyman Press, London & West Nyack, 1978, p. 379.
  142. ^ Alexis Heraclides (2020). The Macedonian Question and the Macedonians. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781000289404.
  143. ^ Information from a book by Gyorche Petrov on the ethnic composition of the population in Macedonia: The Macedonian population consists of Bulgarians, Turks, Albanians, Wallachians, Jews The total number of the population and that of each nationality cannot be defined exactly as there are no statistics... Bulgarians constitute the bulk of the population in the vilayet I am describing. In spite of all distortions in the official statistics, they again figure as more than half of the population. I could not personally collect any data about the number of the population, that is why I am not quoting figures. I made a description of the Bulgarian population in the section on Topography, that is why it is not necessary to repeat the same again or go into detail... (G. Petrov, Materials on the Study of Macedonia), Sofia, 1896, pp. 724-725, 731; the original is in Bulgarian. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History, Bulgarian Language Institute, Macedonia. Documents and materials, Sofia 1978, Document # 40.]
  144. ^ The term 'project' tackles likewise the specific temporal orientation of the initial stage of formation of Macedonian ethnic nationalism: the Macedonian self-determination is seen by Misirkov as a future ideal and his national manifesto on the Macedonian Matters (Sofia, 1903) recognizes the lack of actual correlation between the concept of Macedonian Slavic ethnicity and the real self-identifications of the majority of Macedonian Slavs. In a rather demiurgical way, Misirkov is the first who exposes the basic 'ethnographic' characteristics of what he regards as 'inexistent' but 'possible' and 'necessary' Macedonian Slavic ethnicity... Tchavdar Marinov, "Between Political Autonomism and Ethnic Nationalism: Competing Constructions of Modern Macedonian National Ideology (1878–1913)", p. 3.
  145. ^ Misirkov lamented that "no local Macedonian patriotism" existed and would have to be created. He anticipated that Macedonians would respond to his proposal with a series of baffled questions: "What sort of new Macedonian nation can this be when we, and our fathers and grandfathers and great-grandfathers have always been called Bulgarians?...Macedonian as a nationality has never existed, and it does not exist now"... Misirkov answered by observing that national loyalties change with time: "What has not existed in the past may still be brought into existence later, provided that the appropriate historical circumstances arise... Misirkov in short wanted, the Ottoman state to promote Macedonian nation-building, calling for "official recognition". Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe, Klaus Roth, Ulf Brunnbauer, LIT Verlag Münster, 2008, ISBN 3825813878, p. 138.
  146. ^ Misirkov, Krste (1903). За македонцките работи [On Macedonian Matters] (PDF). Sofia. p. 117. Словените од Бугариiа и Македониiа наi напред беа само соiузници на бугарите во воiните со Византиiа. Но соiузните со бугарите словенцки полчишча беа во очите на неприiателите т.е. византиiците пак бугарцки. Значит византиiците зафатиiа да прекрстуват словените ушче од времето на Аспарухоата орда. Постоiанната борба рамо за рамо со бугарите ѝ направи ниф iеден народ со бугарцко име, но со словенцки iазик [At first, the Slavs in Bulgaria and Macedonia were only allies of the Bulgars in the wars against Byzantium. Hоwever, due to the alliance with the Bulgars, the Slavic hordes appeared in the eyes of the adversary, i.e. the Byzantines, to be Bulgars too. So the Byzantines renamed the Slavs as early as the time of Asparuh's horde. Our constant fight side by side with the Bulgars made us into one people with a Bulgarian name but Slavonic language.]{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  147. ^ Misirkov, Krste (1903). За македонцките работи [On Macedonian Matters] (PDF). Sofia. p. 35.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  148. ^ Misirkov, Krste (1903). "За македонцките работи" [On Macedonian Matters]. Sofia. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. The uprising prevented Macedonia from being partitioned, and this is one of its more worthwhile results. But partition was luckily avoided thanks really to the fact that our enemies happened to be inept and inexperienced. If Bulgaria wanted to threaten us even more seriously in the future, when our enemies were more experienced, she might enter into an agreement with Serbia concerning the partition of Macedonia between the spheres of influence. This agreement between the spheres of influence would unfailingly lead to the partition of Macedonia. This is why one of the prime duties of the Macedonian intelligentsia is once and for all to drive Serbian and Bulgarian propaganda out of Macedonia so that Macedonia can establish its own spiritual centre, and free the Macedonians from this give and take relation with the neighboring Balkan states and peoples. Hence the need to forestall the partition of Macedonia and retain it as a province of Turkey
  149. ^ Misirkov, Krste (1903). За македонцките работи [On Macedonian Matters] (PDF). Sofia. p. 105.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  150. ^ Misirkov, Krste (1903). "За македонцките работи" [On Macedonian Matters]. Sofia. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. The Macedonians and Bulgarians are now left with a choice between two possibilities: either Macedonia will be divided among the neighbouring Balkan states, which would mean a loss of two thirds of Macedonia both for the Bulgarians and for the Macedonians, or else all relations with Bulgaria will be severed and the Macedonian question will be regarded on a purely neutral, Macedonian basis. When necessity phrases the issue thus it is clear that the second choice is the one which will always be preferred by everybody, for what honest Macedonian patriot would be prepared to sacrifice Kostur, Lerin, Bitola, Ohrid, Resen, Prilep, Veles, Tetovo, Skopje, etc. for the unification of Macedonia up to the left bank of the River Vardar with Bulgaria?
  151. ^ Victor Roudometof (2002). Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-275-97648-4.
  152. ^ "Проф. д-р Веселин Трайков – "Кръсте П. Мисирков и за българските работи в Македония", София, 2000, Издателство "Знание"". Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  153. ^ Misirkov, Krastyo (1910). "Бележки по южно-славянската филология и история" [Notes on South Slavic Philology and History] (PDF). Българска сбирка (in Bulgarian). 1 (XVII ed.). Sofia: 39–47.
  154. ^ Iz istorii makedonskogo literaturnogo iazyka, R.P. Usikova, 2004
  155. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 114.
  156. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 199.
  157. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 95.
  158. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 96, 93.
  159. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 96, 105.
  160. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 114.
  161. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 133-4.
  162. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 134-5.
  163. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 146-88.
  164. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 148-50.
  165. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 151.
  166. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 152-3.
  167. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 118.
  168. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 135, 164.
  169. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 164-5.
  170. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 118.
  171. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 121.
  172. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 166.
  173. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 119.
  174. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 172, 175, 177.
  175. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 177-8.
  176. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 178-9.
  177. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 203.
  178. ^ Wilkinson (1951), pp. 215, 221, 223.
  179. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 181-2.
  180. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 129-30.
  181. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 192-3.
  182. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 122.
  183. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 172.
  184. ^ Wilkinson 1951, p. 203.
  185. ^ Demeter & Bottlik 2021, p. 130.
  186. ^ Историја на македонската нација. Блаже Ристовски, 1999, Скопје.
  187. ^ "On the Monastir Road". Herbert Corey, National Geographic, May 1917 (p. 388.)
  188. ^ When narrating, in his autobiographical anti-war novel Life in Tomb, his convalescence in the house of a family of farmers in Velušina, a Slav-speaking patriarchist village near Bitola/Monastir, during his participation in the Macedonian front of World War I, Greek novelist Stratis Myrivilis wrote of its inhabitants that they "do not want to be 'Bulgar', neither 'Srrp', nor 'Grrc'. Only 'Makedon Ortodox'". See: Μυριβήλης, Στράτης (25 September 1923). Ἡ Ζωὴ ἐν τάφῳ. Κεφάλαιο ιζ΄ (PDF). Καμπάνα. Retrieved 11 July 2022.Μανδαμαδιώτου, Μαρία. Στράτης Μυριβήλης: Από το Βλάντοβο στη Βελουσίνα, 1924-1955. Λεσβιακό Ημερολόγιο 2019, Σελ. 93-104. Tasos Kostopoulos (2009). "Naming the Other: From "Greek Bulgarians" to "Local Macedonians"". In Alexandra Ioannidou; Christian Voß (eds.). Spotlights on Russian and Balkan Slavic Cultural History. Munich/Berlin: Verlag Otto Sagner. p. 108. Mackridge, Peter (2009). Language and National Identity in Greece, 1776-1796. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-19-921442-6. On Velusina's population, see also: Brancoff, D.M. (1905). La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne. Παρίσι. pp. 168–169.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  189. ^ Boškovska, Nada (2017). Yugoslavia and Macedonia Before Tito: Between Repression and Integration. London / New York: I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–10.
  190. ^ Mavrogordatos, George. Stillborn Republic: Social Coalitions and Party Strategies in Greece, 1922–1936. University of California Press, 1983. ISBN 9780520043589, p. 227, 247
  191. ^ <Michailidis, Iakovos D. (1996). "Minority Rights and Educational Problems in Greek Interwar Macedonia: The Case of the Primer "Abecedar"". Journal of Modern Greek Studies. 14 (2): 329–343.
  192. ^ Victor Roudometof, Nationalism, Globalization, and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans (Contributions to the Study of World History), Praeger, 2001, p.187
  193. ^ The Situation in Macedonia and the Tasks of IMRO (United) – published in the official newspaper of IMRO (United), "Македонско дело", N.185, April 1934.
  194. ^ Произходът на македонската нация - Стенограма от заседание на Македонския Научен Институт в София през 1947 г.
  195. ^ ...Да, тоа е точно. И не само Димитар Влахов. Павел Шатев, Панко Брашнаров, Ризо Ризов и др. Меѓутоа, овде тезата е погрешно поставена. Не е работата во тоа дали левицата се определуваше за Србија, а десницата за Бугарија. Тука се мешаат поимите. Практично, ни левицата ни десницата не ја доведуваа во прашање својата бугарска провениенција. Тоа ќе го доведе дури и Димитар Влахов во 1948 година на седница на Политбирото, кога говореше за постоењето на македонска нација, да рече дека во 1931-1932 година е направена грешка. Сите тие ветерани останаа само на нивото на политички, а не и на национален сепаратизам... Акад. Иван Катарџиев. "Верувам во националниот имунитет на македонецот". мега-интервју за списание "Форум", архива број 329, Скопје, 22.07.2000.
  196. ^ Κωστόπουλος, Τάσος (2009). ""Η Μακεδονία κάτω από το ζυγό της ελληνικής κεφαλαιοκρατίας". Ένα ρεπορτάζ του Ριζοσπάστη στις σλαβόφωνες περιοχές (1933)". Αρχειοτάξιο (in Greek). 11: 12–13.
  197. ^ Резолюция о македонской нации (принятой Балканском секретариате Коминтерна — Февраль 1934 г, Москва.
  198. ^ Nation, R.C. (1996). A Balkan Union? Southeastern Europe in Soviet Security Policy, 1944–8. In: Gori, F., Pons, S. (eds) The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943–53. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 125–143.
  199. ^ Marinov, Tchavdar & Vezenkov, Alexander. (2014). 6. Communism and Nationalism in the Balkans: Marriage of Convenience or Mutual Attraction?. in R. Daskalov, D. Mishkova, Tch. Marinov, A. Vezenkov, Entangled Histories of the Balkans. Vol. 4: Concepts, Approaches, and (Self-)Representations (Brill, 2017), pp. 440-593.
  200. ^ ... Поделбата на Македонија 1913 година одигра извонредно штетна улога во свеста на Македонецот. Зошто? Затоа што ја прекина нормалната комуникација-политичка, културна, економска - меѓу Македонците. Го прекина процесот на создавање на единствена македонска историја на целиот македонски простор. Македонските прогресивни сили ги врза за прогресивните сили на земјите во коишто опстојуваа. Тие почнаа да ја прифаќаат политичката определба и филозофија на земјите меѓу кои Македонија беше поделена. Така, во текот на НОБ, кога дојде времето за поврзување, постоеше огромен јаз во свеста на Македонецот од трите дела на земјата. Сите велеа дека се Македонци, ама сите на тој поим му даваа поинаква содржина. Кои доаѓаа од Бугарија, тие сметаа дека треба да дојдат на чело и да ја водат Македонија, особено ветераните како Шатев и Влахов. Тие, практично, се чувствуваа како Бугари. ВМРО (Об.) не мрдна од обичниот политички македонски сепаратизам. Во Вардарска Македонија, пак, благодарејќи на српското ропство, тече процес на самоизразување низ литературата. Треба да се признае фактот дека постоењето на хрватско и на словенечко движење во Кралска Југославија придонесе македонското национално движење да се осознава многу подлабоко. Оттаму, појавувањето на весници како Луч во 1937 година, во кои доаѓа до израз теоријата за македонската национална самобитност... Акад. Иван Катарџиев. "Верувам во националниот имунитет на македонецот". мега-интервју за списание "Форум", архива број 329, Скопје, 22.07.2000 г.
  201. ^ History of the Balkans, Vol. 2: Twentieth Century. Barbara Jelavich, 1983.
  202. ^ "Within Greece, and also within the new kingdom of Yugoslavia, which Serbia had joined in 1918, the ejection of the Bulgarian church, the closure of Bulgarian schools, and the banning of publication in Bulgarian, together with the expulsion or flight to Bulgaria of a large proportion of the Macedonian Slav intelligentsia, served as the prelude to campaigns of forcible cultural and linguistic assimilation...In both countries, these policies of de-bulgarization and assimilation were pursued, with fluctuating degrees of vigor, right through to 1941, when the Second World War engulfed the Balkan peninsula. The degree of these policies' success, however, remains open to question. The available evidence suggests that Bulgarian national sentiment among the Macedonian Slavs of Yugoslavia and Greece remained strong throughout the interwar period, though they lacked the means to offer more than passive resistance to official policies." For more see: F. A. K. Yasamee, Nationality in the Balkans: The case of the Macedonians. Balkans: A Mirror of the New World Order, Istanbul: Eren Publishing, 1995; pp. 121–132.
  203. ^ "As in Kosovo, the restoration of Serbian rule in 1918, to which the Strumica district and several other Bulgarian frontier salients accrued in 1919 (Bulgaria also having lost all its Aegean coastline to Greece), marked the replay of the first Serbian occupation (1913–1915). Once again, the Exarchist clergy and Bulgarian teachers were expelled, all Bulgarian-language signs and books removed, and all Bulgarian clubs, societies, and organizations dissolved, The Serbianization of family surnames proceeded as before the war, with Stankov becoming Stankovic and Atanasov entered in the books by Atanackovic... Thousands of Macedonians left for Bulgaria. Though there were fewer killings of "Bulgarians" (a pro-Bulgarian source claimed 342 such instances and 47 additional disappearances in 1918 – 1924), the conventional forms of repression (jailings, internments etc.) were applied more systematically and with greater effect than before (the same source lists 2,900 political arrests in the same period)... Like Kosovo, Macedonia was slated for Serb settlements and internal colonization. The authorities projected the settlement of 50,000 families in Macedonia, though only 4,200 families had been placed in 280 colonies by 1940." For more see: Ivo Banac, "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics" The Macedoine, Cornell University Press, 1984; ISBN 0801416752, pp. 307–328.
  204. ^ Yugoslav Communists recognized the existence of a Macedonian nationality during WWII to quiet fears of the Macedonian population that a communist Yugoslavia would continue to follow the former Yugoslav policy of forced Serbianization. Hence, for them to recognize the inhabitants of Macedonia as Bulgarians would be tantamount to admitting that they should be part of the Bulgarian state. For that the Yugoslav Communists were most anxious to mold Macedonian history to fit their conception of Macedonian consciousness. The treatment of Macedonian history in Communist Yugoslavia had the same primary goal as the creation of the Macedonian language: to de-Bulgarize the Macedonian Slavs, and to create a national consciousness that would inspire identification with Yugoslavia. For more see: Stephen E. Palmer, Robert R. King, Yugoslav communism and the Macedonian question, Archon Books, 1971, ISBN 0208008217, Chapter 9: The encouragement of Macedonian culture.
  205. ^ The Serbianization of the Vardar region ended and Yugoslavization was not introduced either; rather, a policy of cultural, linguistic, and "historical" Macedonization by de-Bulgarianization was implemented, with immediate success. For more see: Irina Livezeanu and Arpad von KlimoThe Routledge as ed. History of East Central Europe since 1700, Routledge, 2017, ISBN 1351863428, p. 490.
  206. ^ In Macedonia, post-WWII generations grew up "overdosed" with strong anti-Bulgarian sentiment, leading to the creation of mainly negative stereotypes for Bulgaria and its nation. The anti-Bulgariansim (or Bulgarophobia) increased almost to the level of state ideology during the ideological monopoly of the League of Communists of Macedonia, and still continues to do so today, although with less ferocity... However, it is more important to say openly that a great deal of these anti-Bulgarian sentiments result from the need to distinguish between the Bulgarian and the Macedonian nations. Macedonia could confirm itself as a state with its own past, present and future only through differentiating itself from Bulgaria. For more see: Mirjana Maleska. With the eyes of the "other" (about Macedonian-Bulgarian relations and the Macedonian national identity). In New Balkan Politics, Issue 6, pp. 9–11. Peace and Democracy Center: "Ian Collins", Skopje, Macedonia, 2003. ISSN 1409-9454.
  207. ^ After WWII in Macedonia the past was systematically falsified to conceal the fact that many prominent 'Macedonians' had supposed themselves to be Bulgarians, and generations of students were taught the pseudo-history of the Macedonian nation. The mass media and education were the key to this process of national acculturation, speaking to people in a language that they came to regard as their Macedonian mother tongue, even if it was perfectly understood in Sofia. For more see: Michael L. Benson, Yugoslavia: A Concise History, Edition 2, Springer, 2003, ISBN 1403997209, p. 89.
  208. ^ Once specifically Macedonian interests came to the fore under the Yugoslav communist umbrella and in direct confrontation with the Bulgarian occupation authorities (during WWII), the Bulgarian part of the identity of Vardar Macedonians was destined to die out – in a process similar to the triumph of Austrian over German-Austrian identity in post-war years. Drezov K. (1999) Macedonian identity: an overview of the major claims. In: Pettifer J. (eds) The New Macedonian Question. St Antony's Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London; ISBN 978-0-333-92066-4, p. 51.
  209. ^ Additionally, some 100,000 people were imprisoned in the post-1944 period for violations of the law for the "protection of Macedonian national honor," and some 1,260 Bulgarian sympathizers were allegedly killed. (Troebst, 1997: 248–50, 255–57; 1994: 116–22; Poulton, 2000: 118–19). For more see: Roudometof, Victor, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, Praeger Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-275-97648-3, p. 104.
  210. ^ Bulgarian sources assert that thousands lost their lives due to this cause after 1944 , and that more than 100 , 000 people were imprisoned under the law for the protection of Macedonian national honour 'for opposing the new ethnogenesis'. 1,260 leading Bulgarians were allegedly killed in Skopje, Veles, Kumanovo, Prilep, Bitola and Stip... For more see: Hugh Poulton, Who are the Macedonians? C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1850655340, p. 118.
  211. ^ John Phillips, Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans. (2004) I.B. Tauris (publisher), ISBN 186064841X, p. 40.
  212. ^ Smith A.D. The Antiquity of Nations. 2004, p. 47
  213. ^ Rae, Heather (2002). State identities and the homogenisation of peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0-521-79708-X.
  214. ^ Danforth, L. The Macedonian Conflict. Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. p. 25
  215. ^ Ancient Macedonia: National Symbols. L Danforth in A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Wiley –Blackwell 2010. p. 597-8
  216. ^ The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe, Sten Berglund, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, ISBN 1782545883,p. 622.
  217. ^ Transforming National Holidays: Identity Discourse in the West and South Slavic Countries, 1985–2010, Ljiljana Šarić, Karen Gammelgaard, Kjetil Rå Hauge, John Benjamins Publishing, 2012, ISBN 9027206384, pp. 207–208.
  218. ^ Muhić, Maja; Takovski, Aleksandar (2014). "Redefining National Identity in Macedonia. Analyzing Competing Origins Myths and Interpretations through Hegemonic Representations". Etnološka Tribina. 44 (37): 144. doi:10.15378/1848-9540.2014.
  219. ^ Sinisa Jakov Marusic, More Macedonians Apply for Bulgarian Citizenship. Aug 5, 2014, Balkans Inside.
  220. ^ Предоставяне на българско гражданство, Справка за преиода 22.01.2002–15.01.2012 г. (Bulgarian citizenship Information for the period 22.01.2002–15.01.2012 year); Доклад за дейността на КБГБЧ за 2012–2013 година (Report on the activities of the CBCBA for 2012–2013 year), p. 7 Доклад за дейността на КБГБЧ за периода 23.01.2013 – 22.01.2014 година (Report on the activities of the CBCBA for the period 23.01.2013–22.01.2014 year), p. 6; Годишен доклад за дейността на КБГБЧ за периода 01.01.2014–31.12.2014 година (Annual report on the activities of the CBCBA for the period 01.01.2014–31.12.2014 year), p. 5; Годишен доклад за дейността на КБГБЧ за периода 01.01.2015–31.12.2015 година (Annual report on the activities of the CBCBA for the period 01.01.2015–31.12.2015 year), p. 6; Годишен доклад за дейността на КБГБЧ за периода 01.01.2016–31.12.2016 година (Annual report on the activities of the CBCBA for the period 01.01.2016–31.12.2016 year), p. 6; Доклад за дейността на комисията по българско гражданство за периода 14 януари – 31 декември 2017 г. (Activity Report of the Bulgarian Citizenship Commission for the period 14 January – 31 December 2017); Доклад за дейността на комисията по българско гражданство за периода 01 януари – 31 декември 2018 г. (Activity Report of the Bulgarian Citizenship Commission for the period 01 January – 31 December 2018); Доклад за дейността на комисията по българско гражданство за периода 01 януари – 31 декември 2019 г. (Activity Report of the Bulgarian Citizenship Commission for the period 01 January – 31 December 2019). Доклад за дейността на комисията по българско гражданство за периода 01 януари – 31 декември 2020 г. (Activity Report of the Bulgarian Citizenship Commission for the period 01 January – 31 December 2020).
  221. ^ Bulgaria which has an ethnic citizenship regime and has a liberal dual citizenship regime makes a constitutional distinction between Bulgarians and Bulgarian citizens, whereas the former category reflects an ethnic (blood) belonging and the later the civic (territorial) belonging. In line with this definition, naturalization in Bulgaria is facilitated for those individuals who can prove that they belong to the Bulgarian nation...The birth certificates of parents and grandparents, their mother tongue, membership in Bulgarian institutions as the Bulgarian Church, former Bulgarian citizenship of the parents and so on are relevant criteria for the establishment of the ethnic origin of the applicant. In the case of Macedonian citizens, declaring their national identity as Bulgarian suffices to obtain Bulgarian citizenship, without the requirement for permanent residence in Bulgaria, or the language examination etc. For more see: Jelena Džankić, Citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro: Effects of Statehood and Identity Challenges, Southeast European Studies, Ashgate Publishing, 2015, ISBN 1472446410, p. 126.
  222. ^ Raymond Detrez, Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014, ISBN 1442241802, p. 318.
  223. ^ Jo Shaw and Igor Štiks as ed., Citizenship after Yugoslavia, Routledge, 2013, ISBN 1317967070, p. 106.
  224. ^ Rainer Bauböck, Debating Transformations of National Citizenship, IMISCOE Research Series, Springer, 2018, ISBN 3319927191, pp. 47–48.
  225. ^ Michael Palairet, Macedonia: A Voyage through History (Vol. 2, From the Fifteenth Century to the Present), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016, ISBN 1443888494, p. 347.
  226. ^ Mina Hristova, In-between Spaces: Dual Citizenship and Placebo Identity at the Triple Border between Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria in New Diversities; Volume 21, No. 1, 2019, pp. 37–55.
  227. ^ Risteski, L. (2016). "Bulgarian passports" – Possibilities for greater mobility of Macedonians and/or strategies for identity manipulation? EthnoAnthropoZoom/ЕтноАнтропоЗум, (10), 80–107. https://doi.org/10.37620/EAZ14100081r
  228. ^ Ljubica Spaskovska, Country report on Macedonia, November 2012. EUDO Citizenship Observatory, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, p.20.
  229. ^ Bulgaria asks EU to stop 'fake' Macedonian identity. Deutsche Welle, 23.09.2020.
  230. ^ Bulgaria blocks EU accession talks with North Macedonia. Nov 17, 2020, National post.
  231. ^ "Address by the Director of the State Statistical Office on the completion of the Census 2021".
  232. ^ Лилия Чалева, Скопие преброи 19 645 души с двойно гражданство 29 април 2022, Dir.bg.
  233. ^ μακεδνός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  234. ^ μακρός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  235. ^ Macedonia, Online Etymology Dictionary
  236. ^ Eugene N. Borza, Makedonika, Regina Books, ISBN 0-941690-65-2, p.114: The "highlanders" or "Makedones" of the mountainous regions of western Macedonia are derived from northwest Greek stock; they were akin both to those who at an earlier time may have migrated south to become the historical "Dorians".
  237. ^ Nigel Guy Wilson, Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Routledge, 2009, p.439: The latest archaeological findings have confirmed that Macedonia took its name from a tribe of tall, Greek-speaking people, the Makednoi.
  238. ^ Drezov K. (1999) Macedonian identity: an overview of the major claims. In: Pettifer J. (eds) The New Macedonian Question. St Antony's Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London, ISBN 0230535798, pp. 50–51.
  239. ^ Jelavich Barbara, History of the Balkans, Vol. 2: Twentieth Century, 1983, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521274591, page 91.
  240. ^ John S. Koliopoulos, Thanos M. Veremis, Modern Greece: A History since 1821. A New History of Modern Europe, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 1444314831, p. 48.
  241. ^ Richard Clogg, Minorities in Greece: Aspects of a Plural Society. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1850657068, p. 160.
  242. ^ Dimitar Bechev, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956, Introduction, pp. VII-VIII.
  243. ^ J. Pettifer, The New Macedonian Question, St Antony's group, Springer, 1999, ISBN 0230535798, pp. 49–51.
  244. ^ Anastas Vangeli, Nation-building ancient Macedonian style: the origins and the effects of the so-called antiquization in Macedonia. Nationalities Papers, the Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, Volume 39, 2011 pp. 13–32.
  245. ^ As the Macedonian historian Taskovski claims, the Macedonian Slavs initially rejected the Macedonian designation as Greek. For more see: Tchavdar Marinov, Famous Macedonia, the Land of Alexander: Macedonian identity at the crossroads of Greek, Bulgarian and Serbian nationalism, p. 285; in Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies with Roumen Daskalov and Tchavdar Marinov as ed., BRILL, 2013, ISBN 900425076X, pp. 273–330.
  246. ^ Chris Kostov, Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, 1900–1996, Peter Lang, 2010, ISBN 3034301960, p. 65.
  247. ^ In a letter to Prof. Marin Drinov of May 25, 1888 Kuzman Shapkarev writes: "But even stranger is the name Macedonians, which was imposed on us only 10–15 years ago by outsiders, and not as some think by our own intellectuals.... Yet the people in Macedonia know nothing of that ancient name, reintroduced today with a cunning aim on the one hand and a stupid one on the other. They know the older word: "Bugari", although mispronounced: they have even adopted it as peculiarly theirs, inapplicable to other Bulgarians. You can find more about this in the introduction to the booklets I am sending you. They call their own Macedono-Bulgarian dialect the "Bugarski language", while the rest of the Bulgarian dialects they refer to as the "Shopski language". (Makedonski pregled, IX, 2, 1934, p. 55; the original letter is kept in the Marin Drinov Museum in Sofia, and it is available for examination and study)
  248. ^ E. Damianopoulos, The Macedonians: Their Past and Present, Springer, 2012, ISBN 1137011904, p. 185.
  249. ^ Donald Bloxham, The Final Solution: A Genocide, OUP Oxford, 2009, ISBN 0199550336, p. 65.
  250. ^ Chris Kostov, Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, Peter Lang, 2010, ISBN 3034301960, p. 76.
  251. ^ Raymond Detrez, Pieter Plas, Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Volume 34 of Multiple Europesq Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN 9052012970, p. 173.
  252. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos (15 June 2010). Bulgaria and Europe. Anthem Press. ISBN 9781843318286. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  253. ^ "Ethnologue report for Greece". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
  254. ^ UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile Archived 9 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  255. ^ UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  256. ^ L. M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World 1995, Princeton University Press.
  257. ^ Jacques Bacid, PhD Macedonia Through the Ages. Columbia University, 1983.
  258. ^ Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers Volume 27, 1 March 1999, p. 44(14).
  259. ^ Poulton, H.(2000), "Who are the Macedonians?", C. Hurst & Co. Publishers.
  260. ^ Danforth, Loring M. (6 April 1997). The Macedonian Conflict. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691043566. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  261. ^ a b c "Greece". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  262. ^ Cowan, Jane K.; Dembour, Marie-Bénédicte; Wilson, Richard A. (29 November 2001). Culture and Rights. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521797351. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  263. ^ L. M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World 1995, Princeton University Press, p. 45
  264. ^ Detrez, Raymond; Plas, Pieter (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Peter Lang, pp. 50
  265. ^ Second Macedonian newspaper in Greece"Втор весник на Македонците во Грција...Весникот се вика "Задруга"...За нецел месец во Грција излезе уште еден весник на Македонците/A Second Macedonian Newspaper in greece...The Newspaper is Called "Zadruga/Koinothta"...Barely a month ago in Greece another newspaper for the Macedonians was released."
  266. ^ Greek Helsinki Monitor & Minority Rights Group- Greece; Greece against its Macedonian minority Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
  267. ^ Amnesty International; Greece: Charges against members of the "Rainbow" party should be dropped
  268. ^ Македонците во Грција треба да си ги бараат правата Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine""Нова зора"...печати во 20.000 примероци/Nova Zora...is printed in 20,000 copies"
  269. ^ "Нова зора" – прв весник на македонски јазик во Грција Archived 9 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine""Нова зора" – прв весник на македонски јазик во Грција...При печатењето на тиражот од 20.000 примероци се појавиле само мали технички проблеми/Nova Zora – the first Macedonian-language newspaper in Greece...There were only small technical problems with the printing of the circulation of 20,000"
  270. ^ Нема печатница за македонски во Грција[permanent dead link]"Весникот е наречен "Нова зора" и треба да се печати во 20.000 примероци/The Newspaper is called Nova Zora and 20,000 copies are printed."
  271. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 2015-06-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  272. ^ Artan Hoxha and Alma Gurraj, Local Self-Government and Decentralization: Case of Albania. History, Reforms and Challenges. In: Local Self Government and Decentralization in South — East Europe. Proceedings of the workshop held in Zagreb, Croatia 6 April 2001. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb Office, Zagreb 2001, pp. 194–224 (PDF).
  273. ^ Day, Alan John; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2002). Political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 1-85743-063-8.
  274. ^ "Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth". Eurostat.
  275. ^ "НАСЕЛЕНИЕ КЪМ 7 СЕПТЕМВРИ 2021 ГОДИНА" (PDF). nsi.bg. p. 12. Retrieved 11 May 2023.
  276. ^ Население по етническа група и майчин език в област: Благоевград.[permanent dead link]
  277. ^ Преброяване 2011 – окончателни резултати, гл. ІІІ. Основни резултати, стр. 23.
  278. ^ 323 552 души е населението на Пиринско.
  279. ^ "FOCUS Information Agency". focus-fen.net. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  280. ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora. Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Македонски Иселенички Алманах '95. Skopje: Матица на Иселениците на Македонија.
  281. ^ "The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2011 Census" (PDF). Australian Government. 2014. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  282. ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora; Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Македонски Иселенички Алманах '95. Skopje: Матица на Иселениците на Македонија. pp. 52–53.
  283. ^ "U.S. Census website". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  284. ^ "Archived copy". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2006.
  285. ^ Euroamericans.net Archived 19 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  286. ^ bfs.admin.ch
  287. ^ "The 67th Academy Awards | 1995". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  288. ^ Levinson & O'Leary (1992:239)
  289. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. By Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley. p. 381
  290. ^ Matkovski, Aleksandar, Grbovite na Makedonija, Skopje, 1970.
  291. ^ Александар Матковски (1990) Грбовите на Македонија, Мисла, Skopje, Macedonia — ISBN 86-15-00160-X
  292. ^ Duncan M. Perry, The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Liberation Movements, 1893–1903, Duke University Press, 1988, pp. 39–40.
  293. ^ J. Pettifer as ed., The New Macedonian Question, Springer, 1999 ISBN 0230535798, p. 236.
  294. ^ "Macedonian Cultural Heritage: Ohrid World Heritage Site" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  295. ^ Deskoski: Vergina Sun flag is not Macedonian, we need to get rid of this Greek symbol, Republica.mk: "The Vergina Sun flag was a national flag for only three years and that was one of the biggest mistakes. Neither the Ilinden fighters nor the partisans in the National Liberation War knew that symbol. That flag is the biggest hoax of Macedonianism. We need to unanimously reject and get rid of this Greek symbol. Let the Greeks glorify their symbols."
  296. ^ http://www.wipo.int/cgi-6te/guest/ifetch5?ENG+6TER+15+1151315-REVERSE+0+0+1055+F+125+431+101+25+SEP-0/HITNUM,B+KIND%2fEmblem+ wipo.int at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 March 2006)
  297. ^ Floudas, Demetrius Andreas; "A Name for a Conflict or a Conflict for a Name? An Analysis of Greece's Dispute with FYROM". 24 (1996) Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 285. 1996. Archived from the original on 27 January 2006. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
  298. ^ "Final Agreement for the Settlement of the Differences as Described in the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 817 (1993) and 845 (1993), The Termination of the Interim Accord of 1995, and the Establishment of a Strategic Partnership Between the Parties" (PDF). eKathimerini. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  299. ^ "Also the "Sun of Vergina" is being lost: what the agreement (original: Χάνεται και "ο Ηλιος της Βεργίνας": Τι ορίζει η συμφωνία για το σήμα)". Crash Online. 14 June 2018. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  300. ^ "North Macedonia to remove the Star of Vergina from all public spaces". GCT.com. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  301. ^ "North Macedonia: Zaev removes from anywhere the Vergina Sun (original title: "Βόρεια Μακεδονία: Ο Ζάεφ αποσύρει από παντού τον Ήλιο της Βεργίνας")". News247. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  302. ^ "Kutlesh star no longer to be seen in public use". Republika.mk. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  303. ^ Peričić, Marijana; et al. (October 2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (10): 1964–1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.
  304. ^ Jakovski, Zlatko; Nikolova, Ksenija; Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Marjanovic, Damir; Pojskic, Naris; Janeska, Biljana (2011). "Genetic data for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Macedonians in the Republic of Macedonia". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 5 (4): e108–e111. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.04.005. PMID 21549657. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  305. ^ Petlichkovski A, Efinska-Mladenovska O, Trajkov D, Arsov T, Strezova A, Spiroski M (2004). "High-resolution typing of HLA-DRB1 locus in the Macedonian population". Tissue Antigens. 64 (4): 486–491. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00273.x. PMID 15361127.
  306. ^ Barać, Lovorka; Peričić, Marijana; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Rootsi, Siiri; Janićijević, Branka; Kivisild, Toomas; Parik, Jüri; Rudan, Igor; Villems, Richard; Rudan, Pavao (2003). "European Journal of Human Genetics – Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates". European Journal of Human Genetics. 11 (7): 535–542. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200992. PMID 12825075.
  307. ^ Semino, Ornella; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; et al. (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF). Science. 290 (5494): 1155–1159. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1155S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2003.
  308. ^ Hristova-Dimceva, A.; Verduijn, W.; Schipper, R.F.; Schreuder, G.M.tH. (January 2000). "HLA-DRB and -DQB1 polymorphism in the Macedonian population". Tissue Antigens. 55 (1): 53–56. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550109.x. PMID 10703609. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  309. ^ Rebala, K; et al. (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5): 406–414. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0125-6. PMID 17364156.
  310. ^ a b Kushniarevich, Alena; et al. (2015). "Genetic heritage of the Balto-Slavic speaking populations: a synthesis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0135820. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1035820K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135820. PMC 4558026. PMID 26332464.
  311. ^ a b Novembre, John; et al. (2008). "Genes mirror geography within Europe". Nature. 456 (7218): 98–101. Bibcode:2008Natur.456...98N. doi:10.1038/nature07331. PMC 2735096. PMID 18758442.
  312. ^ P. Ralph; et al. (2013). "The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe". PLOS Biology. 11 (5): e105090. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001555. PMC 3646727. PMID 23667324. Furthermore, our Greek and Macedonian samples share much higher numbers of common ancestors with Albanian speakers than with other neighbors, possibly a result of historical migrations, or else perhaps smaller effects of the Slavic expansion in these populations
  313. ^ Rębała, Krzysztof; Mikulich, Alexei I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.; Siváková, Daniela; Džupinková, Zuzana; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Szczerkowska, Zofia (16 March 2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5): 406–414. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0125-6. ISSN 1434-5161. PMID 17364156.
  314. ^ Renata Jankova et al., Y-chromosome diversity of the three major ethno-linguistic groups in the Republic of North Macedonia; Forensic Science International: Genetics; Volume 42, September 2019, Pages 165–170.
  315. ^ a b Trombetta B. "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent" http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/7/1940.long
  316. ^ Spiroski, Mirko; Arsov, Todor; Krüger, Carmen; Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz (2005). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Macedonian population samples". Forensic Science International. 148 (1): 69–74. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.04.067. PMID 15607593.
  317. ^ Anatole Klyosov, DNA Genealogy; Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. USA, 2018; ISBN 1618966197, p. 211.
  318. ^ Underhill, Peter A.; Poznik, G. David; Rootsi, Siiri; Järve, Mari; Lin, Alice A.; Wang, Jianbin; Passarelli, Ben; et al. (2015). "The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23 (1): 124–131. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50. PMC 4266736. PMID 24667786. (Supplementary Table 4)
  319. ^ Jakovski; et al. (2011). "Genetic data for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Macedonians in the Republic of Macedonia". Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5 (4): e108–e111. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.04.005. PMID 21549657.
  320. ^ Lao O, Lu TT, Nothnagel M, et al. (August 2008), "Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe", Curr. Biol., 18 (16): 1241–1248, Bibcode:2008CBio...18.1241L, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.049, PMID 18691889, S2CID 16945780
  321. ^ Florin Curta's An ironic smile: the Carpathian Mountains and the migration of the Slavs, Studia mediaevalia Europaea et orientalia. Miscellanea in honorem professoris emeriti Victor Spinei oblata, edited by George Bilavschi and Dan Aparaschivei, 47–72. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 2018.
  322. ^ A. Zupan et al. The paternal perspective of the Slovenian population and its relationship with other populations;  Annals of Human Biology 40 (6) July 2013.
  323. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages: 500–1250. Florin Curta, 2006 https://books.google.com/books?id=YIAYMNOOe0YC&q=southeastern+europe,+curta
  324. ^ Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Bose, Aritra; Teodosiadis, Athanasios; Tsetsos, Fotis; Plantinga, Anna; Psatha, Nikoletta; Zogas, Nikos; Yannaki, Evangelia; Zalloua, Pierre; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Browning, Brian L.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros (2017). "Genetics of the peloponnesean populations and the theory of extinction of the medieval peloponnesean Greeks". European Journal of Human Genetics. 25 (5): 637–645. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.18. ISSN 1476-5438. PMC 5437898. PMID 28272534.


  • Demeter, Gábor; Bottlik, Zsolt (2021). Maps in the Service of the Nation: The Role of Ethnic Mapping in Nation-Building and Its Influence on Political Decision-Making Across the Balkan Peninsula (1840–1914). Berlin: Frank & Timme.
  • Levinson, David; O'Leary, Timothy (1992). Encyclopedia of World Cultures. G.K. Hall. ISBN 0-8161-1808-6.
  • Wilkinson, Henry Robert (1951). Maps and politics: a review of the ethnographic cartography of Macedonia. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Further reading