Macedonians in Albania

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Macedonians in Albania
Македонци во Албанија
Makedonci vo Albanija
Total population
5,512 (2011 census)[1]
other estimates range from 120,000 to 350,000 (according to the Association of Macedonians in Albania[2])
Regions with significant populations
Mala Prespa, Golo Brdo, Maqellarë Municipality, Gora
Languages
Macedonian and Albanian
Religion
Macedonian Orthodoxy and Islam
Related ethnic groups
Macedonians

The Macedonians in Albania (Macedonian: Македонци во Албанија, translit. Makedonci vo Albanija; Albanian: Maqedonasit në Shqipëri) are an officially recognized ethnic minority.[3][4] According to the 2011 census, 5,870 ethnic Macedonians live in Albania. However, before the census, Macedonian organizations from Albania asked Macedonians to boycott the census because only in Pustec Municipality were individuals were allowed to declare themselves as ethnic Macedonians.[5] In the 1989 census, 4,697 people had declared themselves Macedonian.[6] Ethnic identity can be fluid among the Albania's Slavophonic population, who might identify as Albanian, Bulgarian or Macedonian, depending on the circumstances.[7]

The condition of the Macedonian population living in the Prespa area is described in positive terms and particular praise is given since all the villages of the area are allowed schooling in their mother tongue.[8] Macedonian organizations allege that the government undercounts their number and that they are politically under-represented, arguing there are no Macedonians in the Albanian parliament.[9] Past Helsinki reports stated, "Albania recognizes [...] a Macedonian minority, but only in the Southern regions. Those who identify as Macedonians [...] outside these minority regions are denied the minority rights granted in the south, including minority classes at state schools."[10]

History[edit]

In the middle of the 19th century the national affiliation of the Orthodox Slavs of Macedonia became the locus of a contest between Greeks and Bulgarians, who intensified their national educational activity in the region, alongside with Serbia. According to Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 Edition, at the beginning of the 20th century the Slavs constituted the majority of the population in Macedonia. Per Britannica itself the bulk of the Slavs was regarded by almost all independent authorities as "Bulgarians". The partition of the Ottoman lands of the region of Macedonia between Balkan nation-states after the conclusion of the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and World War I (1914–1918) left the area divided. The small Macedonian areas of Golo Brdo and Mala Prespa were included in Albania. In the 1920s, the Albanians referred to orthodox Slavs in Albania as Bulgarians.[11] The new Albanian state did not attempt to assimilate this minority. During the Second Balkan Conference held in Istanbul in 1932, the Bulgarian and Albanian delegations signed a protocol regarding the recognition of the ethnic Bulgarian minority in Albania.[12] Due to a change in the government and pressure from Yugoslavia, the resolution was never ratified.

On the other hand, in 1934 the Comintern gave its support to the idea that the Macedonian Slavs constituted a separate nationality.[13] Prior to the Second World War, this view on the Macedonian issue had no practical importance. During the War these ideas were supported by the pro-Yugoslav Macedonian communist partisans. After the Red Army entered the Balkans, new communist regimes came into power in the area. In this way their policy on the Macedonian Question was of supporting the development of a distinct ethnic Macedonian identity. As result the Slavic minority in Albania was recognized in 1945 as Macedonian. However, after the Fall of communism in 1998, the then foreign minister of Albania Paskal Milo, has stated on the Slav minority issue: "After World War II, we know this minority as Macedonian. I’d rather not elaborate on why we chose this way, but the Communist regime made this decision and it’s difficult for us now to change that."[14] Nevertheless, in 2017 the Albanian parliament recognized by law also the Bulgarian minority in the area. Today the ethnic identity among the Albania's Slavophone population is fluid, and the Orthodox might identify as Bulgarian or Macedonian, while the Muslims, also as Albanian, depending on the circumstances; the regional identities of "Gorani" and "Gollobordas" may also be used.

Population[edit]

External estimates on the population of Macedonians in Albania include 10,000,[15] whereas Macedonian sources have claimed 120,000 to 350,000 Macedonians in Albania[16][17] Despite high levels of emigration the official number of people registering as Macedonians in Albania has more than doubled over the last 60 years, according to Albanian census data.

Year Macedonian population % change
1950
2,273
-
1955
3,341
+47.0%
1960
4,235
+26.8%
1979
4,097
-3.3%
1989
4,697
+14.7%
2011
5,512
+17.4%

In 2000, Albania conducted a census which did not record ethnic affiliation and as such during that time resulted in various estimates for the Slavic population of Albania that could not be checked and rectified.[18] The then Macedonian immigration minister Martin Trenevski estimated in 2000 that the Macedonian minority in Albania numbered 300,000.[18] After conducting personal visits to areas of Macedonian settlement in Albania, diplomat Geert Ahrens considered these numbers "grossly exaggerated", as did other Macedonian interlocutors.[18]

In March 2009, the Commission for Minority Issues of the Foreign Ministry of Albania announced the results of its study about the national minorities in the country. According to the study, there are 4,148 Macedonians (0.14% of the total population) living in the country. The mayor of Pustec Edmond Temelko criticised the report and said that "this number once again proves that the Albanian Government denies the existence of the Macedonian minority". He stated that the population of Pustec, which is mainly populated by ethnic Macedonians, is even 5,300 and that the Macedonian minority in Albania makes up 150,000. The ethnic Macedonian organisations of Albania announced they will complain at Albanian institutions and international organisations.[19][20]

Pustec is one of the biggest settlements populated with Macedonians

The 2011 census was controversial for the nation's ethnic minorities. Macedonian and Greek groups sharply criticized Article 20 of the Census law, according to which a $1,000 fine will be imposed on anyone who will declare an ethnicity other than what is stated on his or her birth certificate. This is seen an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity. In addition, some believed the Albanian government had stated that it would jail anyone who did not participate in the census or refused to declare his or her ethnicity.[21]

The complication of counting the Macedonian minority in Albania is due to most Macedonian speakers being from a Muslim background with tendencies of not identifying as Macedonians, as even in Macedonia Muslim Macedonian speakers are not in instances counted as Macedonians but as Torbeši or Gorani.[22][18] As such Ahrens states that the overall estimate of the Slavic population of Albania ranges between 10,000 and 20,000 people.[18]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Traditional distribution of languages and religion in Albania. Areas in yellow-green are inhabited by Macedonians-- the darker shade denotes Muslims and the lighter shade Christians. Forest green denotes Gorani who have sometimes identified as Macedonians.

Macedonians in Albania traditionally live in Mala Prespa (Macedonian: Мала Преспа), Golo Brdo (Macedonian: Голо Брдо/Golo Brdo), Dibër (Macedonian: Дебар Поле/Debar Pole), Korçë (Macedonian: Горица/Gorica), Pogradec (Macedonian: Поградец) and Gora (Macedonian: Гора) areas.[23][24] Some, however, have moved to larger cities like Tirana, where roughly 500 ethnic Macedonians live as of the 2011 census.[25]

Mala Prespa[edit]

Macedonians are only officially recognised as a minority population in Municipality of Pustec, on the shores of Lake Prespa. The municipality consists of the following villages:

Bilisht[edit]

Macedonians also inhabit the region to the south of Lake Prespa, within the Devoll District. A Macedonian minority can be found in Bilisht (Macedonian: Билишта/Bilišta) and in the village of Vërnik (Macedonian: Врбник/Vrbnik), which is the only Macedonian-inhabited village in Albania considered to form a part of Aegean Macedonia. Historically the village of Rakickë (Macedonian: Ракитско/Rakitsko) was a mixed village in 1900 whose population consisted of 360 Albanians and 300 Orthodox Macedonians, though by the 1970s had become a wholly Albanian inhabited village.[26]

Korçë[edit]

Two traditionally Orthodox Slavic speaking villages of the Korçë region existed until the 1960s when ethnic and linguistic changes occurred resulting in part of the Slavic population moving away while those remaining became assimilated.[27] Drenovë (Macedonian: Дреново/Drenovo) has become inhabited by Orthodox Albanians and Aromanians with the last person speaking a Slavic language passing away in the 2000s and Boboshticë (Macedonian: Бобоштица/Boboštica) has become mainly inhabited by Aromanians with only a few remnants left of its former Slavic speaking population.[27] In the 2010s, only one elderly women remains in Boboshticë who is a speaker of the village local Macedonian dialect called Kajnas (of us).[28] The Gorica dialect of Macedonian is used by the Macedonian inhabitants of this region.[citation needed]

Lake Ohrid Region[edit]

Macedonians can be found in the village of Lin (Macedonian: Лин), living alongside Muslim Albanians. The Macedonians of Lin speak Vevčani-Radožda dialect of Macedonian.[29] Linguists Klaus Steinke and Xhelal Ylli conducted fieldwork in the village and noted it being a mixed village of Orthodox Christians and Muslims having 1680 inhabitants and 296 families.[30] Local Lin villagers stated that few families speak Macedonian, such as in instances of marriage with women from neighbouring Radožda in Republic of Macedonia, however, Macedonian overall is not used by the third generation.[30]

Golo Brdo[edit]

Macedonians also form a significant population in the Gollobordë (Macedonian: Голо Брдо/Golo Brdo) region, however there is a significant minority of Albanians. Macedonian populations can be found in the following places:

Trebisht administrative unit: Gjinovec (Macedonian: Гиновец/Ginovec or Гинеец/Gineec) and Klenjë (Macedonian: Клење) are inhabited solely by a Slavic speaking population which contain Macedonian Muslim (Torbeš).[31][32] Vërnicë (Macedonian: Врница/Vrnica) is inhabited by an Albanian population that dominates demographically in the village that also contains a significant population of Muslim Macedonians and Orthodox Macedonians.[31][32] Trebisht (Macedonian: Требишта/Trebišta) is traditionally inhabited by a mixed Slavic Orthodox Christian Macedonian and Macedonian Muslim population.[31][32][33]

Ostren administrative unit: Lejçan (Macedonian: Лешничани/Lešničani), Lladomericë (Macedonian: Владимирица/Vladimirica) and Tuçep (Macedonian: Тучепи/Tučepi) are inhabited solely by Macedonian Muslims; Radovesh (Macedonian: Радовеща/Radovešta), Kojavec (Macedonian: Којовец/Kojovec), Orzhanovë (Macedonian: Оржаново/Oržanovo) are inhabited solely by a Slavic speaking population which contain Macedonian Muslims.[31][32] Okshtun i Madh, Okshtun i Vogël and Tërbaç (Macedonian: Тербачиште/Terbačište) have some Macedonian Muslims residing there while Pasinkë (Macedonian: Пасинки/Pasinki), Ostren i Madhe (Macedonian: Големо Острени/Golemo Ostreni) and Ostren i Vogël (Macedonian: Мало Острени/Malo Ostreni) are inhabited by an Albanian population that dominates demographically in the villages that also contain significant populations of Muslim Macedonians and Orthodox Macedonians.[31][32]

Stëblevë administrative unit: Steblevë (Macedonian: Стеблево/Steblevo or Стебљево/Stebljevo) is inhabited solely by a Slavic speaking population that contains Macedonian Muslims.[31][32][34] Sebisht (Macedonian: Себишта/Sebišta) is inhabited by an Albanian population that dominates demographically in the village and contains three families from the Muslim Macedonian and Orthodox Macedonian population.[31][32]

Gjoricë administrative unit: Lubalesh (Macedonian: Љубалеш/Ljubalesh) has some Muslim Macedonians living in the village.[32]

The Muslim Macedonian and Orthodox Macedonian population of Gollobordë are speakers of a south Slavic language[31] (Macedonian).[32] The Muslim Macedonian speaking community of the area is known as Gollobordas and in Albania people from the community are considered Albanians instead of Macedonians, even by the Albanian state, and they are known to intermarry with Muslim Albanians and not with Orthodox Macedonians.[35][36] Until the 1990s the local Orthodox Macedonian minority, who have since migrated, used to live in some villages alongside the Gollobordas of whom in the 2010s number some roughly 3,000 people.[36]

Dolno Pole[edit]

The area known in Macedonian sources as Dolno Pole (Macedonian: Долно Поле) is situated south of the town of Peshkopi. Historically in the early 20th century, an Orthodox Slavic speaking population was found living alongside Muslim Albanians in the villages of Dovolan (Macedonian: Довољани/Dovoljani) - minority, Herebel (Macedonian: Ербеле/Erbele) - majority, Kërçishti i Epërm (Macedonian: Горна Крчишта/Gorna Krčišta) - majority, Maqellarë (Macedonian: Макелара/Makelara or Маќелари/Makjelari) - minority, and Katund i Vogël (Macedonian: Обоки/Oboki) - minority.[37] Toward the end of the 1920s the Orthodox Slavic speaking population was located in only two villages Herebel and Kërçisht i Epërm while in the 1930s the population decline of Orthodox Slavophones continued.[38]

During the 2000s linguists Klaus Steinke and Xhelal Ylli seeking to corroborate villages cited in past literature as being Slavic speaking carried out fieldwork in villages of the area.[39] In Herebel only 6 Orthodox Slavic speaking families made up of 3 larger households of around 20 individuals each remain.[38] In Kërçisht i Epërm the village contains 200 inhabitants and 45 households of which 6 are Orthodox families with a total of 17 individuals.[38] On the eve of the collapse of communism in 1991, Kërçisht i Epërm had 110 households with 27 belonging to the Orthodox community.[38]

Use of the Macedonian language in Kërçisht i Epërm is limited and facing extinction, due to usage being confined to the family.[39] Albanian is also used in family settings especially by younger generations who have limited knowledge of Macedonian due to Albanian school influences and the demographic decline of the Slavic speaking population in the village.[39] Linguists Steinke and Ylli also noted that unlike the Gollobordë region, the villages of the Maqellarë administrative unit area do not have any Muslim Slavic speaking inhabitants, and the village of Katund i Vogël (Obok) no longer has any Slavic Christians left and is inhabited only by Albanians.[39]

Gora[edit]

Inhabitants of the Gora (Macedonian: Гора) region (which straddles Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia) are Slavic-speaking Muslims who reside in the villages of Zapod (Macedonian: Запот/Zapot), Pakisht (Macedonian: Пакишта/Pakišta), Orçikël (Macedonian: Очикле/Očikle), Kosharisht (Macedonian: Кошаришта/Košarišta), Cernalevë (Macedonian: Црнелево/Crnelevo), Orgjost (Macedonian: Оргоста/Orgosta), Orshekë (Macedonian: Орешек/Orešek), Borje (Macedonian: Борје/Borje), Novosej (Macedonian: Ново Село/Novo Selo) and Shishtavec (Macedonian: Шиштавец/Šištavec).[40] The Gorani community refer to their south Slavic speech as Našinski, while it is known as Gorançe by Albanians.[40] Within the Gorani community there is a recognition of their dialects being closer to the Macedonian language, than to Serbian.[22]

The estimated number of the Gorani community (combined both for Albania and Kosovo) ranges between 40,000 - 120,000.[41] Sources from the Republic of Macedonia claim the Gorani people to be a subgroup of ethnic Macedonians. In the 2011 census, 11.7% of residents in Zapod and 7.7% in Shishtavec identified as ethnic Macedonians.[25]

Education[edit]

Bilingual road sign in Pustec

There is a general high school in Pustec, one eight-year school in Dolna Gorica and six elementary schools in Šulin, Leska, Zrnovsko, Gorna Gorica, Tuminec and Globočeni. There are eight-year schools at the two biggest villages of the commune, Pustec and Gorice e Madhe, where 20 percent of the texts are held at the mother tongue language. At the centre of the commune there is a high school as well. The history of the Macedonian people is a special subject at the school. All minority schools have twin partnerships with counterparts in Macedonia.[42] All the teaching personnel is local and with the proper education.[43]

Culture[edit]

Religion[edit]

The Macedonians in Albania are predominantly Macedonian Orthodox and Muslim. The distribution of religions among Macedonians reflects the trend of confession in their non-Macedonian neighbors- Macedonians in more southerly regions share the Orthodox Christian faith with the high concentration of Albanian Orthodox believers of these regions, as well as local Aromanians and Greeks who are largely Orthodox, while as one goes further north, the proportion of Muslim Macedonians increases with the proportion of Muslim Albanians (which form a majority of some local Albanian areas in the northern parts). The Macedonian Muslims can be found primarily in the Golo Brdo, Gora and Peshkopi regions, with smaller populations in the South of the country in places such as Rajca, etc. There are however substantial Orthodox Macedonian minorities in both the Golo Brdo and Peshkopi regions. In the south of the country around Mala Prespa, Pogradec, Korçë and Bilisht, the Macedonians are mostly Orthodox.

The Community is currently in the process of building the first of many Macedonian Orthodox Churches.[44][45] The Church 'St. Michael the Archangel' was started in the early 2000s. A new church is that of Saint Mary for which a considerable funding has been given by the Macedonian Orthodox Church.[43]

Organizations[edit]

In September 1991 the "Bratska" Political Association of Macedonian in Albania (BPAMA) was established. Other Macedonian organizations include Macedonian Alliance for European Integration, Macedonian Society Ilinden Tirana, Prespa, Mir (Peace), Bratstvo (Brotherhood) and the MED (Macedonian Aegean Society).[46] Ethnic Macedonian organization claim that 120.000 to 350,000 Macedonians live in Albania.[2]

In March 2012, Macedonians in Golo Brdo formed "Most" (Macedonian for "Bridge"). The organisation's president, Besnik Hasani said that the group's goal is to "be fighting for recognition of Macedonians in Golo Brdo by the Albanian state and the introduction of the Macedonian language in schools... Also, our task will be to prevent the Bulgarian propaganda and efforts of Bulgaria for the Bulgarisation of the Macedonians in Golo Brdo."[47]

Political parties[edit]

Emblem of the Municipality of Pustec

The Macedonians in Albanian are represented by the Macedonian Alliance for European Integration (Macedonian: Македонска Алијанса за Европска Интеграција/Makedonska Alijansa za Evropska Integracija). In 2007 Edmond Temelko was elected to the position of Mayor of Pustec, and was reelected to this position in 2011, in which the party received ~2,500 votes. Edmond Osmani narrowly missed out being elected as Mayor of Trebište, however 5 Macedonian counsellors were elected in Pustec, 3 in Trebisht, 2 in Bilisht and another in Pirg.[48][dubious ]

At present there is no Macedonian in the Albanian Parliament. But many of the Local Government representatives are Macedonian. The mayor of Pustec is Edmond Vangjel Themelko according to 2007 local elections. He is a Macedonian. There are Macedonians represented in the districts of Zvezda and Gorna Gorica.[49]

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

The local radio of Korçë broadcasts the Fote Nikola (Macedonian: Фоте Никола) program which comprises news bulletins and songs in Macedonian for the Macedonian minority in Albania for half an hour each day. On November 7, 2002 the first private Macedonian-language radio station was set up. It is known as "Radio Prespa".[42]

Television[edit]

The local TV station has also released programs from the Republic of Macedonia.[50] In November, 2010, the first Macedonian television station, Television Kristal (Macedonian: Телевизија Кристал/Televisija Kristal), was officially launched.[51]

Print media[edit]

Numerous forms of Macedonian language print media serve the needs of the Macedonians living in Albania. In the early 1990s the first Macedonian language periodical known as Mir (Peace) emerged. Later still the newspaper Prespa (Macedonian: Преспа/Prespa), began to be pubslished by Macedonians living in the Mala Prespa region.[52] The Macedonian newspaper 'Ilinden' was launched in April, 2011, by Macedonians living in Tirana.[53]

Notable individuals[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census 2011 Data: Resident population by ethnic and cultural affiliation". The Institute of Statistics of Republic of Albania. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  2. ^ a b [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ "Council of Europe - News search". Coe.int. Archived from the original on 2017-08-28. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  5. ^ Only 0.2 % Macedonians live in Albania according to the Albanian authorities makfax.com.mk
  6. ^ Artan Hoxha and Alma Gurraj, "Local Self-Government and Decentralization: Case of Albania. History, Reforms and Challenges". In: Local Self Government and Decentralization in South - East Europe. Proceedings of the workshop held in Zagreb, Croatia. 6 April 2001. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb Office, Zagreb 2001, pp 194-224
  7. ^ Valeri Grigorov, Albania: Landmarks of Transition. Sofia: International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations (2003). p. 18.
  8. ^ Minority Rights in Albania, page 3 - Albanian Helsinki Committee, September 1999
  9. ^ "Interview with Edmond Temelko, president of the Macedonian organization "Prespa" in Albania". Macedoniansinalbania.org. Archived from the original on 2009-05-24. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2008-08-09.
  11. ^ Poulton, Hugh (2000). Who Are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 1-85065-534-0.
  12. ^ Ташев 1994: 141-162 стр.
  13. ^ Duncan Perry, "The Republic of Macedonia: finding its way" in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrot (eds.), Politics, power and the struggle for Democracy in South-Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 228-229.
  14. ^ "The Balkans" magazine, 18 ed., 2001, p.5-7.
  15. ^ "Landesinformationen: AlbINFO by albanien.ch". Albanien.ch. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  16. ^ 2003 OSCE - Macedonian Minority in Albania Archived 2006-02-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Jakim Sinadinovski, Macedonian Muslims, Then and Now
  18. ^ a b c d e Ahrens, Geert-Hinrich (2007). Diplomacy on the Edge: Containment of Ethnic Conflict and the Minorities Working Group of the Conferences on Yugoslavia. Woodrow Wilson Center Press. p. 284. ISBN 9780801885570. "There are no reliable figures for the number of Slavs in Albania. The Albanian census of 2000 did not include ethnic affiliation; thus, grossly diverging estimates cannot be checked and rectified. In 2000, the Macedonian minister for emigration, Martin Trenevski, told me that there were 300,000 Macedonians in Albania. This figure is from all appearances from personal visits to the areas of Slavic settlement in Albania, grossly exaggerated, as even other Macedonian interlocutors would admit. The issue is further complicated by the Muslim background of most of the Macedonian speakers in Albania. In Macedonia, such Macedonian-speaking Slavic Muslims would he counted as "Torbeši" or "Gorani," and not as "Macedonians." Altogether, the number of Slavs in Albania is probably between 10,000 and 20,000."
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ "Dnevnik newspaper". Vecer.com.mk. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Macedonians and Greeks Join Forces against Albanian Census". balkanchronicle. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  22. ^ a b Friedman, Victor (2006). "Albania/Albanien". In Ammon, Ulrich. Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, Volume 3. Walter de Gruyte. p. 1879. ISBN 9783110184181. "Moreover, religion can have an influence on attitudes toward identity. Thus for example Macedonian-speaking Christians in Vrbnik (Vërnik) refer to Orthodox Albanian-speakers as nash 'ours' but do not consider Macedonian-speaking Muslims as nash, nor do those Muslims tend to identify as ethnic Macedonians (Christina Kramer, personal communication). The Gorans, who are also Muslim, have a separate identity. The Goran dialects used to be classed with Serbian, but have more recently been assigned to Macedonian, and Gorans themselves recognize that their dialects are closer to Macedonian than to Serbian."
  23. ^ TJ-Hosting. "Macedonian Party". Macedoniansinalbania.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  24. ^ [4]
  25. ^ a b "Ethnic composition of Albania 2011". Pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  26. ^ Włodzimierz, Pianka (1970). Toponomastikata na Ohridsko-Prespanskiot bazen. Institut za makedonski jazik "Krste Misirkov". p. 139. "Ракитско е сега албанско село, но во год. 1900 имало 300 жит. М. и 360 А."
  27. ^ a b Steinke & Ylli 2007, p. 18 "Vërnik eine völlig homogene südslavische Bevölkerung fast ohne albanische Mitbewohner gibt. Diese hat dort zudem den Status einer vom albanischen Staat offiziell anerkannten Minderheit, während Boboshtica inzwischen bis auf geringe Reste überwiegend und Drenova ganz von Albanern und Aromunen bewohnt wird. Die Beschreibung der oben erwähnten Orte und der dort gesprochenen Mundarten ist primärer Gegenstand der vorliegenden Monographie. Zu den übrigen in der Literatur häufig angeführten Ortschaften mit einer angeblich slavischen Bevölkerung wird an dieser Stelle nur eine kurze kritische Sichtung anhand der ebenfalls von uns gesammelten Informationen vorgenommen. In Drenova bei Korça, das neben Boboshtica vor allem durch die Arbeiten von MAZON (1936) und COURTHIADE (1993) bekannt wurde, gab es bis vor ein paar Jahren nur noch eine alte Frau, welche die ursprüngliche slavische Mundart beherrschte. Nach ihrem Tode spricht diese dort niemand mehr, wie Thomaidha Stefo angab, die 1942 in das Dorf einheiratete. Damals sprach man don noch ausschließlich Bulgarisch (bullgarçe), und sie versuchte es deshalb ebenfalls zu lernen, hat es aber inzwischen wieder verlernt. Am Anfang der 60er Jahre kam eine größere Gruppe von aromunischen Siedlern nach Drenova und Boboshtica, und mit ihnen änderte sich die ethnische und sprachliche Struktur beider Orte grundlegend. Der Informant Thanas Thanasi, ein Aromune, bestätigte ebenfalls, daß, als er in Drenova ankam, damals dort nur Bulgarisch (bullgarçe) gesprochen wurde. Die früheren slavischen Einwohner sind aber inzwischen entweder assimiliert oder weggezogen."
  28. ^ Friedman, Victor A. (2016). "Language Endangerment in the Balkans with Some Comparisons to the Caucasus". In Korkmaz, Ramazan; Doğan, Gürkan. Endangered Languages of the Caucasus and Beyond. Brill. p. 79. ISBN 9789004328693. "The isolated Macedonian dialect of Boboshtica in the Korcha region of Albania, which speakers themselves called Kajnas 'like us' is now a linguists tourist attraction performed for visiting foreign linguists by a single old women."
  29. ^ Hendricks, P. "The Radozda-Vevcani Dialect of Macedonian". Peter De Ridder Press, 1976, p. 3.
  30. ^ a b Steinke, Klaus; Ylli, Xhelal (2007). Die slavischen Minderheiten in Albanien (SMA): Prespa - Vërnik - Boboshtica. Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner. p. 19. ISBN 9783866880351. "Im nördlich von Pogradec unmittelbar am Ochridsee gelegenen Dorf Lin, mit 1680 Einwohnem (296 Familien), leben Orthodoxe und Moslems. Nach den Angaben des Ortsvorstehers Avdullari und denen anderer Informanten spricht man nur noch in wenigen Familien Makedonisch, d.h. wenn dort eine Frau aus dem makedonischen Nachbarort Radožda eingeheiratet hat. Aber auch in diesem Fall wird Makedonisch bereits von der dritten Generation nicht mehr benutzt. Von den aus Radožda zugezogenen Sprecherinnen wurden einige Sprachaufnahmen gemacht, die im Anhang zu finden sind."
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Steinke & Ylli 2008, p. 10 "Heute umfaßt das Gebiet von Golloborda in Albanien 22 Dörfer, die verwaltungstechnisch auf drei verschiedene Gemeinden aufgeteilt sind: 1. Die Gemeinde Ostren besteht aus dreizehn Dörfern, und Südslavisch wird in den folgenden neun Dörfern gesprochen: Ostreni i Madh (Golemo Ostreni/Ostreni Golemo), Kojavec (Kojovci), Lejçan (Lešničani), Lladomerica (Ladomerica/Ladimerica/Vlademerica), Ostreni i Vogël (Malo Ostreni/Malastreni/Ostreni Malo), Orzhanova (Oržanova), Radovesh (Radoveš/Radoeš/Radoešt), Tuçep (Tučepi) und Pasinka (Pasinki). 2. Die Gemeinde von Trebisht umfaßt die vier Dörfer Trebisht (Trebišta), Gjinovec (G'inovec/G'inec), Klenja (Klen'e) und Vërnica (Vărnica), und in allen wird Südslavisch gesprochen. 3. Die übrigen Dörfer von Golloborda gehören zur Gemeinde Stebleva, und zwar Stebleva, Zabzun, Borova, Sebisht, Llanga. Südslavisch wird in Stebleva (Steblo) sowie von drei Familien in Sebisht (Sebišta) gesprochen. Wie aus den bisherigen Ausführungen und den Erhebungen vor Ort hervorgeht, gibt es nur noch in fünfzehn der insgesamt Dörfer, die heute zu Golloborda gehören, slavophone Einwohner. Die Zahl der Dörfer in Golloborda wird manchmal auch mit 24 angegeben. Dann zählt man die Viertel des Dorfes Trebisht, und zwar Trebisht-Bala, Trebisht-Çelebia und Trebisht-Muçina separat. Zu Golloborda rechnete man traditionell ferner die Dörfer Hotišan, Žepišt, Manastirec, Drenok, Modrič und Lakaica, die heute in Makedonien liegen."
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i Vidoeski, Božidar (1998). Dijalektite na makedonskiot jazik. Vol. 1. Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. ISBN 9789989649509. p. 214. "Заедно со македонско христијанско население Торбеши живеат и во селата: Могорче, Требиште, Велебрдо, Ростуше, Јанче, Долно Косоврасти (во Река), Горенци, Житинени (во Жупа), Џепиште, Себишта, Пасинки, Големо и Мало Острени, Требишта, (во Голо Брдо),"; p. 309. "Во западна Македонија исламизирано македонско население живее во неколку географски региони на македонско-албанската пограничје:... Голо Брдо (Врмница, Владимирци, Гиновци, Клење, Лешничани, Љуболези, Големо и Мало Острени, Окштун, Отишани, Пасинки, Радовиште, Себишча, Српетово, Стеблево, Тучепи, Торбач, Џепишта)"; p. 339. "Во повеќето од спомнативе села живее население - со македонски и со албански мачин јазик. Албанското население доминира во северните голобрдски села (Себишта, Пасинки, Врмница, Големо и Мало Острени). Селата: Лешничани, Требиште, Српетово, Торбач, Љуболези, Владимирица и Тучепи се населени со Македонски муслимани (Торбеши), а во Себишта, Требиште, Г. и М. Острени живее мешано население - православни и Торбеши."
  33. ^ "BBC Macedonian - Етнички Македонци во Албанија". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  34. ^ "Projekat Rastko - Skadar] Stanovnistvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji". Rastko.rs. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  35. ^ De Rapper, Gilles (14–16 June 2001). "The son of three fathers has no hat on his head. Life and social representations in a Macedonian village of Albania". University College London: 6. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  36. ^ a b Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Nedelcheva, Anely; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Quave, Cassandra (2014). "Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania" (PDF). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10 (31): 2. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-10-31.[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ Steinke & Ylli 2008, p. 249. "Bin Vergleich der beiden oben erwähnten Quellen mit der von den Österreichern während des ersten Weltkrieges durchgeführten Volkszählung, die zweifellos glaubwürdig ist, da sie sich auf eine direkte Befragung der Bevölkerung in den Jahren 1916-1918 stützt, zeigt Unstimmigkeiten."; p.250. "Albaner A, Bulgaren B, Zigeuner Z, Sonstige S, Zigeuner Z, Musl. M, Orth. O; Gemeinde Maqellara: Dovolani 259 A, 44 B, 5 Z, 258 M, 51 O;... Herbel 74 A, 136 S, 3 Z, 77 M, 136 O, Kërçishti i E. 23 A, 14 B 197 S, 37 M, 197 O;... Maqellara 288 A, 87 B, 11 Z, 290 M, 96 O; Obok 169 A, 29 B, 72 S, 164 M, 106 O;"
  38. ^ a b c d Steinke & Ylli 2008, p. 251. "Seit Ende der 20er bis Anfang der 30er Jahre findet man nur noch Angaben für Gorno Krăčišta und Ărbele. Die demographische Entwicklung der 30er Jahre, nämlich der Rückgang des slavophonen Bevölkerungsanteils, der meist aus Orthodoxen bestand, hat sich fortgesetzt, wie die aktuell ermittelten Zahlen zeigen. In Herbel wohnen nur noch sechs orthodoxe Familien. Eigentlich sind es drei Großfamilien mit rund 20 Personan, die noch die südslavische Mundart sprechen.... Kërçishti i Epërm hat gegenwärtig rund 45 Häuser mit ungefähr 200 Einwohnern. Darunter gibt as sechs orthodoxe Familien, drei bestehen jeweils nur noch aus einer Person und die anderen drei aus zwei, drei bzw. neun Personen. Insgesamt gibt es also 17 orthodoxe Einwohner, die slavophon sind. Es heißt, daß das Dorf vor der demokratischen Wende 1991 noch rund 110 Häuser hatte. Davon gehörten 27 den Orthodoxen."
  39. ^ a b c d Steinke, Klaus; Ylli, Xhelal (2008). Die slavischen Minderheiten in Albanien (SMA): Golloborda - Herbel - Kërçishti i Epërm. Teil 2. Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner. pp. 251–252. ISBN 9783866880351. "Kërçishti i Epërm... Nach Angaben unserer Informanten ist der Gebrauch der Mundart sehr begrenzt und daher vom Aussterben bedroht. Man bezeichnet sie als Makedonisch und verwendet sie ausschließlich innerhaib der Familie. Doch auch in diesem Kreig wird oftmals schon Albanisch verwendet und besonders die junge Generation spricht selbst zu Hause kaum noch die Muttersprache. Das ist im wesentlichen auf den Einfluß der albanischen Schule und ferner auf den Rückgang des slavophonen Bevölkerungsanteils im Dorf zurückzuführen." p. 252. "Anders als in den Dörfern Gollobordas sind in diesem Gebiet keine Spuren von slavophonen Muslimen zu finden. Die ethnische Zugehörigkeit der kleinen orthodoxen und slavophonen Gruppe ist außerdem nicht einfach anzugeben. Bezeichnend sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Ergebnisse der 1916 von den Österreichern durchgeführten Volkszählung.... Über die ethische Identität der slavophonen Orthodoxen scheint es keine klare Vorstellung gegeben zu haben.... noch die ausführlichen Befragungen unserer Informanten sowie anderer Bewohner des Gebietes haben irgendwelche Hinweise auf weitere Orte mit slavophonen Einwohnern in diesem Bereich ergeben. Ebenfalls nicht bestätigt werden konnte nach Erkundigungen vor Ort VIDOESKIS Angabe zu Oboki. Dort gibt es keine slavophonen Christen mehr, auch keine Torbešen, sondern nur Albaner."
  40. ^ a b Steinke, Klaus; Ylli, Xhelal (2010). Die slavischen Minderheiten in Albanien (SMA). 3. Gora. Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-86688-112-9. "In den 17 Dörfern des Kosovo wird Našinski/Goranče gesprochen, und sie gehören zu einer Gemeinde mit dem Verwaltungszentrum in Dragaš. Die 19 Dörfer in Albanien sind hingegen auf drei Gemeinden des Bezirks Kukës aufgeteilt, und zwar auf Shishtavec, Zapod und Topojan. Slavophone findet man freilich nur in den ersten beiden Gemeinden. Zur Gemeinde Shishtavec gehören sieben Dörfer und in den folgenden vier wird Našinski/Goranče gesprochen: Shishtavec (Šištaec/Šišteec), Borja (Borje), Cërnaleva (Cărnolevo/Cărneleve) und Oreshka (Orešek). Zur Gemeinde Zapod gehören ebenfalls sieben Dörfer, und in den folgenden fünf wird Našinski/Goranče gesprochen: Orgjost (Orgosta), Kosharisht (Košarišta), Pakisht (Pakiša/Pakišča) Zapod (Zapod) und Orçikla (Orčikl’e/Očikl’e)’. In der Gemeinde Topojan gibt es inzwischen keine slavophone Bevölkerung mehr. Die Einwohner selbst bezeichnen sich gewöhnlich als Goranen ‘Einwohner von Gora oder Našinci Unsrige, und ihre Sprache wird von ihnen als Našinski und von den Albanern als Gorançe bezeichnet."
  41. ^ M. Apostolov, "The Pomaks: A Religious Minority in The Balkans", (1996)
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  50. ^ Under the direct auspices of the Albanian Helsinki Committee, from September 1999 to September 2000, an intensive work was carried out for the realization of the project "On the status of the minorities in the Republic of Albania". This project was financed by the Finnish Foundation 'KIOS', "Finnish NGO Foundation for Human Rights"
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