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none, .o, .dylib, .bundle
|Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)||com.apple.mach-o-binary|
|Developed by||Carnegie Mellon University, Apple Inc.|
|Type of format||Binary, executable, object, shared libraries, core dump|
|Container for||ARM, SPARC, PA-RISC, PowerPC and x86 executable code, memory image dumps|
Mach-O, short for Mach object file format, is a file format for executables, object code, shared libraries, dynamically-loaded code, and core dumps. A replacement for the a.out format, Mach-O offers more extensibility and faster access to information in the symbol table.
Mach-O file layout
Each Mach-O file is made up of one Mach-O header, followed by a series of load commands, followed by one or more segments, each of which contains between 0 and 255 sections. Mach-O uses the REL relocation format to handle references to symbols. When looking up symbols Mach-O uses a two-level namespace that encodes each symbol into an 'object/symbol name' pair that is then linearly searched for, first by the object and then the symbol name.
The basic structure—a list of variable-length "load commands" that reference pages of data elsewhere in the file—was also used in the executable file format for Accent. The Accent file format was in turn, based on an idea from Spice Lisp.
Under NeXTSTEP, OPENSTEP, macOS, and iOS, multiple Mach-O files can be combined in a multi-architecture binary. This allows a single binary file to contain code to support multiple instruction set architectures. For example, a multi-architecture binary for iOS can have 7 instruction set architectures, namely ARMv6 (for iPhone, 3G and 1st / 2nd generation iPod touch), ARMv7 (for iPhone 3GS, 4, 4S, iPad, 2, 3rd generation and 3rd–5th generation iPod touch), ARMv7s (for iPhone 5 and iPad (4th generation)), ARMv8-A A64 also known as arm64 (for iPhone 5S to iPhone X), ARMv8.3-A A64 also known as arm64e (for iPhone XS and MacBook Air (M1)), x86 (for iPhone simulator on 32-bit machines), and x86_64 (64-bit simulator).
Minimum OS version
With the introduction of Mac OS X 10.6 platform the Mach-O file underwent a significant modification that causes binaries compiled on a computer running 10.6 or later to be (by default) executable only on computers running Mac OS X 10.6 or later. The difference stems from load commands that the dynamic linker, in previous Mac OS X versions, does not understand. Another significant change to the Mach-O format is the change in how the Link Edit tables (found in the __LINKEDIT section) function. In 10.6 these new Link Edit tables are compressed by removing unused and unneeded bits of information, however Mac OS X 10.5 and earlier cannot read this new Link Edit table format. To make backwards-compatible executables, the linker flag "-mmacosx-version-min=" can be used.
For Linux, a Mach-O loader was written by Shinichiro Hamaji that can load 10.6 binaries. As a more extensive solution based on this loader, the Darling Project aims at providing a complete environment allowing OS X applications to run on Linux.
- Fat binary
- Universal binary
- Mac transition to Intel processors
- Mac transition to Apple Silicon
- Comparison of executable file formats
- "OS X ABI Mach-O File Format Reference". Apple Inc. February 4, 2009. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Avadis Tevanian, Jr.; Richard F. Rashid; Michael W. Young; David B. Golub; Mary R. Thompson; William Bolosky; Richard Sanzi. "A Unix Interface for Shared Memory and Memory Mapped Files Under Mach": 8. Cite journal requires
- Emmanuel Dreyfus (June 20, 2006). "Mach and Darwin binary compatiblity [sic] for NetBSD/powerpc and NetBSD/i386". Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Emmanuel Dreyfus (September 2004), Mac OS X binary compatibility on NetBSD: challenges and implementation (PDF)
- Shinichiro Hamaji, Mach-O loader for Linux - I wrote...
- William Woodruff, A pure-Ruby library for parsing Mach-O files.