Machilipatnam

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Machilipatnam
మచిలీపట్నం
Masulipatnam
City
Koneru center, the business center of Machilipatnam
Koneru center, the business center of Machilipatnam
Nickname(s): Bandar
Machilipatnam is located in Andhra Pradesh
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Krishna
Mandal Machilipatnam
Government
 • Type Municipal council
 • Body Machilipatnam Municipality
 • MLA Kollu Ravindra (Telugu Desam Party)
 • Municipal commissioner A.S.N.V.Maruthi Diwakar
Area[1]
 • Total 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi)
Elevation 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 170,008
 • Density 6,875/km2 (17,810/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 521 xxx
Telephone code 91-8672
Vehicle registration AP-16
Website mmc.ind.in

Machilipatnam (About this sound pronunciation ) is a city and special grade municipality in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Krishna district.[3][4][5][6] It is located at a distance of 65 kilometres (40 mi) to Vijayawada.

It was the first trading settlement on the Bay of Bengal coast established by the British East India Company. At that time, in 1611, it was also known as Masulipatnam or Masula, and as Bandar in folklore.[7]

History[edit]

Masulipatam port in 1759
View of Masulipatnam in 1676

The town has existed since the 3rd century BCE (Satavahana period) when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st century BCE.[8] The port is located on the southeastern, or Coromandel Coast, of India. Situated in the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade. Muslin clothes were traded by ancient Greeks from the town and the word muslin originated from the name Maisolos.[9] Muslin was an important source of income for the town, being a favourite of Roman traders for domestic consumption. Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns located near Masulipatnam.[10]

When Marco Polo visited India, probably some time around 1289-1293, Machilipatnam was a major port of the Kakatiya dynasty. He referred to the place as Mutfiliffn, and it was also known as Masulipatam.[11][12]

The naming of the eastern gate of Charminar as Machili-Kaman (literally meaning "gate of fish", in this case specifically meaning a gate to the fishing town of Machilipatnam) testifies the symbiotic relationship between port and the capital. There were Arab merchants in the area at least since the 13th century. The Portuguese controlled what they called Masulipatão between 1598 and 1610, when they vacated the place. The East India Company built its first factory in India in Masulipatnam. It was a 17th-century port for French, British and Dutch trade. The port has a medium-size fishing harbour which can accommodate 350 fishing vessels and an active carpet-weaving industry. The other products from the town include rice, oilseeds and scientific instruments. This town is a railway terminus and an important educational centre. Andhra Bank was established in 1923 at Machilipatnam.

The area is vulnerable to storm surges caused by the frequent cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. The 2004 Tsunami affected many fishing villages around Machilipatnam. The Government and NGOs are involved in rebuilding and reconstructing devastated villages.

Geography[edit]

Machilipatnam city is located at 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13[13] on the southeast coast of India and in the east corner of Andhra Pradesh. The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (45 feet). River in Machilipatnam

Climate[edit]

Machilipatnam city gets most of its annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. It has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres (37.8 in).

Machilipatnam city is frequently hit by cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal. The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. A storm surge, 5 metres high, inundated the Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam city (Bandar)

On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city.[14] It was purchased from a German manufacturer, Gematronik. With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the newspaper The Hindu. This facility will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state.[15] The radar's information is posted in real-time on the Indian Meteorological Department website.[16] Similar radars were installed in other coastal cities forming an S-Band Cyclone Detection Radar Network.[17]

Climate data for Machilipatnam
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
34.6
(94.3)
38.1
(100.6)
41.8
(107.2)
46.5
(115.7)
45.4
(113.7)
40.8
(105.4)
38.6
(101.5)
36.8
(98.2)
37.2
(99)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
34.6
(94.3)
37.3
(99.1)
36.7
(98.1)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
28.8
(83.8)
32.43
(90.38)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84)
27.8
(82)
25.8
(78.4)
24.3
(75.7)
28.11
(82.58)
Average low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.6
(72.7)
25.7
(78.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
24.0
(75.2)
21.6
(70.9)
19.9
(67.8)
23.7
(74.66)
Record low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.6
(60.1)
17.3
(63.1)
17.8
(64)
17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.1
(64.6)
17.8
(64)
15.3
(59.5)
14.6
(58.3)
14
(57.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.24)
9
(0.35)
7
(0.28)
9
(0.35)
20
(0.79)
86
(3.39)
171
(6.73)
181
(7.13)
156
(6.14)
177
(6.97)
116
(4.57)
21
(0.83)
959
(37.77)
Avg. rainy days 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 2.2 7.7 13.8 12.6 10.4 9.2 5.6 1.2 65.1
Avg. relative humidity (%) 76 75 73 73 66 62 72 74 78 79 75 75 73.2
Source: NOAA (1971–1990)[18]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 census, Kolakaluru had a population of 170,008. The total population constitute, 83,561 males and 86,447 females —a sex ratio of 1035 females per 1000 males. 13,778 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 7,076 are boys and 6,702 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.32% with 130,173 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 67.41%.[2][19]

Government and politics[edit]

Machilipatnam municipality is the governing body of the city. It covers an area of 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. The present municipal commissioner of the city is A.S.N.V.Maruthi Diwakar.[20]

Politics

Machilipatnam is a part of Machilipatnam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Kollu Ravindra is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[21][22] The assembly segment is also a part of Machilipatnam (Lok Sabha constituency), which was won by Konakalla Narayana Rao of Telugu Desam Party.[23]

Culture[edit]

Dance

Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam.

Cuisine

Bandar laddu hand moulded

The city is well known for a sweet known as Bandar Laddu.[24]

Tourism[edit]

Machilipatnam Temple
Sai Baba Temple at Machilipatnam

Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast., home to ancient Shiva temple and a recently built Datta temple. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing (recalling those at Rameswaram).[25] Panduranga Swamy temple at Chilakalapudi near the city, Agastheeswara Temple etc.

The Jodugudlu temple in Edepalli is also one of the oldest temples with more than 150 years of history. The temple was built during the 19th century, by Velama Doralu which is a social group found mainly in Andhra Pradesh. Velamas are classed as "warrior caste". The temple was handed over to the Endowments Department in the year 1936. Currently the temple has been developed by an un-organised group[clarification needed].

Bandar beach in 2014

The manginipudi beach is located at the coast of the city.

The Sri Ganganamma Temple was constructed in the year of 1977 when the great cyclone came i.e. uppena[clarification needed] at Rajupet, Machilipatnam. The Sree Ramalam temple is 2 kilometres from Palletummalapalem.[relevant to this section? ]

Transport[edit]

Roadways

The National highway NH-9 (new no NH-65) from Pune via Hyderabad and Vijayawada is being extended to Bandar Fort through Machilipatnam. A coastal National highway NH-214A (new no NH-216) from Kattipudi to Ongole via Machilipatnam was sanctioned 4 years ago.

Railways

Machilipatnam railway station is located in South Central Railway zone of Indian railways, under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division. It is classified as an A–category station. It is recognised as an Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[26] It is located on a branch line linked to the Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada section of Howrah-Chennai main line, is well connected to important cities of India.

Seaways

Navayuga Engineering Company Limited is in the process of building a deep water port at Gilakaladinne of Machilipatnam.[27]

Airports

The nearest airport is Gannavaram Airport near Vijayawada, about 76 km away.

Education[edit]

Machilipatnam is an ancient and famous educational center. The Noble College Machilipatnam is one of the first four colleges in India and the first college in Andhra Pradesh. There are two other colleges with histories related to India's fight for independence, namely The Hindu College and The National College (Andhra Jateeya Kalasala). Kendriya Vidyalaya is the only school maintained by Government of India in Machilipatnam which was established in 1994. This has best teaching staff from all over India making it the only Metropolitan school in Machilipatnam with English & Hindi medium of teaching. Because of its limited number of seats, one have to undergo an Entrance test to get admission.

In the olden days[when?] many people used to come to Machilipatnam to get better education. Machilipatnam is an educational center, offering all academic courses except Medicine. It has public (state-run) and privately run schools. The local Hindu college and allied institutions offer courses ranging from kindergarten (KG) to postgraduate (PG). There are several Telugu language and English language schools. Daita Madhusudana Sastry, the former secretary and correspondent of the Hindu college and allied institutions, was instrumental in the establishment and expansion of most of the educational institutions in Machilipatnam.[citation needed]

Krishna University has been established in Machilipatnam as the Headquarters of Krishna District in 2008 for Higher education and University offers 9 postgraduate courses including M.A. (Tel,Eng,Journalism), MSc (Bio-Tech, Pharma Chemistry), MSc (Electronics and Instrumentation), M.Pharmacy, M.B.A and M.C.A.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Machilipatnam at Glance". Machilipatnam Municipality. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner,India. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "Krishna district profile". aponline.gov.in. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Administrative Setup". Krishna District Official Website. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "Krishna District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 517. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  6. ^ "District - Krishna". AP Online. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  7. ^ "About Machilipatnam". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  8. ^ The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India
  9. ^ Periplus, Point 62; http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.html
  10. ^ Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture by Sukumar Butt, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1988, p. 132
  11. ^ Rubiés, Joan-Pau (2000). Travel and Ethnology in the Renaissance: South India through European Eyes, 1250-1625. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50, 73 – via Questia. (subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ Chakravarti, Ranabir (1991). "Horse Trade and Piracy at Tana (Thana, Maharashtra, India): Gleanings from Marco Polo". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 34 (3): 159–182. JSTOR 3632243. (subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ "redirect to /world/IN/02/Machilipatnam.html". fallingrain.com. 
  14. ^ "Welcome to Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India  ::". dst.gov.in. 
  15. ^ "The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh News : Modern cyclone warning system for Machilipatnam". hindu.com. 
  16. ^ Indian Meteorological Department website
  17. ^ India Meteorological Department
  18. ^ "Musulipatnam Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  19. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). Official Portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. p. 43. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Municipality commissioner". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  21. ^ "MLA". Government of AP. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "Machilipatnam Assembly 2014 Election Results". Elections.in. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  23. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  24. ^ Varma, Sujatha (13 April 2013). "In search of Bandar Laddu". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "History". dattapeetham.com. 
  26. ^ "Vijayawada Division – a profile" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  27. ^ "G.O. on development of Machilipatnam deep water port" (PDF). Department of Ports. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 

External links[edit]