Macrobiotic diet

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Macrobiotic diet
Alternative medicine
Claims Health effects from a diet avoiding refined foods and most animal products. Specific effects on cancer.
Related fields Diet
Year proposed 1797
Original proponents George Ohsawa
Subsequent proponents Sagen Ishizuka

A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), is a fad diet fixed on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen buddhism.[1] The diet attempts to balance the supposed yin and yang elements of food and cookware.[2][3] Major principles of macrobiotic diets are to reduce animal product, eat locally grown foods that are in season, and consume meals in moderation.[1]

Macrobiotics writers often claim that a macrobiotic diet is helpful for people with cancer and other chronic diseases, although there is no good evidence to support such recommendations.[4][1] Studies that indicate positive results are of poor methodological quality.[1] Neither the American Cancer Society nor Cancer Research UK recommend adopting the diet.[5][6] Suggestions that a macrobiotic diet improves cardiovascular disease and diabetes are explained by the diet being, in part, consistent with science-based dietary approaches to disease prevention.[1]

Conceptual basis[edit]

The macrobiotic diet is associated with Zen buddhism and is based on the idea of balancing yin and yang.[3] The diet was popularized by George Ohsawa in the 1930s and subsequently elaborated by his disciple Michio Kushi.[5]

Macrobiotics takes a view of health which contradicts science.[7]

According to Kushi, one goal of modern macrobiotics is to become sensitive to the actual effects of foods on health and well-being, rather than to follow dietary rules and regulations. Dietary guidelines, however, help in developing sensitivity and an intuitive sense for what sustains health and well-being.[8]

Macrobiotics emphasizes locally grown whole grain cereals, pulses (legumes), vegetables, seaweed, fermented soy products and fruit, combined into meals according to the ancient Chinese principle of balance known as yin and yang[citation needed]. Whole grains and whole-grain products such as brown rice and buckwheat pasta (soba), a variety of cooked and raw vegetables, beans and bean products, mild natural seasonings, fish, nuts and seeds, mild (non-stimulating) beverages such as bancha twig tea and fruit are recommended.[8]

Some Macrobiotic theorists, including George Ohsawa, stress the fact that yin and yang are relative qualities that can only be determined in a comparison. All food is considered to have both properties, with one dominating. Foods with yang qualities are considered compact, dense, heavy, hot, whereas those with yin qualities are considered expansive, light, cold, and diffuse.[9] However, these terms are relative; "yangness" or "yinness" is only discussed in relation to other foods.[10]

Brown rice and other whole grains such as barley, millet, oats, quinoa, spelt, rye, and teff are considered by macrobiotics to be the foods in which yin and yang are closest to being in balance. Therefore, lists of macrobiotic foods that determine a food as yin or yang generally compare them to whole grains.[11]

Nightshade vegetables, including tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant; also spinach, beets and avocados are not recommended or are used sparingly in macrobiotic cooking, as they are considered extremely yin.[12] Some macrobiotic practitioners also discourage the use of nightshades because of the alkaloid solanine, thought to affect calcium balance.[13] Some proponents of a macrobiotic diet believe that nightshade vegetables can cause inflammation in the body and osteoporosis.[14]

Practices[edit]

Food[edit]

Some basic macrobiotic ingredients

Some general guidelines for the Japanese-style macrobiotic diet are the following (it is also said that a macrobiotic diet varies greatly, depending on geographical and life circumstances):[15]

  • Well-chewed whole cereal grains, especially brown rice: 40–60%
  • Vegetables: 25–30%
  • Beans and legumes: 5–10%
  • Miso soup: 5%
  • Sea vegetables: 5%
  • Traditionally or naturally processed foods: 5–10%

Fish and seafood, seeds and nuts, seed and nut butters, seasonings, sweeteners, fruits, and beverages may be enjoyed occasionally, two to three times per week. Other naturally-raised animal products may be included if needed during dietary transition or according to individual needs.

Kitchenware[edit]

Cooking utensils should be made from certain materials such as wood or glass, while some materials including plastic, copper, and non-stick coatings are to be avoided.[2] Electric ovens should not be used.[2]

Japanese popularity and influence[edit]

The macrobiotic way of eating was developed and popularized by the Japanese. During the Edo period in Japan peasants were not allowed to eat meat and had a diet based on staples of rice and soybeans. According to some macrobiotic advocates, a majority of the world population in the past ate a diet based primarily on grains, vegetables, and other plants. Because the macrobiotic diet was developed in Japan, Japanese foods that are beneficial for health are incorporated by most modern macrobiotic eaters.[16][17]

Cancer[edit]

Claims that macrobiotic diets are useful for people with cancer are not supported by good medical evidence.[4]

The American Cancer Society recommends "low-fat, high-fiber diets that consist mainly of plant products"; however, they urge people with cancer not to rely on a dietary program as an exclusive or primary means of treatment.[5] Cancer Research UK states, "There is no scientific evidence to prove that a macrobiotic diet can treat or cure cancer or any other disease".[6]

Nutrition[edit]

Detailed information on the nutrients provided by a large range of foodstuffs is available in the USDA National Nutrient Database.[18]

The following nutrients should be monitored especially in children, because of their importance in facilitating growth and function: calcium, protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12, riboflavin, vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids.[19]

People following the macrobiotic diet are at increased risk of developing scurvy.[20]

Fish provides vitamin B12 in a macrobiotic diet,[21] as bioavailable B12 analogues have not been established in any natural plant food, including sea vegetables, soya, fermented products, and algae.[22] Although plant-derived foods do not naturally contain B12, some are fortified during processing with added B12 and other nutrients.[23] Vitamin A, in the form of beta-carotene, is available from plants such as carrots and spinach.[24] Adequate protein is available from grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and bean products. Sources of Omega-3 fatty acids are discussed in the relevant article, and include soy products, walnuts, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, and fatty fish. Riboflavin along with most other B vitamins are abundant in whole grains. Iron in the form of non-heme iron in beans, sea vegetables and leafy greens is sufficient for good health; detailed information is in the USDA database.[25]

In 1987, the AMA stated in their Family Medical Guide: "In general, the macrobiotic diet is a healthful way of eating."[26]

A 1999 review said the macrobiotic diet was similar to the then USDA recommendations for healthy eating.[27]

Safety[edit]

Complications[edit]

One of the earlier versions of the macrobiotic diet that involved eating only brown rice and water has been linked to severe nutritional deficiencies and even death. Strict macrobiotic diets that include no animal products may result in nutritional deficiencies unless they are carefully planned. The danger may be worse for people with cancer, who may have to contend with unwanted weight loss and often have increased nutritional and caloric requirements. Relying on this type of treatment alone and avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.[28]

Children[edit]

Children may also be particularly prone to nutritional deficiencies resulting from a macrobiotic diet.[28]

Pregnancy[edit]

Macrobiotic diets have not been tested in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, and the most extreme versions may not include enough of certain nutrients for normal fetal growth.[28]

Malnutrition[edit]

In 1971, the AMA Council on Foods and Nutrition said that followers of the macrobiotic diet, particularly the strictest, stood in "great danger" of malnutrition.[29] This report came half a decade after the well-publicized death of Beth Ann Simon, a young woman who had followed Ohsawa's form of the diet in spite of its disastrous effect on her body.[30][31][32] On the other hand, in 1987, the AMA stated in their Family Medical Guide: "In general, the macrobiotic diet is a healthful way of eating."[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lerman, R. H. (7 December 2010). "The Macrobiotic Diet in Chronic Disease". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 25 (6): 621–626. doi:10.1177/0884533610385704. 
  2. ^ a b c Bijlefeld M, Zoumbaris SK (2014). Macrobiotics. Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6. 
  3. ^ a b Bender DA (2014). diet, macrobiotic. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191752391. 
  4. ^ a b Hübner J, Marienfeld S, Abbenhardt C, Ulrich CM, Löser C (November 2012). "[How useful are diets against cancer?]". Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. (Review) (in German). 137 (47): 2417–22. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1327276. PMID 23152069. 
  5. ^ a b c Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 638–642. ISBN 9780944235713. 
  6. ^ a b "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  7. ^ Clow B (2001). Negotiating Disease: Power and Cancer Care, 1900-1950. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 63. Before we explore medical reactions to therapeutic innovations in this era, we must stop to consider the meaning of 'alternative medicine' in this context. Often scholars use the term to denote systems of healing that are philosophically as well as therapeutically distinct from regular medicine: homeopathy, reflexology, rolfing, macrobiotics, and spiritual healing, to name a few, embody interpretations of health, illness, and healing that are not only different from, but also at odds with conventional medical opinion. 
  8. ^ a b Kushi and Jack
  9. ^ Porter, pp. 22–25
  10. ^ Porter, pp. 44–49
  11. ^ Porter, pp. 71–78
  12. ^ Kushi and Jack, p. 119.
  13. ^ Stanchich, Lino. "All About Nightshades". New Life Journal: Carolina Edition, Apr/May 2003, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 17, 3 pp.
  14. ^ Porter
  15. ^ Kushi, Michio; Blauer, Stephen; Esko, Wendy (2004). The Macrobiotic Way: The Complete Macrobiotic Lifestyle Book. Avery. ISBN 1-58333-180-8. 
  16. ^ Make Mine Macrobiotic | Lifestyle | Trends in Japan. Web Japan. Retrieved on 2012-04-27.
  17. ^ Panel 11: Globalisation, Hybridity and Continuity in Traditional Japanese Health Practices. iastam.org
  18. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.
  19. ^ American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". J Am Dietetic Assn. 103 (6): 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. OCLC 1083209. PMID 12778049. Vegetarian diets, like all diets, need to be planned appropriately to be nutritionally adequate. 
  20. ^ Pimentel L (2003). "Scurvy: historical review and current diagnostic approach". Am J Emerg Med (Review). 21 (4): 328–32. doi:10.1016/s0735-6757(03)00083-4. PMID 12898492. Persons at risk include ... followers of fad diets such as the Zen macrobiotic diet 
  21. ^ National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  22. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Vitamin B-12 (μg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.
  23. ^ Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D. "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  24. ^ National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin A and Carotenoids (Table 2: Selected plant sources of vitamin A from beta-carotene)". Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  25. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Iron, Fe (mg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.
  26. ^ a b Kunz, Jeffrey R. M., and Finkel, Asher J., eds. (1987). American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. Random House. p. 27. ISBN 0-394-55582-1. 
  27. ^ Cassileth BR (1999). "Evaluating complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients". CA Cancer J Clin (Review). 49 (6): 362–75. doi:10.3322/canjclin.49.6.362. PMID 11198952. 
  28. ^ a b c Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. ISBN 9780944235713. 
  29. ^ "Zen Macrobiotic Diets". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 218 (3): 397. 1971. doi:10.1001/jama.1971.03190160047009. 
  30. ^ "Simon, Beth Ann". The Free Dictionary. 
  31. ^ Christgau, Robert (1966). "Beth Ann and Microbioticism". 
  32. ^ "The Kosher of the Counterculture". Time. EBSCOhost. 96 (20). 16 November 1970. 

Further reading[edit]