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Temporal range: Late Triassic
~231–216 Ma
Hyperodapedon BW2.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Rhynchosauria
Family: Rhynchosauridae
Subfamily: Hyperodapedontinae
Genus: Hyperodapedon
Huxley 1859
  • H. gordoni Huxley 1859 (type)
  • H. huenei Langer & Schultz 2000
  • H. huxleyi Lydekker 1881
  • H. mariensis (Tupi Caldas, 1933)
  • H. sanjuanensis (Sill, 1970) Langer & Schultz 2000
  • H. tikiensis Mukherjee & Ray 2014
  • ?†H. stockleyi (Boonstra, 1953)


  • Cephalonia Huene, 1942 (nomen dubium)
  • Scaphonyx Woodward, 1907 (nomen dubium)
  • Stenometopon Boulenger, 1903
  • Paradapedon Huene, 1938
  •  ?Supradapedon Chatterjee, 1980


  • Cephalonia lotziana Huene, 1942 (nomen dubium)
  • Scaphonyx africanus Boonstra, 1953 (nomen dubium)
  • Scaphonyx australis Huene, 1926 (nomen dubium)
  • Scaphonyx fischeri Woodward, 1907 (nomen dubium)
  • Scaphonyx sanjuanensis Sill, 1970
  •  ?Scaphonyx stockleyi Boonstra, 1953
  • Macrocephalosaurus mariensis Tupi Caldas, 1933
  • Paradapedon huxleyi (Lydekker, 1881)
  • Stenometopon taylori Boulenger, 1903

Hyperodapedon is a genus of rhynchosaurs (beaked, archosaur-like reptiles) from the Late Triassic period (Carnian stage). Fossils of the genus have been found in Africa, Asia, Europe and North and South America.


Hyperodapedon was a heavily built, stocky, animal around 1.3 metres (4.3 ft) in length. Apart from its beak, it had several rows of heavy teeth on each side of the upper jaw, and a single row on each side of the lower jaw, creating a powerful chopping action when it ate. It is believed to have been herbivorous, feeding mainly on seed ferns, and died out when these plants became extinct at the end of the Triassic.[1]


Hyperodapedon (formerly Scaphonyx)

The type species of Scaphonyx (meaning canoe claw), Scaphonyx fischeri that once thought to be a dinosaur, is now known to be based on dubious material and therefore should be a nomen dubium. The name Paradapedon was elected for the Indian species H. huxleyi (Lydekker, 1881). Benton, 1983, concluded that this rhynchosaur should be considered a species of Hyperodapedon.

Hyperodapedon is known from several species and has been found in many areas of the world, due to the continents being joined together in the supercontinent Pangaea during the Triassic. Fossils from the various species have been identified from Argentina, Brazil, India, Scotland and possibly from Canada, United States and Wyoming.


Fossils of Hyperodapedon have been found in:[2]


Langer et al. (2000) defined Hyperodapedon as a stem-based taxon that includes all rhynchosaurs closer to Hyperodapedon gordoni than to "Scaphonyx" sulcognathus (now Teyumbaita).[3] The cladogram below follows their phylogenetic analysis of Mukherjee & Ray (2014).[4]


Isalorhynchus genovefae Cartography of Africa.svg

Teyumbaita sulcognathus Cartography of South America.svg


H. huenei Cartography of South America.svg

H. mariensis Cartography of South America.svg

H. sanjuanensis Cartography of South America.svg

H. sp from Wolfville Cartography of North America.svg

H. sp from India Cartography of Asia.svg

H. huxleyi Cartography of Asia.svg

H. gordoni Cartography of Europe.svg

H. sp from Wyoming Cartography of North America.svg

H. sp from Zimbabwe Cartography of Africa.svg

H. tikiensis Cartography of Asia.svg

Supradapedon stockleyi Cartography of Africa.svg

   Valid species that were first assigned to Scaphonyx.



  1. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 92. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  2. ^ Hyperodapedon at Fossilworks.org
  3. ^ Max C. Langer and Cesar L. Schultz (2000). "A new species of the Late Triassic rhynchosaur Hyperodapedon from the Santa Maria Formation of south Brazil". Palaeontology. 43 (6): 633–652. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00143. 
  4. ^ Mukherjee, D., Ray, S. (2014), A new Hyperodapedon (Archosauromorpha, Rhynchosauria) from the Upper Triassic of India: implications for rhynchosaur phylogeny. Palaeontology. doi: 10.1111/pala.12113