Macrophagic myofasciitis

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Macrophagic Myofasciitis, or MMF, is a rare muscle disease identified in 1993. The disease is characterized by microscopic lesions found in muscle biopsies that show infiltration of muscle tissue by PAS-positive macrophages.[1] Specific causes of MMF are unknown. Intramuscular injections aluminium-containing vaccines have been implicated.[1] Many of those affected with the disease had previously been treated for malaria with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.[2]

Clinical symptoms include muscle pain, joint pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, fever, and muscle tenderness. A diagnosis can only be identified with an open muscle biopsy of the vaccinated muscle.[3]

Studies at the University of Paris have shown that MMF lesions result when the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant from a vaccine remains embedded in the tissue and causes a steady immune reaction. [4][5][6][7]


  1. ^ a b Cherin P, Authier F-J, Creange1 A, Creange A, et al. (May 2001). "Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis". Brain. 124 (5): 974–983. doi:10.1093/brain/124.5.974. ISSN 1460-2156. OCLC 39378352. PMID 11335699. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  2. ^, "Definition of Macrophagic myofasciitis". Accessed August 22, 2013.
  3. ^ Fischer D, Reimann J, Schröder R (31 October 2003). "Macrophagic myofasciitis: inflammatory, vaccination-associated muscular disease". Brain. 128 (44): 2305–2308. doi:10.1055/s-2003-43184. ISSN 1439-4413. OCLC 163397752. PMID 14593574. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  4. ^ Gherardi R.K., Coquet M., Cherin P. (September 2001). "Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle.". Brain. 124 (9): 1821–1831. doi:10.1093/brain/124.9.1821. PMID 11522584. 
  5. ^ Cherin P, Authier FJ, Gherardi RK Template:Et al. « Gallium-67 scintigraphy in macrophagic myofasciitis » Arthritis Rheum. 2012;43:1520-6.
  6. ^ Gherardi RK, FJ Authier FJ, « Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology » Lupus 2012;21:184-9. doi:10.1177/0961203311429557
  7. ^ RK Gherardi, M. Coquet, P. Chérin, L. Belec, P.Moretto, PA Dreyfus, J.-F. Pellissier, P. Char et F.-J. Authier, « Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle » Brain, mai 2001.