As he was 15 when he became Emperor, and also illiterate, he delegated all duties to Wei Zhongxian, giving the actual power to him and Madame Ke. Both of them were eliminated as soon the Chongzhen Emperor (the last one of the Ming dynasty) succeeded his brother to the throne in 1627.
Madame Ke was beaten to death during interrogation in December 1627.
- Lily Xiao Hong Lee, Sue Wiles: Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, Volume II: Tang Through Ming 618 - 1644
- Dardess, John W. (2002), Blood and History in China: The Donglin Faction and its Repression, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press
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