Madame de Pompadour
Madame de Pompadour
|Marquise of Pompadour|
|Coat of arms|
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson
|Born||29 December 1721|
Paris, Kingdom of France
|Died||15 April 1764 (aged 42)|
Paris, Kingdom of France
|Mother||Madeleine de La Motte|
|Occupation||Chief mistress of Louis XV|
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise of Pompadour (//, French: [pɔ̃paduʁ] (listen); 29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court. She was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
Pompadour took charge of the king's schedule and was a valued aide and advisor, despite her frail health and many political enemies. She secured titles of nobility for herself and her relatives, and built a network of clients and supporters. She was particularly careful not to alienate the Queen, Marie Leszczyńska. On 8 February 1756, the Marquise de Pompadour was named as the thirteenth lady in waiting to the queen, a position considered the most prestigious at the court, which accorded her with honors.
Hostile critics at the time generally tarred her as a malevolent political influence, but historians are more favorable, emphasizing her successes as a patron of the arts and a champion of French pride. Art historian Melissa Hyde argues that the critics of Pompadour were driven by fears over the overturning of social and gender hierarchies that Pompadour's power and influence, as a woman who was not born into the aristocracy, represented.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson (1684–1754) and his wife Madeleine de La Motte (1699–1745). It is suspected that her biological father was either the rich financier Jean Pâris de Monmartel or the tax collector (fermier général) Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem. Le Normant de Tournehem became her legal guardian when François Poisson was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts, a crime at that time punishable by death. (He was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France.)
At age 5 Jeanne Antoinette was sent to receive the finest quality education of the day in an Ursuline convent in Poissy, where she gained admiration for her wit and charm. Due to poor health, thought to be whooping cough, Jeanne Antoinette returned home in January 1730 at age 9. During this time her mother took her to a fortuneteller, Madame de Lebon, who predicted that the girl would one day reign over the heart of a King. Henceforth she became known as “Reinette”, meaning "little queen", and was groomed to become the mistress of Louis XV. Tournehem arranged for Jeanne Antoinette to receive a private education at home with the best teachers of the day who taught her dancing, drawing, painting, engraving, theatre, the arts, and the ability to memorize entire plays. It may have been this sponsoring of Jeanne Antoinette's education in particular that sparked rumors of his paternity to Poisson.
At the age of nineteen, Jeanne Antoinette was married to Charles Guillaume Le Normant d'Étiolles, the nephew of her guardian, Charles Le Normant de Tournehem, who initiated the match and the large financial incentives that came with it. On 15 December 1740, Tournehem made his nephew his sole heir, disinheriting all his other nephews and nieces, the children of his brother and sister. These included the estate at Étiolles (28 km south of Paris), a wedding gift from her guardian, which was situated on the edge of the royal hunting ground of the forest of Sénart. Once married, Le Normant d'Étiolles fell passionately in love with his wife, while she maintained that she would never leave him – except for the King. The couple had a son who died in infancy and a daughter, Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles, born in 1744, who died at the age of nine.
Attendance of salons
Jeanne Antoinette's marital status allowed her to frequent celebrated salons in Paris, such as those hosted by Mesdames de Tencin, Geoffrin, du Deffand, and others. Within these salons she crossed paths with principal figures of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, Charles Pinot Duclos, Montesquieu, Helvétius, and Bernard de Fontenelle. Additionally, Jeanne Antoinette created her own salon at Étiolles, which was attended by many of the cultural elite, among them were Crébillon fils, Montesquieu, the Cardinal de Bernis, and Voltaire. Within these circles she learned the fine art of conversation and developed the sharp wit for which she would later become known at Versailles.
Meeting the King
Due to her involvement in Paris salons as well as her grace and beauty, Louis XV had heard the name of Jeanne Antoinette mentioned at court as early as 1742. In 1744, Jeanne Antoinette sought to catch the eye of the King while he led the hunt in the forest of Sénart. Because she occupied an estate near this location she was permitted to follow the royal party at a distance. However, wanting to attract the King's notice, Jeanne Antoinette drove directly in front of the King's path, once in a pink phaeton, wearing a blue dress, and once in a blue phaeton, wearing a pink dress. The King sent a gift of venison to her. Though the King's current mistress, Madame de Châteauroux (Marie Anne de Mailly), had warned off Jeanne Antoinette, the position became vacant on 8 December 1744 when Châteauroux died. On 24 February 1745, Jeanne Antoinette received a formal invitation to attend the masked ball held on February 25 at the Palace of Versailles to celebrate the marriage of the Dauphin Louis of France to Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain (1726–46). It was at this ball that the King, disguised along with seven courtiers as a yew tree, publicly declared his affection for Jeanne Antoinette. Before all of court and the royal family, Louis unmasked himself before Jeanne Antoinette, who was dressed as Diana the Huntress, in reference to their encounter in the forest of Sénart.
Introduction to court
By March, she was the king's mistress, installed at Versailles in an apartment directly above his. On 7 May, the official separation between her and her husband was pronounced. To be presented at court, she required a title. The king purchased the marquisate of Pompadour on 24 June and gave the estate, with title and coat-of-arms, to Jeanne Antoinette, making her a Marquise. On 14 September 1745, Madame de Pompadour made her formal entry before the King, presented by the king's cousin, the Princess of Conti. Determined to make her place at court secure, Pompadour immediately attempted to forge a good relationship with the royal family. After the Queen engaged Pompadour in conversation by enquiring after a mutual acquaintance, Madame de Saissac, Pompadour responded in delight, swearing her respect and loyalty to Marie Leszczyńska. Pompadour quickly mastered the highly mannered court etiquette. However, her mother died on Christmas Day of the same year, and did not live to see her daughter's achievement of becoming the undisputed royal mistress.
Through her position as court favourite Pompadour wielded considerable power and influence; she was elevated on 12 October 1752, to duchess and in 1756 to lady-in-waiting to the queen, the most noble rank possible for a woman at court. Pompadour effectively played the role of prime minister, becoming responsible for appointing advancements, favors, and dismissals, and contributing in domestic and foreign politics.
Her importance was such that she was approached in 1755 by Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, a prominent Austrian diplomat, asking her to intervene in the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Versailles. This was the beginning of the Diplomatic Revolution, which saw France allied to her former enemy Austria.
Under these changed alliances, the European powers entered the Seven Years' War, which saw France, Austria, and Russia pitted against Britain and Prussia. France suffered a defeat at the hands of the Prussians in the Battle of Rossbach in 1757, and eventually lost her American colonies to the British. After Rossbach, Madame de Pompadour is alleged to have comforted the king with the now-famous: "au reste, après nous, le Déluge" ("Besides, after us, the Deluge"). France emerged from the war diminished and virtually bankrupt.
Madame de Pompadour persisted in her support of these policies, and when Cardinal de Bernis failed her, she brought Choiseul into office and supported and guided him in all his great plans: the Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits and the Treaty of Paris (1763). Britain's victories in the war had allowed it to surpass France as the leading colonial power — something which was commonly blamed on Pompadour. But Madame de Pompadour supported great ministers like Bertin and Machaut who introduced important fiscal and economic reforms (trade, infrastructure, income taxes) which made France the richest nation in the world.
Pompadour protected the Physiocrates school (its leader was Quesnay, her own doctor) which paved the way for Adam Smith's theories. She also defended the Encyclopédie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert against those, among them the Archbishop of Paris Christophe de Beaumont, who sought to have it suppressed. In Diderot's first novel, Les bijoux indiscrets (The Indiscreet Jewels), the characters of Mangogul and Mirzoza are allegories of Louis XV and Pompadour respectively. Diderot portrayed Pompadour in a flattering light, most likely to ensure her support for Encyclopedie. Pompadour had a copy of Les bijoux indiscrets in her library, which may explain why the crown did not pursue Diderot for such an indiscretion against the king.
The marquise had many enemies among the royal courtiers who felt it a disgrace that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner. She was very sensitive to the unending libels called poissonnades, analogous to mazarinade against Cardinal Mazarin and a pun on her family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French. Only with great reluctance did Louis take punitive action against her known enemies, such as Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu.
Friend of the King
Madame de Pompadour was able to wield such influence at court due to the invaluable role she played as a friend and confidant of the King. In opposition to previous mistresses of Louis XV, Pompadour made herself invaluable to the King by becoming the only person whom Louis trusted and who could be counted on to tell him the truth. Pompadour was an indispensable comfort to Louis who was prone to melancholy and boredom. She alone was able to captivate and amuse him, and would entertain Louis with elegant parties, afternoons of hunting, and journeying among their various real estate holdings.
Around 1750 Madame de Pompadour's role as friend of the King became her solitary role, as she ceased her sexual relationship with the King. The end of this sexual relationship was in part attributed to Pompadour's poor health, as she suffered the aftereffects of whooping cough, recurring colds and bronchitis, spitting blood, headaches, three miscarriages to the King, as well as an unconfirmed case of leucorrhoea. In addition Pompadour admitted to having “the misfortune to be of a very cold temperament” and attempts to increase her libido with a diet of truffles, celery and vanilla were unsuccessful. Furthermore, in 1750 the Jubilee year placed pressure upon the King to repent of his sins and renounce his mistress. In order to cement her continuing importance as favourite in the face of these impediments, Pompadour took on the role of "friend of the King" which she announced through artistic patronage. Pompadour's announcement was most prominently declared through her commission from Jean Baptiste Pigalle, of a sculpture representing herself as Amitié [friendship], offering herself to a now lost pendant sculpture of Louis XV. Pompadour also had a related sculpture depicted in a portrait of herself painted by François Boucher in 1759.
Despite misconceptions perpetuated by her contemporaries and much of historical discourse, Pompadour did not supplant her role as mistress by employing replacement lovers for the king. Following the cessation of Pompadour's sexual relationship with Louis, the King met with young women in a house in Versailles established particularly for that purpose, called the Parc-aux-Cerfs, or Stag Park. It was not, as often described, a harem; it was occupied by only one woman at a time. Pompadour was not involved, other than to accept it as a necessity. Pompadour's only contribution to the Stag Park was to accept it as a favorable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! All these little girls with no education will not take it from me. I would not be so calm if I saw some pretty woman of the court or the capital trying to conquer it."
Patron and participant in the arts
Madame de Pompadour was an influential patron of the arts who played a central role in making Paris the perceived capital of taste and culture in Europe. She attained this influence through the appointment of her guardian Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem, and later her brother, Abel Poisson in the post of Directeur Général des Bâtiments, which controlled government policy and expenditures for the arts. She championed French pride by constructing and later outright buying a porcelain factory at Sèvres in 1759, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe, and which provided skilled jobs for the region. Numerous sculptors and portrait painters were patronized by Pompadour, among them the court artist Jean-Marc Nattier, in the 1750s François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and François-Hubert Drouais. She patronized Jacques Guay, the gemstone engraver, who taught her to engrave in onyx, jasper and other semi-precious stones.
Pompadour greatly influenced and stimulated innovation in what is known as the "Rococo" style in the fine and decorative arts: for example, through her patronage of the artists like Boucher and the constant refurnishing of the fifteen residences she held with Louis. Like Pompadour, this style was critiqued by some as a pernicious "feminine" influence, despite the fact that it was embraced by many men as well as women (Hyde, 456-458). However it is also widely recognised that Madame de Pompadour engaged with prominent artists as a way to capture the attention of the king whilst cultivating her public image. The oil sketch of Pompadour's lost portrait by Boucher sits in the Starhemberg room at Waddesdon Manor built by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, surrounded by Sèvres porcelain, another industry that she greatly influenced and innovated through personal dissemination across an international network of her own clientele.
In addition to supporting the arts as a patron, Pompadour also participated in them more directly. Besides being one of the few 18th-century practitioners of gem engraving, she was an acclaimed stage actress in plays staged at her private theaters at Versailles and Bellevue (Hyde, 463-4). Melissa Hyde has suggested that some of the artworks made under Pompadour's purview by other hands, notably the 1758 portrait by Boucher of Mme de Pompadour at Her Toilette, can be fruitfully viewed as collaborations with Pompadour.
Madame de Pompadour is considered an amateur printmaker who made print engravings with the help of Boucher. She had engraving equipment, to create the prints of works by Boucher and Guay, brought within her personal apartments in Versailles
Her political mind can also be attributed to her great book collection. She collected influential books such as the History of the Stuarts, printed in 1760 with her own printing press which can be determined through the stamp markings of her arms located on the cover. Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, an avid 19th-century collector in London and Waddesdon Manor, collected a number of her books, including this previously mentioned book and a copy of her published catalogue of books from 1764, which lists her entire collection.
Madame de Pompadour created 52 engraved prints, of drawings by Boucher, after gemstone engravings by Guay. Her collection of work, in book form, is called "Suite d'Estampes Gravées Par Madame la Marquise de Pompadour d'Apres les Pierres Gravées de Guay, Graveur du Roy" which translates to in English as "Series of Prints engraved by Madame la Marquise de Pompadour after the engraved stones of Guay, engraver of the King".
Some art historians argue whether or not she should be considered a collaborator with the artists under her patronage, since there is no documentation of how much Pompadour might have contributed to the works; whose idea, and whose composition, will remain a mystery.
- List of museums and libraries with a copy of her portfolio
- Walters Art Museum, Baltimore
- Met Museum, New York
- British Museum, London
- Boston Museum of Fine Arts
- Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Paris
- Rothschild collection, Louvre
- Bibliothèque de Troyes
Louis XV remained devoted to Pompadour until her death from tuberculosis in 1764 at the age of forty-two. Louis nursed her through her illness. Even her enemies admired her courage during the final painful weeks. Voltaire wrote: "I am very sad at the death of Madame de Pompadour. I was indebted to her and I mourn her out of gratitude. It seems absurd that while an ancient pen-pusher, hardly able to walk, should still be alive, a beautiful woman, in the midst of a splendid career, should die at the age of forty-two." Many of her enemies were, however, greatly relieved. Looking at the rain during the departure of his mistress' coffin from Versailles, the devastated king reportedly said: "La marquise n'aura pas de beau temps pour son voyage." ("The marquise will not have good weather for her journey".) She was buried at the Couvent des Capucines in Paris.
Portrayals in film and television
Madame de Pompadour has been depicted on screen in film and television on many occasions, beginning in 1924 with Paulette Duval opposite Rudolph Valentino in Monsieur Beaucaire. A biopic came out three years later called Madame Pompadour directed by Herbert Wilcox, in which she was played by Dorothy Gish. Other actresses to have played her include:
- Anny Ahlers (Madame Pompadour, 1931)
- Doris Kenyon (Voltaire, 1933)
- Jeanne Boitel (Remontons les Champs-Élysées, 1938)
- Hillary Brooke (Monsieur Beaucaire, 1946)
- Geneviève Page (Fanfan la Tulipe, 1952)
- Micheline Presle (Royal Affairs in Versailles, 1954)
- Monique Lepage (Le Courrier du roy, 1958)
- Elfie Mayerhofer (Madame Pompadour, 1960)
- Noëmi Nadelmann (Madame Pompadour, 1996)
- Katja Flint (Il giovane Casanova, 2002)
- Hélène de Fougerolles (Fanfan la Tulipe, 2003)
- Sophia Myles (as an adult) and Jessica Atkins (as a child) in "The Girl in the Fireplace", an episode of the BBC science fiction series Doctor Who, 2006.
- Hélène de Fougerolles (Jeanne Poisson, marquise de Pompadour, TV 2006)
- Bojana Novakovic (Casanova, 2015) Amazon Prime
In popular culture
- The 56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot, a unit of the British Army that existed from 1755 to 1881, was nicknamed "The Pompadours", as the purple facing of the regiment's uniform was allegedly Pompadour's favourite colour. Some soldiers of the regiment preferred to claim that it was the colour of her underwear. Its successor, the Essex Regiment, kept the colour and the nickname.
- The "coupe de champagne" (French champagne glass) is sometimes claimed to have been modelled on the shape of her breast, although this is probably not the case.
- Madame Pompadour, a German operetta with music by Leo Fall and book and lyrics by Rudolph Schanzer and Ernst Welisch that also had successful adaptations in London (1923) and Broadway where it opened the Martin Beck Theatre in 1924.
- She was the subject of several portraits throughout her lifetime.
- According to legend, the "marquise cut" diamond, also called "navette", was commissioned by Louis XV to resemble the mouth of Madame de Pompadour.
- The Pompadour hairstyle was named after Madame de Pompadour.
- In the second act of Tchaikovsky's opera The Queen of Spades, the role of the Countess recalls the great names of the artists of her past: "and sometimes even the Marquise de Pompadour in person!"
- She is mentioned in the first line of the Johnny Mercer song "Personality" featuring the Pied Pipers.
- She is a prominent character in the Doctor Who episode The Girl in the Fireplace, portrayed by Sophia Myles.
- Eleanor Herman, Sex with Kings: 500 Years of Adultery, Power, Rivalry, and Revenge (New York: Barnes and Noble, 2011), 9 and Gere Charlotte and Marina Vaizey, Great Women Collectors (London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 45.
- Algrant, Christine Pevitt (2002). Madame de Pompadour Mistree of France. New York: Grove Press. pp. 9, 13, 115, 187.
- James A. Moncure, ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–present (4 vol 1992); 4:1646–53
- Hyde, Melissa (2000). "The "Makeup" of the Marquise: Boucher's Portrait of Pompadour at Her Toilette". The Art Bulletin. 82 (3): 453–475. doi:10.2307/3051397. JSTOR 3051397.
- Antoine, Louis XV, Fayard, Paris (1989), pp. 493–95.
- Christine Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour: mistress of France (New York: Grove Press, 2003), 8–9
- Jones Colin, Madame De Pompadour: Images of a Mistress (London: National Gallery, 2002), 60 and Rosamond Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt after Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour: Patronage, Politics, Art, and the French Enlightenment (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011), 62.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 64 and Gere and Vaizey, Great Women Collectors, 46.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 64.
- Nancy Mitford, Madame de Pompadour (Stockholm: HoÌkerberg, 1954), p. 20.
- Thomas Kaiser, "Madame de Pompadour and the Theatres of Power", French Historical Studies 19:4 (1996): 1027.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 66 and 72.
- Jacques Levron, Pompadour (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963), 29.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt,71 and Levron, Pompadour, 29.
- Evelyne Lever, Madame de Pompadour: a Life (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2003), 23 and Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 31.
- Margaret Crosland, Madame de Pompadour: Sex, Culture and the Power Game (Stroud: Sutton, 2002), 44.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 89.
- "Madame de Pompadour" Archived 8 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Château de Versailles official website. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 99–100.
- Elise Goodman, The portraits of Madame de Pompadour: Celebrating the Femme Savante (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 11.
- Amanda Foreman, Nancy Mitford (2001). Madame de Pompadour. p. 213. ISBN 9780940322653.
- Herman, Sex with Kings, 9.
- Évelyne Lever, Catherine Temerson (September 2003). "Chp.16—Patroness of the Arts". Madame de Pompadour: A Life. p. 176. ISBN 9780312310509.
- Jean François, de La Harpe (1817). Lycée, ou Cours de littérature ancienne et moderne: Tome 2. Paris: Et. Ledoux et Tenré. p. 371.
- Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the monarch : studies on discourse, power, and history. [Amsterdam]: Amsterdam University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9789053567678. OCLC 85838955.
- Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 102.
- Posner, Donald (1990). "Mme. de Pompadour as a patron of the visual arts". The Art Bulletin. 72: 74–105 (81). doi:10.2307/3045718. JSTOR 3045718..
- Levron, Pompadour, 119 and Colin, Madame De Pompadour, 60.
- Hooper-Hamersley, “The Hunt”, 121.
- Katherine K. Gordon, "“Madame de Pompadour, Pigalle, and the Iconography of Friendship,”" The Art Bulletin 50:3 (1968): 248.
- "Site officiel du musee du Louvre".
- Mitford, Madame de Pompadour, 190.
- Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 159.
- Posner, "Mme de Pompadour", 74.
- Sarah Coffin, Rococo: The Continuing Curve, 1730–2008 (New York: Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, 2008), 89.
- Younger, Fletcher William (1897). Bookbinding in England and France. Рипол Классик. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-141-52870-7. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Posner, "Mme. de Pompadour", 74–6.
- Hyde, Melissa (September 2000). "The "Makeup" of the Marquise: Boucher's Portrait of Pompadour at Her Toilette". The Art Bulletin. 82 (3): 453–475. doi:10.2307/3051397. JSTOR 3051397.
- Adhemar, Jean (1964). Graphic Art of the 18th Century (2nd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 43, 106, 108, 113.
- Stein, Perrin (10 January 2013). Artist and Amateurs: Etching in 18th-Century France. 1000 Fifth Avenue, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 3, 5, 125, 179. ISBN 978-1-58839-498-9.
- Jacobs, Rachel (2 March 2018). "Beautiful books and bindings". Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- Wager, Susan (2017). "The earliest known version of Madame de Pompadour's d'Estampes' rediscovered". The Burlington Magazine. 159 (1369): 285.
- Stamberg, Susan. "More than a Mistress: Madame de Pompadour was a Minister of the Arts". www.npr.org.
- Gordon, Alden R. (Fall 2003). "Searching for the Elusive Madame de Pompadour". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 37 (1): 91–111. doi:10.1353/ecs.2003.0062.
- Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 225.
- Amanda Foreman, Nancy Mitford (2001). Madame de Pompadour. p. 272. ISBN 9780940322653.
- Ramage, Craufurd Tait (1866). Beautiful Thoughts From French And Italian Authors: With English Translations And Lives Of The Authors. E. Howell. p. 379.
- Pixley, Andrew (6 November 2006). "Episode 4: The Girl in the Fireplace". Doctor Who Magazine – Series Two Companion (Special Edition 14): 44–50.
- Casanova (2015) on IMDb
- Holmes, Richard (2002). Redcoat (paperback). London: HarperCollins. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-00-653152-4.
- Adams, Cecil (27 September 1985). "Were champagne glasses modeled on the breasts of Madame de Pompadour?". Straight Dope. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- Operetta: A Theatrical History. Psychology Press, 2003, pp. 269–80, ISBN 0-415-96641-8
- Bloom, Ken (2004). Broadway: Its History, People, and Places – An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 338. ISBN 9780415937047.
- "Henri Matisse. Madame de Pompadour. Los Angeles County Museum of Art". Collectionsonline.lacma.org. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "History of Marquise Cut Diamonds". Diamond Rocks (London). 14 March 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Madame de Pompadour". Madame de Pompadour. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 309. ISBN 9780313331459.
- "Libretto - Pique Dame - KAREOL".
- Algrant, Christine Pevitt. Madame de Pompadour: Mistress of France (2003) excerpt and text search
- Jones, Colin. Madame de Pompadour: Images of a Mistress (2002), by a leading scholar
- Mitford, Nancy. Madame De Pompadour (1954) excerpt and text search
- Moncure, James A. ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–Present (4 volumes, 1992); 4:1646–53
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