Madan Mohan Malaviya

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Madan Mohan Malaviya
Mahamana Malaviya.jpg
President of the Indian National Congress
In office
Preceded byRash Behari Ghosh
Succeeded byWilliam Wedderburn
In office
Preceded byAnnie Besant
Succeeded bySyed Hasan Imam
In office
Preceded byVallabhbhai Patel
Succeeded byNellie Sengupta
Personal details
Born(1861-12-25)25 December 1861
Allahabad, North-Western Provinces, British India (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
Died12 November 1946(1946-11-12) (aged 84)
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
Political partyCongress Nationalist Party
Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha
Other political
Indian National Congress (formerly)
Spouse(s)Kumari Kundan Devi Malaviya
  • Ramakant Malaviya
  • Malati Malaviya
  • Radhakant Malaviya
  • Mukund Malaviya
  • Rama Malaviya
  • Govind Malaviya
Alma materUniversity of Calcutta (B.A.)
  • Educationist
  • politician
  • journalist
  • lawyer
AwardsBharat Ratna (2015) (posthumous)

Madan Mohan Malaviya (audio speaker iconpronunciation  (25 December 1861 – 12 November 1946) was an Indian scholar, educational reformer and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement, as the three times president of Indian National Congress and the founder of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha. He was respectfully addressed by the title Pandit[1] and also addressed as Mahamana.[2]

Malaviya strived to promote modern education among Indians and eventually co-founded the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, which was created under the B.H.U. Act, 1915. It is the largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world,[3] having over 40,000 students across arts, commerce, sciences, engineering, linguistic, Ritual, medicine, agriculture, performing arts, law and technology from all over the world. He was the vice chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University from 1919 to 1938.[4][5]

Malaviya was one of the founders of the Bharat Scouts and Guides.[6] He also founded a highly influential, English newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909.[7] He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936.[8]

He was posthumously conferred with the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, one day before his 153rd birth anniversary.[9]

Early life and education[edit]

Malaviya was born in Prayagraj, India on 25 December 1861,[10] in a Hindu Brahmin family[11] [12]to Pandit Brijnath and Moona Devi.[13]He was born in a locality known as Lal Diggi (now Malviya Nagar) in a small house of Sawal Das of Saryakund. His grandfather Pandit Premdhar Prasad was the son of Pandit Vishnu Prasad of Malwa and they came to Prayagraj to settle down there, while other members of his family came to a nearby city named Mirzapur of Uttar Pradesh. His great grandfather Vishnu Prasad had five sons - Sadhodhar Prasad, Murlidhar Prasad, Vansidhar Prasad, Baldhar Prasad and Premdhar Prasad. His grandfather Premdhar Prasad had four sons - Lalji , Bacchulalji, Gajadhar Prasad and Brijnath Prasad. His father Pandit Brijnath had six sons and two daughters - Bihari Lal, Manohar Lal, Shayamsundar, Jaykrishna, Madan Mohan, Lakshmi Narayana, Shubhardra and Sukhdaei. Malaviya was the fifth son of his Parents. He was married with Kundan Devi, daughter of Nand Lal Srivastava of Mirzapur at the age of sixteen. They originally hailed from Malwa (Ujjain) in the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh and hence came to be known as 'Malaviya'. His ancestors were highly respected for their learning and knowledge of Hindu scriptures and known for their Sanskrit scholarship. His father was also a learned man in Sanskrit scriptures, and used to recite the Srimad Bhagavatam.[14]

The early education of Malaviya started at the age of five in Mahajani Pathsala later he joined Hardeva's Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala, where he completed his primary education and later another school run by Vidha Vardini Sabha. He then joined Allahabad Zila School (Allahabad District School), where he started writing poems under the pen name Makarand which were published in journals and magazines.

Malaviya matriculated in 1879 from the Muir Central College, now known as the University of Allahabad. Harrison College's Principal provided a monthly scholarship to Malaviya, whose family had been facing financial hardships, and he was able to complete his B.A. at the University of Calcutta.

Although he wanted to pursue an M.A. in Sanskrit, his family conditions did not allow it and his father wanted him to take his family profession of Bhagavat recital, thus in July 1884, Madan Mohan Malaviya started his career as an assistant master at the Government High School in Allahabad.[15]

Political career[edit]

Malaviya with Gandhi.

He started his political career in 1886 with a widely appreciated address to the Indian National Congress session in Calcutta. Malaviya would go on to become one of the most powerful political leaders of his time, managing to be chosen Congress president on four occasions.

In December 1886, Malaviya attended the 2nd Indian National Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji, where he spoke on the issue of representation in Councils. His address not only impressed Dadabhai but also Raja Rampal Singh, ruler of Kalakankar estate near Allahabad, who started a Hindi weekly Hindustan but was looking for a suitable editor to turn it into a daily. Thus in July 1887, he left his school job and joined as the editor of the nationalist weekly, he remained here for two and a half years, and left for Allahabad to join L.L.B., it was here that he was offered co-editorship of The Indian Opinion, an English daily. After finishing his law degree, he started practising law at Allahabad District Court in 1891, and moved to Allahabad High Court by December 1893.[16][17]

Malaviya became the President of the Indian National Congress in 1909 and 1918. He was a moderate leader and opposed the separate electorates for Muslims under the Lucknow Pact of 1916. The "Mahamana" title was conferred to him by Gandhi.[18][19]

To redeem his resolve to serve the cause of education and social-service he renounced his well established practice of law in 1911, for ever. In order to follow the tradition of Sannyasa throughout his life, he pursued the avowed commitment to live on the society's support. But when 177 freedom fighters were convicted to be hanged in the Chauri-chaura case he appeared before the court, despite his vow and got acquitted 156 freedom fighters.[20]

He remained a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 and when in 1919 it was converted to the Central Legislative Assembly he remained its member as well, till 1926.[21] Malaviya was an important figure in the Non-cooperation movement.[22] However, he was opposed to the politics of appeasement and the participation of Congress in the Khilafat movement.

In 1928 he joined Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru and many others in protesting against the Simon Commission, which had been set up by the British to consider India's future. Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on 30 May 1932, a manifesto urging concentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India.[23] Malaviya was a delegate at the Second Round Table Conference in 1931.

However, during the Civil Disobedience Movement, he was arrested on 25 April 1932, along with 450 other Congress volunteers in Delhi, only a few days after he was appointed in 1932 at Delhi as the President of Congress after the arrest of Sarojini Naidu.[24] In 1933, at Calcutta, Malaviya was again appointed as the President of the Congress. Thus before Independence, Malaviya was the only leader of the Indian National Congress who was appointed as its president for four terms.

On 24 September 1932, an agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Dr. Ambedkar (on behalf of the depressed classes among Hindus) and Mahatma Gandhi (on behalf of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general electorate and not by creating a separate electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award proposal of the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. After the pact, the Communal Award was modified to include the terms as per the pacts. The text uses the term "Depressed Classes" to denote Untouchables among Hindus who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950. [25]

In protest against the Communal Award which sought to provide separate electorates for minorities, Malaviya along with Madhav Shrihari Aney left the Congress and started the Congress Nationalist Party. The party contested the 1934 elections to the central legislature and won 12 seats.[26]

Journalistic career[edit]

Malaviya started his journalistic career as the Editor of the Hindi daily Hindostan in 1887. Raja Rampal Singh of Kalakankar (Pratapgadh District) impressed by the speech and personality of Malaviyaji during the 2nd Congress Session in Calcutta held in 1886 requested Malaviya to take up this position.[27][28]

Then in 1889, he became the Editor of the "Indian Opinion". After the incorporation of "Indian Opinion" with the "Advocate" of Lucknow, Malaviya started his own Hindi weekly "Abhyudaya"(1907–1909 under his editorship).[15]

Also, his poems (sawaiyas) were published (sometime in 1883–84) under the pseudonym of 'Makrand' in 'Harischandra Chandrika' magazine (brought out by the famous Bharatendu), articles on religious and contemporary subjects published in 'Hindi Pradeepa'.[27]

When the English Government tried to bring in the Press Act and Newspaper Act in 1908, Malaviyaji started a campaign against the Act and called an All India Conference in Allahabad. He then realized the need of an English Newspaper to make the campaign effective throughout the country. As a result, with the help of Motilal Nehru he started an English daily the "Leader" in 1909, where he was Editor 1909–1911 and President 1911–1919.[27]

In 1910, Malaviyaji started the Hindi paper 'Maryada'.[27]

In 1924, Malaviya along with the help of national leaders Lala Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrialist Ghanshyam Das Birla, acquired The Hindustan Times and saved it from an untimely demise.[29] Malaviya raised Rs. 50,000 rupees to acquire the Hindustan Times and industrialist Ghanshyam Das Birla paid most of the cash. Malaviya was the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition 'Hindustan' in 1936. The paper is now owned by the Birla family.

In 1933, Malaviya started Sanatana Dharma from BHU, a magazine dedicated to religious, dharmic interests.[27]

Legal career[edit]

In 1891, Malaviya completed his LL.B. from Allahabad University and started practice in Allahabad District Court and then from 1893 practised at the High Court. He soon earned huge respect as one of the most brilliant lawyers of the Allahabad High Court. He gave up his legal practice when he was at his pinnacle in 1911 on his 50th birthday so that he could serve the nation thereafter.

About his legal career, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru mentions of him – ...a brilliant Civil Lawyer and Sir Mirza Ismail said – I have heard a great lawyer say that if Mr.Malaviya had so willed it, he would have been an ornament to the legal profession.[30]

Malaviya only once again donned his lawyers robe in 1924, following the Chauri Chaura incident in which a police station was attacked and arsoned in February 1922, as a result of which Mahatma Gandhi called off the then launched Non Cooperation movement. The sessions court had sent to gallows 170 persons for the attack. However, Malaviya defended them in the Allahabad High Court and was able to get 155 persons saved from the gallows. The remaining 15 also were recommended for clemency by the High Court, whereafter their sentences were also commuted from death to life-imprisonment.[31][citation needed]

Banaras Hindu University[edit]

In April 1911, Annie Besant met Malaviya and they decided to work for a common Hindu University in Varanasi. Besant and fellow trustees of the Central Hindu College, which she had founded in 1898, also agreed to Government of India's precondition that the college should become a part of the new university. Thus Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was established in 1916, through a Parliamentary legislation, the 'B.H.U. Act 1915', and today it remains a prominent institution of learning in India.[4][32] In 1939, he left the Vice-Chancellorship of BHU and was succeeded by S. Radhakrishnan, who later became the President of India.[33]

Spread over 16.5 km2 (6.4 sq mi) and a student population of about 30000, BHU is the largest residential university in Asia.

His son Pandit Govind Malaviya served as the Vice-Chancellor of BHU from 1948 to 1951. His grandson Justice Giridhar Malaviya is currently the Chancellor of BHU since 2018.

Social Service[edit]

Malaviya founded Ganga Mahasabha to oppose the damming of Ganges. He compelled the British government to sign an agreement with Ganga Mahasabha and other Hindu religious leaders on uninterrupted flow of Ganges in Haridwar and protect Ganges for future obstructions. This agreement is known as Aviral Ganga Raksha Samjhuata 1916 also known as Agreement of 1916. Malaviya played an important part in the removal of untouchability and in giving direction to the Harijan movement. The Harijan Sevak Sangh was founded at a meeting in 1933 at which Pandit Malaviya presided.[15]

Malaviya asserted – if you admit internal purity of human soul, you or your religion can never get impure or defiled in any way by touch or association with any man.[34]

To solve the problem of untouchability, Malaviya followed a Hindu method, of giving Mantradīkshā to untouchables. He said, "Mantras would be a certain means of their upliftment socially, politically and spiritually."[34]

He worked for the eradication of caste barriers in temples and other social barriers. Malaviya made massive efforts to ensure the entry of so-called untouchables into any Hindu temple. In March 1936, Hindu Dalit (Harijan) leader P. N. Rajbhoj along with a group of 200 Dalit people demanded entry at the Kalaram Temple on a Rath Yatra day.[35] Malaviya in the presence of priests of Kalaram Temple, gave diksha to the assembled people and gave them entry into the temple.[35] Then these Dalit members also participated in the Rath Yatra of Kalaram Temple.[35]

He established Bharti Bhawan Library on 15 December 1889 with his friend Lala Brajmohan Jee Bhalla in Allahabad. In 1901 Malaviya established a boys' hostel named Hindu Hostel (Hindu Boarding House) in Allahabad.[30]


Though, scouting was formed in India is by the founder to scouting Robert Baden Powell as BRITISH BOYS SCOUTS, but in this only British, European, Anglo Indian students were enrolled. The scouting for native Indians was started by Justice Vivian Bose, after independence in 1947. The English left India, so few officials from Hindustan Scouts and Guides were hired by Government of India during Nehru's reign to continue the functioning of British Boys Scouts. This termed as Bharat Scouts and Guide. Scouting in India was officially founded in independent India as an NGO in the year 1959 as restructuring British Boys founded in British India.

With the information through Newspaper on tendering resignation of Indian Railways Officer Sri Ram Vajpei on racial discrimination despite qualified in scouting with its Highest Degree LT, in England, the then President of Indian National Congrress Sh Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya got informed about Scouting and so with the support of other members, Hridayanath Kunzru, Girija Shankar Bajpai, Annie Besant and George Arundale, Malaviya ji started Scouting education for the Indian Students, In 1913, scouting organisation called All India Seva Samiti. under Sewa Bharti unit of similar activity by Youth Group.. Initially, English regime refuse to give recognition to Indian Students for Scouting education. Mr Beden Pawel on his visit in India saw the ability of Indian Scouts students and then himself advocated to viceroy to recognize Indian Scouting as curricular education in school.

Malaviya then called to get clubbed all small Indian of Scouting functioning in India at state level and so in the year 1928 all came under the new name of HINDUSTAN SCOUTS ASSOCIATION. After a while, Dr. Annie Besant running a Guide association in India also joined his unit with Hindustan Scouts and Guides.

Malaviya is remembered in scouting education by his contribution of MAMOMA short code secret language in scouting education and is now widely used all over the world. "MAMOMA" is short form taken from the first two initials of the three words of his name MAdan MOhan MAlaviya.[36]


Malaviya on a 2011 stamp of India

The slogan "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) is also a legacy given to the nation by Pandit Malaviya as the President of the Indian National Congress in its session of 1918 at Delhi, by saying that this slogan from the Mundakopanishad should be the slogan for the nation.[37]

He started the tradition of Aarti at Har ki Pauri Haridwar to the sacred Ganga river which is performed till date. The Malaviya Dwipa, a small island across the ghat, is named after him and carries his bust. The Indian Post issued stamps in his honour in 1961 and 2011 to celebrate his 100th and 150th birth anniversaries, respectively.

Malaviya Nagar in Allahabad, Lucknow, Delhi, Dehradun, Bhopal, Durg and Jaipur are named after him. A square in main city at Jabalpur is named after him and is called Malaviya Chowk. Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) at Jaipur is named after him, as is Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology in Gorakhpur, UP. The Hostels of IIT Kharagpur, IIT Roorkee Saharanpur Campus and BITS Pilani, Pilani and Hyderabad campuses are also named Malaviya Bhawan after him. In memory of him, Shrigoud Vidya Mandir, Indore celebrates his birth anniversary as Mahamana Divas on every 25 December. They have also declared a fellowship programme for poor Sanatan Vipra boys on this day.

Narendra Modi pays tribute to Madan Mohan Malaviya, on his birth anniversary in 2014

Mahamana's life size portrait was unveiled in the Central Hall of India's Parliament by the then President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad, and his life-size statue was unveiled in 1961 by the then President of India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in front of the BHU main gate on the occasion of his birth centenary. In front of the main Gate leading to the Assembly Hall and outside the porch, there exists a bust of Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya, which was inaugurated by the former Lt. Governor of Delhi, Dr. A.N. Jha on 25 December 1971.[21]

On 25 December 2008, on his birth anniversary, the national memorial of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya, "Malaviya Smriti Bhawan" was inaugurated by the then President of India A P J Abdul Kalam at 53, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, in Delhi.[38]

2011 was celebrated as his 150th birth centenary by the Government of India under the Chairmanship of India's prime minister Dr Manmohan Singh, who announced the establishment of a Centre for Malaviya Studies at the Banaras Hindu University in addition to scholarships and education related awards in his memory, and UPA chairperson Sonia Gandhi released a biography of Madan Mohan Malaviya.

On 24 December 2014, Madan Mohan Malaviya was honored with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.[9]

Mahamana Express train (plying between Delhi and Varansi) has been flagged off by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on 22 January 2016. The train is named after Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and is equipped with modern facilities such as bio-toilets in every coach and air-conditioned compartments.


  • He Created a Non Governmental organization named ShriMathura Vrindavan Hasanand Gochar Bhoomi in Vrindavan for Welfare of Cows.
  • A criticism of Montagu-Chelmsford proposals of Indian constitutional reform. Printed by C. Y. Chintamani, 1918.
  • Speeches and writings of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Publisher G.A. Natesan, 1919.


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  3. ^ Singh, Binay (13 March 2009). "BHU set to realise future goals". The Times of India. VARANASI. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
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  6. ^ Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders). Children's Book Trust. 1989. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-7011-842-8.
  7. ^ "C. Y. Chintamani (10 April 1880 – 1 July, 1941)". The Tribune. 7 May 2000.
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  9. ^ a b "Press Information Bureau English Releases". 24 December 2014.
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  12. ^ Daniyal, Shoaib. "Madan Mohan Malviya: how a four-time Congress president became a BJP icon". Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  13. ^ "Madan Mohan Malaviya". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  14. ^ Rao, P. Rajeswar (1991). The Great Indian patriots, Volume 1. Mittal Publications. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-81-7099-280-6.
  15. ^ a b c "MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA". Indian Post. 25 December 1961.
  16. ^ Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders): Madan Mohan Malaviya. Children's Book Trust. 1989. pp. 53–73. ISBN 978-81-7011-842-8.
  17. ^ "MsnSpecials". Archived from the original on 21 August 2006.
  18. ^ Shekhar, Shashi (25 December 2017). "'Mahamana': A forgotten visionary". Livemint. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Remembering Madan Mohan Malaviya, the moderate Hindu 'Mahamana' who founded BHU". ThePrint. 25 December 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  20. ^ "RSS Resolution 2: 150th Birth Anniversary of Mhamana Malviya ji". Vishwa Samvada Kendra. 31 October 2010.
  21. ^ a b "Old Secetariat:Important Members of Imperial Legislative Council". Legislative Assembly of Delhi website.
  22. ^ "Gandhi is Urged to Delay Break". New York Times. 11 February 1922.
  23. ^ ""Buy Indian" Move Gains". The New York Times. 30 May 1932.
  24. ^ "450 Seized at Delhi for Defiance of Ban on Indian Congress". New York Times. 25 April 1932.
  25. ^ Sharma, B.K. (2007). Introduction to the Constitution of India. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Limited. ISBN 978-81-203-3246-1.
  26. ^ "-- Schwartzberg Atlas – Digital South Asia Library".
  27. ^ a b c d e "Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya – Biography". Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  28. ^ "20 Things We Must Know About Madan Mohan Malaviya". TopYaps. 2 January 2015.
  29. ^ TJS George, Lessons in Journalism, 2007, Viva Books, New Delhi.
  30. ^ a b "PANDIT MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA. The Man, The Spirit, The Vision". Banaras Hindu University. Copy
  31. ^ No authentic source found
  32. ^ "Banaras hindu university" (PDF). Indian Academy of Sciences. 26 July 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  33. ^ Murty, K. Satchidananda; Ashok Vohra (1990). Radhakrishnan: his life and ideas. SUNY Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7914-0343-3.
  34. ^ a b Chaube, Deo Brat. "Contributions of Mahamana Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya to Indian Religion and Society". Indo-Hellenic Society for Culture and Development. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014.
  35. ^ a b c Krishan, Shri (1 May 2005). Political Mobilization and Identity in Western India, 1934–47. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-3342-7.
  36. ^ "Honouring the oath: The beginning". The Hindu. 17 August 2007. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007.
  37. ^ "India's Freedom Struggle: Madan Mohan Malaviya" (PDF). Kamat's Potpourri. 22 December 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  38. ^ "Former President Kalam inaugurates BHU founder's memorial". The Indian Express. 26 December 2008.


  • Malaviyaji, a brief life sketch of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, by B. J. Akkad. Pub. Vora, 1948.
  • Malaviyana: a bibliography of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya by Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Library. Ed. Prithvi Nath Kaula. 1962.
  • Role of Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya in our national life, by Chandra Prakash Jha. Modern Publications, 1977.
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya: a socio-political study, by Sundar Lal Gupta. Pub. Chugh Publications, 1978.
  • Mahāmanā Madan Mohan Malaviya: An Historical Biography, by Parmanand. Malaviya Adhyayan Sansthan, Banaras Hindu University, 1985.
  • Struggle for Independence: Madan Mohan Malaviya by Shri Ram Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1989. ISBN 81-7041-142-4.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya: the man and his ideology, by S. R. Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1991. ISBN 81-7041-429-6.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya, by Sitaram Chaturvedi. Publ. Division, Ministry of I & B, Govt. of India, 1996. ISBN 81-230-0486-9.
  • Visionary of Modern India- Madan Mohan Malaviya, by S K Maini, K Chandramouli and Vishwanath Pandey. Mahamana MalaviyaJi Trust. 2009.
  • "The Making of Malaviya " by Prof Rakesh Pandey,2010,Kishore Vidya Niketan,ISBN 81-86101-61-6
  • "Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya" Commemorative Volume (Celebrating 150th Birth Anniversary), Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India, Editor- Dr. Vishwanath Pandey (BHU), 2012, available from the Publication Cell, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
  • "Vyaktitva, Krititwa Evam Vichar-Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya", Editor- Dr. Vishwanath Pandey (BHU), 2011, available from the Publication Cell, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
  • "Mahamana Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya" The Noble Edifice of Indian Freedom, Editor-Dr. Vishwanath Pandey (BHU) 2013, available from the Publication Cell, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
  • "Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya" and the Formative Years of Indian Nationalism by Dr. Vishwanath Pandey foreword by Prof. Mushirul Hasan, 2015, published by LG Publishers Distributors, Delhi-110091.
  • " Madan Mohan Malaviya and the Indian Freedom Movement" by Prof. Jagannath Prasad Misra, 2016, Oxford University Press, India.

External links[edit]