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|Peshwa of the Maratha Empire|
1774 – 27 October 1795
|Succeeded by||Baji Rao II|
|Born||18 April 1774|
|Died||27 October 1795 (aged 21)|
Shaniwar Wada, Pune, Maratha Empire
Peshwa Madhav Rao II (18 April 1774 – 27 October 1795) (a.k.a. Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa or Madhav Rao II Narayan) was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Sawai Madhav Rao or Madhav Rao Narayan. He was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa, murdered in 1773 on the orders of Raghunathrao. Madhavrao was considered the legal heir, and was installed as Peshwa by the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
Madhavrao was the Posthumous son of Peshwa Narayanrao by his wife, Gangabai. After Narayanrao's murder, Raghunathrao became Peshwa but was soon deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Maratha Empire. They instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Madhavrao II, as the Peshwa with the courtiers, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents. Madhavrao was made Peshawa when he was barely 40 days old. His time in power was dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis. After the British loss in 1782 in the First Anglo-Maratha War, Mahadji Shinde got Madhvrao recognized as Peshwa by the British. However, all powers of the peshwa were in the hands of ministers like Nana Fadnavis, Mahadaji Shinde and others. In,1788 when Ghulam Qadir attacked Delhi, Mahadaji Shinde led the army of marathas to Delhi and saved the mughal emperor and his family. In 1790, the Marathas won over rajput states in the Battle of Patan. After the death of Mahadaji Shinde In 1794, the Maratha power got concentrated in the hands of Nana Fadnavis. 
Madhavrao was fond of the out-doors and had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and rhinoceros. The area where he hunted became later the Peshwe park zoo in Pune. He was particularly fond of his herd of trained dancing deer.
Madhavrao committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of the Shaniwar Wada in Pune..The cause of the suicide probably was that he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the wishes of Nana for the first time 
- Thorpe, S.T.E. The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education. p. 96. ISBN 9788131721339. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Dikshit, M. G. (1946). "EARLY LIFE OF PESHWA SAVAI MADHAVRAO (II)". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 7 (1/4): 225–248. JSTOR 42929386.
- Parasanisa, Dattatraya Balavanta (1921). Poona in Bygone Days. Bombay: Times Press.
- Marathas (Peshwas)
- Kotani, H., 2005. The Death of Ghasiram Kotwal: Power and Justice in the Maratha Kingdom. Minamiajiakenkyu, 2004(16), pp.1-16.
- Jayapalan, N. (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Limited. p. 79. ISBN 9788171569281. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
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