Madison County, Illinois

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Madison County, Illinois
Madison County Courthouse, Edwardsville.jpg
Madison County Courthouse, Edwardsville
Map of Illinois highlighting Madison County
Location in the U.S. state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
FoundedSeptember 14, 1812
Named forJames Madison
SeatEdwardsville
Largest cityGranite City
Area
 • Total741 sq mi (1,919 km2)
 • Land716 sq mi (1,854 km2)
 • Water25 sq mi (65 km2), 3.4%
Population (est.)
 • (2015)266,209
 • Density376/sq mi (145/km2)
Congressional districts12th, 13th, 15th
Time zoneCentral: UTC−6/−5
Websitewww.co.madison.il.us

Madison County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 269,282.[1] The county seat is Edwardsville,[2] and its largest city is Granite City.

Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The pre-Columbian city of Cahokia Mounds a World Heritage Site was located near Collinsville. Edwardsville is home to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. To the north, Alton is known for its abolitionist and American Civil War-era history. It is also the home of Southern Illinois University Dental School. Godfrey, the village named for Captain Benjamin Godfrey, offers Lewis and Clark Community College formerly the Monticello Female Seminary.

History[edit]

Madison County was established on September 14, 1812. It was formed from parts of Randolph and St. Clair counties and named for President James Madison.[3] At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of Wisconsin, part of Minnesota, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial region, and in the 20th century was known first for Graniteware, and later for its steel mills, oil refineries, and other heavy industries. The county had a large working population, and the county and surrounding area was a center of strength for the Democratic Party.

Industrial restructuring cost many jobs and reduced the population. The county now is part of semi-rural, sparsely populated east of the St. Louis metropolitan area (nicknamed "Metro East"), as is neighboring St. Clair County.

In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles (1,920 km2), of which 716 square miles (1,850 km2) is land and 25 square miles (65 km2) (3.4%) is water.[4] Madison County is on the Mississippi River, while the other major body of water is Horseshoe Lake.

Climate and weather[edit]

Edwardsville, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2
 
 
36
19
 
 
2.3
 
 
42
24
 
 
3.5
 
 
52
34
 
 
4.2
 
 
64
45
 
 
4.2
 
 
75
55
 
 
3.2
 
 
84
64
 
 
3.5
 
 
90
70
 
 
3.2
 
 
86
66
 
 
3.1
 
 
79
58
 
 
2.7
 
 
68
46
 
 
3.8
 
 
53
35
 
 
2.9
 
 
41
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[5]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 90 °F (32 °C) in July, although a record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 114 °F (46 °C) was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) in January to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in May.[5] Climate Zone 4A per the International Energy Conservation Code.

Adjacent counties and city[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Madison County Transit serves the county with 25 bus routes and 85 miles (137 km) of bike trails.

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
182013,550
18306,221−54.1%
184014,433132.0%
185020,44141.6%
186031,25152.9%
187044,13141.2%
188050,12613.6%
189051,5352.8%
190064,69425.5%
191089,84738.9%
1920106,89519.0%
1930143,83034.6%
1940149,3493.8%
1950182,30722.1%
1960224,68923.2%
1970250,93411.7%
1980247,691−1.3%
1990249,2380.6%
2000258,9413.9%
2010269,2824.0%
Est. 2017265,428[6]−1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 269,282 people, 108,094 households, and 71,756 families residing in the county.[11] The population density was 376.3 inhabitants per square mile (145.3/km2). There were 117,106 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile (63.2/km2).[4] The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 7.9% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population.[11] In terms of ancestry, 32.7% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 10.5% were English, 7.5% were American, and 5.7% were Italian.[12]

Of the 108,094 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, and 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 38.6 years.[11]

The median income for a household in the county was $51,941 and the median income for a family was $64,630. Males had a median income of $50,355 versus $35,543 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,127. About 9.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.[13]

Communities[edit]

Map of Madison County, Illinois

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships:

Politics[edit]

Like much of southern Illinois, Madison County was a predominantly Democratic area for much of its history, but in recent elections has been moving towards the Republicans. Mitt Romney narrowly carried the county in the 2012 presidential election, becoming the first Republican presidential nominee to do so since 1984. In 2016, Donald Trump carried the largest share of the vote for any presidential candidate since 1972. The county also supported the Republican candidates for governor in 2010 and 2014.

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[14]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 54.2% 70,490 38.9% 50,587 7.0% 9,102
2012 49.3% 60,608 48.0% 58,922 2.7% 3,355
2008 44.4% 57,177 53.6% 68,979 2.0% 2,534
2004 48.0% 59,384 51.3% 63,399 0.7% 895
2000 43.9% 48,821 53.2% 59,077 2.9% 3,206
1996 35.6% 35,758 53.3% 53,568 11.2% 11,247
1992 28.2% 32,167 51.3% 58,484 20.6% 23,444
1988 45.0% 44,907 54.3% 54,175 0.6% 613
1984 53.9% 57,021 45.7% 48,352 0.3% 340
1980 51.1% 51,160 43.8% 43,860 5.1% 5,104
1976 43.3% 44,183 55.4% 56,457 1.3% 1,358
1972 55.9% 55,385 43.7% 43,289 0.5% 442
1968 39.2% 39,622 45.9% 46,384 15.0% 15,123
1964 31.6% 30,009 68.5% 65,115
1960 43.9% 42,984 56.0% 54,787 0.1% 133
1956 45.1% 39,413 54.8% 47,897 0.1% 88
1952 41.6% 36,206 58.3% 50,734 0.1% 99
1948 37.8% 25,059 61.7% 40,897 0.5% 350
1944 41.2% 28,399 58.2% 40,114 0.5% 359
1940 40.1% 30,445 59.0% 44,803 0.9% 681
1936 33.6% 22,073 64.2% 42,172 2.2% 1,441
1932 34.6% 19,774 61.5% 35,211 3.9% 2,253
1928 53.5% 28,028 45.1% 23,658 1.4% 720
1924 47.6% 19,926 30.7% 12,863 21.7% 9,062
1920 57.8% 19,249 30.5% 10,149 11.7% 3,894
1916 49.8% 17,594 46.2% 16,302 4.0% 1,421
1912 30.6% 5,462 40.0% 7,155 29.4% 5,251
1908 51.1% 9,463 42.2% 7,812 6.6% 1,228
1904 57.1% 9,009 34.4% 5,429 8.5% 1,333
1900 53.4% 8,106 44.5% 6,753 2.2% 331
1896 53.3% 7,431 45.5% 6,344 1.3% 177
1892 45.9% 5,355 48.7% 5,680 5.4% 634

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ Adams, James N. (compiler) (1989), Keller, William E., ed., Illinois Place Names, Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, p. 593, ISBN 0-912226-24-2
  4. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
  5. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Edwardsville, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  6. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Archived from the original on May 29, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  9. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  11. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
  12. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
  13. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
  14. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°50′N 89°55′W / 38.83°N 89.91°W / 38.83; -89.91