Madison County, Illinois

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Madison County
Madison County Courthouse in Edwardsville
Madison County Courthouse in Edwardsville
Map of Illinois highlighting Madison County
Location within the U.S. state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 38°50′N 89°55′W / 38.83°N 89.91°W / 38.83; -89.91
Country United States
State Illinois
FoundedSeptember 14, 1812
Named forJames Madison
SeatEdwardsville
Largest cityGranite City
Area
 • Total741 sq mi (1,920 km2)
 • Land716 sq mi (1,850 km2)
 • Water25 sq mi (60 km2)  3.4%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total264,776
 • Estimate 
(2019)
262,966
 • Density360/sq mi (140/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts12th, 13th, 15th
Websitewww.madisoncountyil.gov

Madison County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is a part of the Metro East in southern Illinois. According to the 2020 census, it had a population of 264,776.[1] The county seat is Edwardsville, and the largest city is Granite City.[2]

Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The pre-Columbian city of Cahokia Mounds, a World Heritage Site, was located near Collinsville. Edwardsville is home to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. To the north, Alton is known for its abolitionist and American Civil War-era history. It is also the home of the Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine. Godfrey, the village named for Captain Benjamin Godfrey, offers Lewis and Clark Community College formerly the Monticello Female Seminary.

History[edit]

Madison County was established on September 14, 1812. It was formed from parts of Randolph and St. Clair counties and named for President James Madison.[3] At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of Wisconsin, part of Minnesota, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial region, and in the 20th century was known first for Graniteware, and later for its steel mills, oil refineries, and other heavy industries. The county had a large working population, and the county and surrounding area was a center of strength for the Democratic Party.

Industrial restructuring cost many jobs and reduced the population. The county now is part of the eastern St. Louis metropolitan area (nicknamed "Metro East"), as is neighboring St. Clair County.

In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles (1,920 km2), of which 716 square miles (1,850 km2) is land and 25 square miles (65 km2) (3.4%) is water.[4] Madison County is on the Mississippi River, while the other major body of water is Horseshoe Lake.

Climate and weather[edit]

Edwardsville, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
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2
 
 
36
19
 
 
2.3
 
 
42
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3.5
 
 
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4.2
 
 
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4.2
 
 
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55
 
 
3.2
 
 
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3.5
 
 
90
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3.2
 
 
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3.1
 
 
79
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2.7
 
 
68
46
 
 
3.8
 
 
53
35
 
 
2.9
 
 
41
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[5]
Metric conversion
J
F
M
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51
 
 
2
−7
 
 
58
 
 
6
−4
 
 
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29
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89
 
 
32
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30
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26
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69
 
 
20
8
 
 
95
 
 
12
2
 
 
74
 
 
5
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 90 °F (32 °C) in July, although a record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 114 °F (46 °C) was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) in January to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in May.[5] Climate Zone 4A per the International Energy Conservation Code.

Adjacent counties and city[edit]

Parks and Reserves[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Madison County Transit serves the county with 25 bus routes and 85 miles (137 km) of bike trails.

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
182013,550
18306,221−54.1%
184014,433132.0%
185020,44141.6%
186031,25152.9%
187044,13141.2%
188050,12613.6%
189051,5352.8%
190064,69425.5%
191089,84738.9%
1920106,89519.0%
1930143,83034.6%
1940149,3493.8%
1950182,30722.1%
1960224,68923.2%
1970250,93411.7%
1980247,691−1.3%
1990249,2380.6%
2000258,9413.9%
2010269,2824.0%
2020265,859−1.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2019[10]

According to the 2020 census, the racial makeup of the county was 81.4% white (80.4% white non-hispanic), 9.4% black or African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 6.3% two or more races, and 1.5% some other race. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population.[11]

According to the 2010 census, there were 269,282 people, 108,094 households, and 71,756 families residing in the county.[12] The population density was 376.3 inhabitants per square mile (145.3/km2). There were 117,106 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile (63.2/km2).[4] The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 7.9% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population.[12] In terms of ancestry, 32.7% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 10.5% were English, 7.5% were American, and 5.7% were Italian.[13]

Of the 108,094 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, and 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 38.6 years.[12]

The median income for a household in the county was $51,941 and the median income for a family was $64,630. Males had a median income of $50,355 versus $35,543 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,127. About 9.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.[14]

Communities[edit]

Map of Madison County, Illinois

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Census Designated Places[edit]

Other unincorporated and historic communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships:

Islands[edit]

Historic Settlements[edit]

Population ranking[edit]

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2020 census of Madison County.

county seat

Rank Place Municipal type Population (2020 Census)
1 Granite City City 27,549
2 Edwardsville City 26,808
3 Alton City 25,676
4 Collinsville (partially in St. Clair County) City 24,366
5 Godfrey Village 17,825
6 Glen Carbon Village 13,842
7 Troy City 10,960
8 Wood River Village 10,464
9 Highland City 9,991
10 Bethalto Village 9,310
11 Maryville Village 8,221
12 Pontoon Beach Village 5,876
13 East Alton Village 5,786
14 Rosewood Heights CDP 3,971
15 Madison (partially in St. Clair County) City 3,171
16 Holiday Shores CDP 2,840
17 Fairmont City (partially in St. Clair County) City 2,265
18 South Roxana Village 1,891
19 Venice City 1,498
20 Roxana Village 1,454
21 St. Jacob Village 1,358
22 Mitchell CDP 1,217
23 Hartford Village 1,185
24 Worden Village 1,096
25 Hamel Village 929
26 Marine Village 912
27 Livingston Village 763
28 Alhambra Village 622
29 Pierron Village 459
30 Moro CDP 397
31 New Douglas Village 350
32 Grantfork Village 341
33 Williamson Village 183

Politics[edit]

Like much of southern Illinois, Madison County was a predominantly Democratic area for much of its history, but in recent elections has been moving towards the Republicans. Mitt Romney narrowly carried the county in the 2012 presidential election, becoming the first Republican presidential nominee to do so since 1984. In 2016, Donald Trump carried the largest share of the vote for any Republican presidential candidate since 1972. The county also supported the Republican candidates for governor in 2010, 2014, and 2018.

United States presidential election results for Madison County, Illinois[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 76,031 55.44% 57,836 42.17% 3,272 2.39%
2016 70,490 54.15% 50,587 38.86% 9,102 6.99%
2012 60,608 49.32% 58,922 47.95% 3,355 2.73%
2008 57,177 44.43% 68,979 53.60% 2,534 1.97%
2004 59,384 48.02% 63,399 51.26% 895 0.72%
2000 48,821 43.94% 59,077 53.17% 3,206 2.89%
1996 35,758 35.55% 53,568 53.26% 11,247 11.18%
1992 32,167 28.19% 58,484 51.26% 23,444 20.55%
1988 44,907 45.04% 54,175 54.34% 613 0.61%
1984 57,021 53.94% 48,352 45.74% 340 0.32%
1980 51,160 51.10% 43,860 43.81% 5,104 5.10%
1976 44,183 43.32% 56,457 55.35% 1,358 1.33%
1972 55,385 55.88% 43,289 43.68% 442 0.45%
1968 39,622 39.18% 46,384 45.87% 15,123 14.95%
1964 30,009 31.55% 65,115 68.45% 0 0.00%
1960 42,984 43.90% 54,787 55.96% 133 0.14%
1956 39,413 45.10% 47,897 54.80% 88 0.10%
1952 36,206 41.60% 50,734 58.29% 99 0.11%
1948 25,059 37.79% 40,897 61.68% 350 0.53%
1944 28,399 41.23% 40,114 58.24% 359 0.52%
1940 30,445 40.10% 44,803 59.01% 681 0.90%
1936 22,073 33.60% 42,172 64.20% 1,441 2.19%
1932 19,774 34.55% 35,211 61.52% 2,253 3.94%
1928 28,028 53.48% 23,658 45.14% 720 1.37%
1924 19,926 47.61% 12,863 30.74% 9,062 21.65%
1920 19,249 57.82% 10,149 30.48% 3,894 11.70%
1916 17,594 49.82% 16,302 46.16% 1,421 4.02%
1912 5,462 30.57% 7,155 40.04% 5,251 29.39%
1908 9,463 51.14% 7,812 42.22% 1,228 6.64%
1904 9,009 57.12% 5,429 34.42% 1,333 8.45%
1900 8,106 53.36% 6,753 44.46% 331 2.18%
1896 7,431 53.26% 6,344 45.47% 177 1.27%
1892 5,355 45.89% 5,680 48.68% 634 5.43%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Adams, James N. (compiler) (1989), Keller, William E. (ed.), Illinois Place Names, Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, pp. 593, ISBN 0-912226-24-2
  4. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Edwardsville, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  10. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  11. ^ "Madison County, Illinois". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  12. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  13. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  14. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°50′N 89°55′W / 38.83°N 89.91°W / 38.83; -89.91