Madison County, Illinois

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Madison County, Illinois
Map of Illinois highlighting Madison County
Location in the state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded September 14, 1812
Named for James Madison
Seat Edwardsville
Largest city Granite City
Area
 • Total 741 sq mi (1,919 km2)
 • Land 716 sq mi (1,854 km2)
 • Water 25 sq mi (65 km2), 3.4%
Population
 • (2014) 266,560
 • Density 376/sq mi (145/km²)
Congressional districts 12th, 13th, 15th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5

Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 269,282.[1] The county seat is Edwardsville,[2] and its largest city is Granite City.

Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The pre-Columbian city of Cahokia Mounds a World Heritage Site was located near Collinsville. Edwardsville is home to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. To the north, Alton is known for its abolitionist and American Civil War-era history. It is also the home of Southern Illinois University Dental School.

History[edit]

Madison County was established on September 14, 1812. It was formed from parts of Randolph and St. Clair counties and named for President James Madison.[3] At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of Wisconsin, part of Minnesota, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial region, and in the 20th century was known first for Graniteware, and later for its steel mills, oil refineries, and other heavy industries. The county had a large working population, and the county and surrounding area was a center of strength for the Democratic Party.

Industrial restructuring cost many jobs and reduced the population. The county now is part of semi-rural, sparsely populated east of the St. Louis metropolitan area (nicknamed "Metro East"), as is neighboring St. Clair County.

In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles (1,920 km2), of which 716 square miles (1,850 km2) is land and 25 square miles (65 km2) (3.4%) is water.[4] Madison County is on the Mississippi River, while the other major body of water is Horseshoe Lake.

Climate and weather[edit]

Edwardsville, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
2
 
 
36
19
 
 
2.3
 
 
42
24
 
 
3.5
 
 
52
34
 
 
4.2
 
 
64
45
 
 
4.2
 
 
75
55
 
 
3.2
 
 
84
64
 
 
3.5
 
 
90
70
 
 
3.2
 
 
86
66
 
 
3.1
 
 
79
58
 
 
2.7
 
 
68
46
 
 
3.8
 
 
53
35
 
 
2.9
 
 
41
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[5]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 90 °F (32 °C) in July, although a record low of −16 °F (−27 °C) was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 114 °F (46 °C) was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) in January to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in May.[5]

Adjacent counties and city[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Madison County Transit serves the county with 25 bus routes and 85 miles (137 km) of bike trails.

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 13,550
1830 6,221 −54.1%
1840 14,433 132.0%
1850 20,441 41.6%
1860 31,251 52.9%
1870 44,131 41.2%
1880 50,126 13.6%
1890 51,535 2.8%
1900 64,694 25.5%
1910 89,847 38.9%
1920 106,895 19.0%
1930 143,830 34.6%
1940 149,349 3.8%
1950 182,307 22.1%
1960 224,689 23.2%
1970 250,934 11.7%
1980 247,691 −1.3%
1990 249,238 0.6%
2000 258,941 3.9%
2010 269,282 4.0%
Est. 2014 266,560 −1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 269,282 people, 108,094 households, and 71,756 families residing in the county.[10] The population density was 376.3 inhabitants per square mile (145.3/km2). There were 117,106 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile (63.2/km2).[4] The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 7.9% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population.[10] In terms of ancestry, 32.7% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 10.5% were English, 7.5% were American, and 5.7% were Italian.[11]

Of the 108,094 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, and 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 38.6 years.[10]

The median income for a household in the county was $51,941 and the median income for a family was $64,630. Males had a median income of $50,355 versus $35,543 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,127. About 9.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.[12]

Communities[edit]

Map of Madison County, Illinois

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Adams, James N. (compiler) (1989), Keller, William E., ed., Illinois Place Names, Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, p. 593, ISBN 0-912226-24-2 
  4. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 
  5. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Edwardsville, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 
  11. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 
  12. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°50′N 89°55′W / 38.83°N 89.91°W / 38.83; -89.91