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Location of Madjedbebe marked on map
Location of Madjedbebe marked on map
Shown within Northern Territory
Location of Madjedbebe marked on map
Location of Madjedbebe marked on map
Madjedbebe (Australia)
Alternative nameMalakunanja II
LocationArnhem Land
RegionNorthern Territory
Coordinates12°30′S 132°53′E / 12.500°S 132.883°E / -12.500; 132.883Coordinates: 12°30′S 132°53′E / 12.500°S 132.883°E / -12.500; 132.883
TypeRock shelter site
CulturesAboriginal Australians
Site notes
Excavation dates1973, 1989, 2012, 2015
ArchaeologistsChris Clarkson Johan Kamminga, Rhys Jones, Mike Smith
ManagementMirrar traditional owners of lands
Public accessNo

Madjedbebe (formerly known as Malakunanja II) is a sandstone rock shelter in Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory of Australia, said to be the site of the oldest evidence of human habitation in the country. It is located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the coast. It is part of the lands traditionally inhabited by the Mirarr, an Aboriginal Australian clan of the Gaagudju people, of the Gunwinyguan language group.[1] Although it is surrounded by the World Heritage Listed Kakadu National Park, Madjedbebe itself is located within the Jabiluka Mineral Leasehold.

Archaeological findings[edit]

Madjedbebe is the oldest known site showing the presence of humans in Australia. Archaeological excavations conducted by Clarkson et al. (2017) yielded evidence to suggest that Madjedbebe was first occupied by humans possibly by 65,000 +/- 6,000 years ago and at least by 50,000 years ago.[2][3] While the age of 50,000 years ago has been widely accepted since the 1990s, this latter estimate (of ca. 65,000 years ago) has, as of 2017, been questioned by some experts.[4] The date sets the minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, and by extension for the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa.

More than 100,000 artefacts have been excavated (including >10,000 artefacts from the lowest dense occupation layer termed 'Phase 2'), including flaked stone artefacts,[5] ground stone axe heads, grinding stones,[6] animal bones, shellfish remains, ground ochre,[7] charcoal,[8] seeds and human burials.[9] Some of these were buried more than 2.5 metres below the surface. Archaeobotanical investigations have demonstrated the exploitation of plant foods, including seeds, tubers and pandanus nuts.[10][11] Fuel wood was also sourced from local eucalyptus and monsoon vine thicket forests.

History of archaeological research[edit]

The Madjedbebe site was first documented by researchers in the 1970s as part of the Alligator Rivers Environmental Fact Finding Study[12] (of course, Mirarr people had always known about the existence of the site). In 1973 archaeologist Johan Kamminga carried out a small-scale test pit excavation to a depth of nearly 2.5 m below surface, which provided the first evidence that the site contained a Pleistocene-aged occupation history. The uppermost 60 cm of the site was rich shell midden, with abundant shells, faunal remains, stone artefacts and human remains. Below this the site was very sandy and contained mostly stone artefacts.

In 1988 the site was re-visited by archaeologists Rhys Jones and Christopher Chippindale, along with geochronologist Richard 'Bert' Roberts. At this time they augered a single core at the site in order to trial the then new technique of thermoluminescence dating at the site. The following year, Jones and Roberts returned to the site with archaeologist Mike Smith and excavated another test-pit adjacent to that of Kamminga. The TL age estimates they obtained suggested the site was about 50,000 years old.[3] These ages were queried at the time (and later) on various grounds by numerous researchers,[13][14][15] but Roberts et al. responded to the queries re-affirming their confidence in the dates.[16][17][18]

In 2012 and 2015 a team of researchers, led by Christopher Clarkson and working in partnership with Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, re-excavated the site to try and dispel the questions about the antiquity of the site.[19] Recent results published by Clarkson and his team have led to a series of responses,[4][20][21][22] again with some questioning the integrity of the site stratigraphy and validity of the ages of human occupation,[23] however Clarkson's team has stood by the dates.[24]

Rock art[edit]

Although it is best known as Australia's oldest archaeological site, Madjedbebe also includes an extensive assemblage of rock art motifs on the walls. In 2012 a research team from the Australian National University systematically documented the rock art at the site, under the auspices of the Mirarr Gunwarddebim Project.[25][26] The team recorded more than 1000 motifs at the site. As many of the images are faded, and many overlap, this is the minimum number of motifs the site that can be seen today; no doubt in the past there were many hundreds more present that no longer survive.

The Madjedbebe motifs are mostly paintings (created using wet paint), but there are also some stencils (where a negative image is created by spraying wet paint around the outside of an object held up against the wall), drawings (created by dragging a piece of dry ochre or charcoal across the wall) and beeswax figures (created by applying small, rolled up pieces of beeswax to the wall surface).

A variety of different coloured pigments have been used to create the art at Madjedbebe. These are mostly ochres (red, yellow and orange), but many are also white clay (kaolinite) and some black charcoal.

Rock art is highly significant for the Mirarr people. The same image can convey different meanings to different people, depending on their cultural standing.

The Madjedbebe motifs include many human-like figures ('anthropomorphs'), geometric designs, hand stencils, fish (including catfish, barramundi, freshwater long-tom, mullet and saratoga), fibre objects,[27] and objects from the 'European-contact period'. The latter include firearms,[28] European people (wearing clothing, hats and standing in a characteristic 'hands on hip' manner), pipes, knives and ships.

There are no absolute ages for any of the rock art motifs at Madjedbebe. Instead, the art has been dating used relative techniques. This suggests that the majority of the art presented today was created in the last 1500 years,[25] though some motifs may be several thousand years old. It is highly likely that the tradition of painting in the site is far older than this, with older paintings having faded away or been painted over.

Of relevance here are the fragments of ochre recovered from the lowest occupation levels during the 2012 and 2015 excavations at Madjedbebe, some of which have ground facets.[19] These are a tantalising suggestion that even at this early time people were engaging in some form of artistic pursuit, whether that was painting motifs on the walls of the shelter, or decorating objects or themselves with the ground ochre.


  1. ^
  2. ^ Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mike; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A.; Faulkner, Patrick; Manne, Tiina; Hayes, Elspeth; Roberts, Richard G.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Carah, Xavier; Lowe, Kelsey M.; Matthews, Jacqueline; Florin, S. Anna (June 2015). "The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation". Journal of Human Evolution. 83: 46–64. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.03.014. hdl:1773/33254. PMID 25957653. S2CID 19824757. "The stone artefacts and stratigraphic details support previous claims for human occupation 50–60 ka and show that human occupation during this time differed from later periods"
  3. ^ a b Roberts, Richard G.; Jones, Rhys; Smith, M. A. (May 1990). "Thermoluminescence dating of a 50,000-year-old human occupation site in northern Australia". Nature. 345 (6271): 153–156. Bibcode:1990Natur.345..153R. doi:10.1038/345153a0. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4282148.
  4. ^ a b Wood, Rachel (2 September 2017). "Comments on the chronology of Madjedbebe". Australian Archaeology. 83 (3): 172–174. doi:10.1080/03122417.2017.1408545. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 148777016.
  5. ^ McNeil, J. 2016 Demonstrating the Stratigraphic Integrity of Madjedbebe: An Analysis of Silcrete Lithic Artefacts. Unpublished BA(Hons) thesis, School of Social Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
  6. ^ Hayes, E. 2015 What Was Ground? A Functional Analysis of Grinding Stones from Madjedbebe and Lake Mungo, Australia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong.
  7. ^ Cox, D. 2013 Haematite 'Crayons' at Madjedbebe: Drawing Conclusions of Cognitive Modernity. Unpublished BA(Hons) thesis, School of Social Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
  8. ^ Carah, X. 2017 Regime Change: An Anthracological Assessment of Fuel Selection and Management at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II), Mirarr Country, Australia. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Social Sciene, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
  9. ^ Lowe, Kelsey M.; Wallis, Lynley A.; Pardoe, Colin; Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; Manne, Tiina; Smith, Mike A.; Fullagar, Richard (11 September 2014). "Ground-penetrating radar and burial practices in western Arnhem Land, Australia" (PDF). Archaeology in Oceania. 49 (3): 148–157. doi:10.1002/arco.5039. ISSN 0728-4896.
  10. ^ Florin, S.A. 2013 Archaeobotanical Investigations into Plant Food Use at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II). Unpublished BA(Hons) thesis, School of Social Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
  11. ^ Florin, S. Anna; Roberts, Patrick; Marwick, Ben; Patton, Nicholas R.; Shulmeister, James; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Barry, Linda A.; Hua, Quan; Nango, May; Djandjomerr, Djaykuk; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A.; Fairbairn, Andrew S.; Clarkson, Chris (25 January 2021). "Pandanus nutshell generates a palaeoprecipitation record for human occupation at Madjedbebe, northern Australia". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 5 (3): 295–303. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-01379-8. PMC 7929916. PMID 33495592.
  12. ^ Kamminga, J. and H. Allen 1973 Report of the Archaeological Survey: Alligator Rivers Environmental Fact-Finding Study. Darwin: Government Printer.
  13. ^ Hiscock, Peter (October 1990). "How old are the artefacts in Malakunanja II?". Archaeology in Oceania. 25 (3): 122–124. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.1990.tb00242.x. ISSN 0728-4896.
  14. ^ Bowdler, Sandra; Roberts, Richard; Jones, Rhys; smith, M.A.; Murray, Tim (January 1990). "backfill". Australian Archaeology. 31 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1080/03122417.1990.11681394. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 218603910.
  15. ^ Allen, Jim; O’Connell, James (January 2003). "The long and the short of it: Archaeological approaches to determining when humans first colonised Australia and New Guinea". Australian Archaeology. 57 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1080/03122417.2003.11681758. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 142874650.
  16. ^ Bowdler, Sandra (January 1991). "Some Sort Of Dates At Malakunanja II: A Reply To Roberts Et Al". Australian Archaeology. 32 (1): 50–51. doi:10.1080/03122417.1991.11681414. ISSN 0312-2417.
  17. ^ Roberts, Richard G.; Jones, Rhys; Smith, M.A. (October 1990). "Stratigraphy and statistics at Malakunanja II: reply to Hiscock". Archaeology in Oceania. 25 (3): 125–129. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.1990.tb00243.x. ISSN 0728-4896.
  18. ^ Roberts, Richard; Bird, Michael; Olley, Jon; Galbraith, Rex; Lawson, Ewan; Laslett, Geoff; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Jones, Rhys; Fullagar, Richard (May 1998). "Optical and radiocarbon dating at Jinmium rock shelter in northern Australia". Nature. 393 (6683): 358–362. Bibcode:1998Natur.393..358R. doi:10.1038/30718. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4382217.
  19. ^ a b 62.1±2.9 ka (95% CI). Chris Clarkson; Zenobia Jacobs; Ben Marwick; Richard Fullagar; Lynley Wallis; Mike Smith; Richard G. Roberts; Elspeth Hayes; Kelsey Lowe; Xavier Carah; S. Anna Florin; Jessica McNeil; Delyth Cox; Lee J. Arnold; Quan Hua; Jillian Huntley; Helen E. A. Brand; Tiina Manne; Andrew Fairbairn; James Shulmeister; Lindsey Lyle; Makiah Salinas; Mara Page; Kate Connell; Gayoung Park; Kasih Norman; Tessa Murphy; Colin Pardoe (2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. Bibcode:2017Natur.547..306C. doi:10.1038/nature22968. hdl:2440/107043. PMID 28726833. S2CID 205257212. "settlement of Madjedbebe around 65 ka (conservatively 59.3 ka, calculated as 65.0 ka minus the age uncertainty of 5.7 kyr at 95.4%)"
  20. ^ Veth, Peter (2 September 2017). "Breaking through the radiocarbon barrier: Madjedbebe and the new chronology for Aboriginal occupation of Australia". Australian Archaeology. 83 (3): 165–167. doi:10.1080/03122417.2017.1408543. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 148903126.
  21. ^ Hiscock, Peter (2 September 2017). "Discovery curves, colonisation and Madjedbebe". Australian Archaeology. 83 (3): 168–171. doi:10.1080/03122417.2017.1408544. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 148992076.
  22. ^ Dortch, Joe; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo (2 September 2017). "Madjedbebe and genomic histories of Aboriginal Australia". Australian Archaeology. 83 (3): 174–177. doi:10.1080/03122417.2017.1408546. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 149415327.
  23. ^ O’Connell, James F.; Allen, Jim; Williams, Martin A. J.; Williams, Alan N.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Spooner, Nigel A.; Kamminga, Johan; Brown, Graham; Cooper, Alan (6 August 2018). "When did Homo sapiens first reach Southeast Asia and Sahul?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (34): 8482–8490. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808385115. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6112744. PMID 30082377.
  24. ^ Clarkson, Chris; Roberts, Richard G.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan (2018). "Reply to comments on Clarkson et al. (2017) 'Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago'". Australian Archaeology. 84: 84–89. doi:10.1080/03122417.2018.1462884. S2CID 150073484.
  25. ^ a b May, Sally K.; Taçon, Paul S.C.; Wright, Duncan; Marshall, Melissa; Goldhahn, Joakim; Sanz, Inés Domingo (30 November 2017), "The rock art of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II)", The Archaeology of Rock Art in Western Arnhem Land, Australia, ANU Press, doi:10.22459/ta47.11.2017.05, ISBN 9781760461614
  26. ^ Hayward, John A.; Johnston, Iain G.; May, Sally K.; Taçon, Paul S.C. (15 March 2018). "Memorialization and the Stencilled Rock Art of Mirarr Country, Northern Australia". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 28 (3): 361–378. doi:10.1017/s095977431800015x. ISSN 0959-7743. S2CID 165724503.
  27. ^ Miller, E. 2016 The Case for Baskets: Rock Paintings of Bags and Baskets in Western Arnhem Land, Australia. BA (Hons), The Australian National University, Canberra.
  28. ^ May, Sally K.; Wesley, Daryl; Goldhahn, Joakim; Litster, Mirani; Manera, Brad (13 February 2017). "Symbols of Power: The Firearm Paintings of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II)". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 21 (3): 690–707. doi:10.1007/s10761-017-0393-6. hdl:10072/345213. ISSN 1092-7697. S2CID 164528241.