Madonna performing during The MDNA Tour, August 2012
|Born||Madonna Louise Ciccone
August 16, 1958
Bay City, Michigan, U.S.
|Residence||New York City, New York, U.S.|
|Alma mater||University of Michigan|
|Home town||Rochester Hills, Michigan, U.S.|
|Net worth||U.S. $800 million (February 2015 estimate)|
|Partner(s)||Carlos Leon (1995–1997)|
|Relatives||Christopher Ciccone (brother)|
Madonna Louise Ciccone (//; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. She achieved popularity by pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music and imagery in her music videos, which became a fixture on MTV. Madonna is known for reinventing both her music and image, and for maintaining her autonomy within the recording industry. Music critics have acclaimed her musical productions which have also been known to induce controversy. Often referred to as the "Queen of Pop", she is cited as an influence among other artists around the world.
Born in Bay City, Michigan, Madonna attended the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance before moving to New York City to pursue a career in modern dance. After performing in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy, she signed with Sire Records (an auxiliary label of Warner Bros. Records) in 1982 and released her self-titled debut album the following year. She followed it with a series of commercially successful albums, including the Grammy Award winners Ray of Light (1998) and Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005). Throughout her career, she has written and produced most of her songs, with many of them reaching number one on the record charts, including "Like a Virgin", "Into the Groove", "Papa Don't Preach", "Like a Prayer", "Vogue", "Frozen", "Music", "Hung Up", and "4 Minutes".
Madonna's popularity was further enhanced by her film roles; she won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for Evita (1996) while most of her other films have been panned by critics. Her other ventures include fashion design, writing children's books, and filmmaking. She has been acclaimed as a businesswoman, particularly after she founded entertainment company Maverick (including the label Maverick Records) in 1992 as a joint venture with Time Warner. In 2007, she signed an unprecedented US $120 million 360 deal with Live Nation.
Madonna has sold more than 300 million records worldwide and is recognized as the best-selling female recording artist of all time by Guinness World Records. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), she is the best-selling female rock artist of the 20th century and the second best-selling female artist in the United States, with 64.5 million certified albums. Billboard ranked her at number two, behind only The Beatles, on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, making her the most successful solo artist in the history of American singles chart. The magazine also declared her as the top-touring female artist of all time. She became one of the five founding members of the UK Music Hall of Fame and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in her first year of eligibility.
- 1 Life and career
- 1.1 1958–81: Early life and career beginnings
- 1.2 1982–85: Madonna, Like a Virgin, and first marriage
- 1.3 1986–91: True Blue, Who's That Girl, Like a Prayer, and Dick Tracy
- 1.4 1992–97: Maverick Records, Sex, Erotica, Bedtime Stories, Evita, and motherhood
- 1.5 1998–2002: Ray of Light, Music, and second marriage
- 1.6 2003–06: American Life, children's books, and Confessions on a Dance Floor
- 1.7 2007–09: Live Nation and Hard Candy
- 1.8 2010–12: W.E., MDNA, and business ventures
- 1.9 2013–present: secretprojectrevolution and Rebel Heart
- 2 Artistry
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Achievements
- 5 Discography
- 6 Filmography
- 7 Tours
- 8 Enterprises
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Life and career
1958–81: Early life and career beginnings
Madonna Louise Ciccone was born to a Catholic family in Bay City, Michigan, on August 16, 1958. She is the eldest daughter of Silvio Anthony "Tony" Ciccone and Madonna Louise Fortin (c. 1933 – December 1, 1963). Her father's parents were immigrants from Pacentro, Italy, while her mother was of French-Canadian ancestry. Tony worked as an engineer designer for Chrysler and General Motors. Since Madonna had the same name as her mother, family members called her "Little Nonni". She has two elder brothers, Anthony (born 1956) and Martin (born 1957), and three younger siblings, Paula (born 1959), Christopher (born 1960), and Melanie (born 1962).
Upon receiving confirmation in 1966, she adopted Veronica as an additional confirmation name. She was raised in the Detroit suburbs of Pontiac and Avon Township (now Rochester Hills). Months before her mother died from breast cancer, Madonna noticed changes in her behavior and personality, although she did not understand the reason. Her mother was at a loss to explain her medical condition, and often began to cry when Madonna questioned her about it. Madonna later acknowledged that she had not grasped the concept of her mother dying.
Madonna turned to her paternal grandmother in the hope of finding some solace and some form of her mother in her. The Ciccone siblings resented housekeepers and invariably rebelled against anyone brought into their home ostensibly to take the place of their beloved mother. Madonna later told Vanity Fair that she saw herself in her youth as a "lonely girl who was searching for something. I wasn't rebellious in a certain way. I cared about being good at something. I didn't shave my underarms and I didn't wear make-up like normal girls do. But I studied and I got good grades..... I wanted to be somebody." Terrified that Tony could be taken from her as well, Madonna was often unable to sleep unless she was near him.
In 1966, Tony married the family's housekeeper Joan Gustafson, and they had two children: Jennifer (born 1967) and Mario (born 1968). At this point, Madonna started to resent him for decades, and developed a rebellious attitude. She attended St. Frederick's and St. Andrew's Catholic Elementary Schools, and then West Middle School. She was known for her high grade point average, and achieved notoriety for her unconventional behavior, she would perform cartwheels and handstands in the hallways between classes, dangle by her knees from the monkey bars during recess, and pull up her skirt during class—all so that the boys could see her underwear.
Madonna later attended Rochester Adams High School where she became a straight-A student and a member of the cheerleading squad. After graduating, she received a dance scholarship to the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance. She convinced her father to allow her to take ballet lessons and was persuaded by Christopher Flynn, her ballet teacher, to pursue a career in dance. In 1978, she dropped out of college and relocated to New York City. She had little money and worked as a waitress at Dunkin' Donuts and with modern dance troupes. Madonna said of her move to New York, "It was the first time I'd ever taken a plane, the first time I'd ever gotten a taxi cab. I came here with $35 in my pocket. It was the bravest thing I'd ever done." She started to work as a backup dancer for other established artists. During a late night, Madonna was returning from a rehearsal, when a pair of men held her at knifepoint and forced her to perform fellatio. Madonna later commented that "the episode was a taste of my weakness, it showed me that I still could not save myself in spite of all the strong-girl show. I could never forget it."
While performing as a backup singer and dancer for the French disco artist Patrick Hernandez on his 1979 world tour, Madonna became romantically involved with musician Dan Gilroy. Together, they formed her first rock band, the Breakfast Club, for which Madonna sang and played drums and guitar. In 1980 or 1981 she left Breakfast Club and, with her former boyfriend Stephen Bray as drummer, formed the band Emmy. The two began writing songs together and Madonna later decide to market herself as a solo act. Their music impressed DJ and record producer Mark Kamins who arranged a meeting between Madonna and Sire Records founder Seymour Stein.
1982–85: Madonna, Like a Virgin, and first marriage
After Madonna signed a singles deal with Sire, her debut single, "Everybody", was released in October 1982, and the second one, "Burning Up", in March 1983. Both became big club hits in the United States, reaching number three on Hot Dance Club Songs chart compiled by Billboard magazine. After this success, she started developing her debut album, Madonna, which was primarily produced by Reggie Lucas, a Warner Bros. producer. However, she was not happy with the completed tracks and disagreed with Lucas' production techniques, so decided to seek additional help. Madonna moved in with boyfriend John "Jellybean" Benitez, asking his help for finishing the album's production. Benitez remixed most of the tracks and produced "Holiday", which was her third single and her first global hit. The overall sound of Madonna was dissonant and in the form of upbeat synthetic disco, utilizing some of the new technology of the time, like the Linn drum machine, Moog bass and the OB-X synthesizer. The album was released in July 1983 and peaked at number eight on the Billboard 200 six months later, in 1984. It yielded two more hit singles, "Borderline" and "Lucky Star".
Madonna's look and style of dressing, her performances, and her music videos influenced young girls and women and her style became one of the female fashion trends of the 1980s. It was created by stylist and jewelry designer Maripol and the look consisted of lace tops, skirts over capri pants, fishnet stockings, jewelry bearing the crucifix, bracelets, and bleached hair. Madonna achieved global recognition after the release of her second studio album, Like a Virgin, in November 1984. It topped the charts in several countries and became her first number one album on the Billboard 200. The title track, "Like a Virgin", topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart for six consecutive weeks. It attracted the attention of organizations who complained that the song and its accompanying video promoted premarital sex and undermined family values, and moralists sought to have the song and video banned.
Madonna came under further fire when she performed "Like a Virgin" at the first 1984 MTV Video Music Awards (VMA) where she appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake, wearing a wedding dress and white gloves. The performance is noted by MTV as an iconic moment in VMA history. In later years, Madonna commented that she was actually terrified of the performance. The next hit was "Material Girl" promoted by the iconic video, which was a mimicry of Marilyn Monroe's performance of the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. While filming this video Madonna started dating actor Sean Penn and married him on her birthday in 1985. Like a Virgin was certified diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America and sold more than 25 million copies worldwide.
Madonna entered mainstream films in February 1985, beginning with a brief appearance as a club singer in Vision Quest, a romantic drama film. Its soundtrack contained two new singles, her U.S. number-one single, "Crazy for You" and "Gambler". She also appeared in the comedy Desperately Seeking Susan in March 1985, a film which introduced the song "Into the Groove", her first number one single in the United Kingdom. Although not the lead actress for the film, her profile was such that the movie widely became seen (and marketed) as a Madonna vehicle. The New York Times film critic Vincent Canby named it one of the ten best films of 1985. In February 1984, according to the film director Sir Richard Attenborough, Madonna auditioned at the Royale Theatre on Broadway for a dance role in his movie version of A Chorus Line using her birth-name of Ciccone, but he rejected her.
Beginning in April 1985, Madonna embarked on her first concert tour in North America, The Virgin Tour, with the Beastie Boys as her opening act. She progressed from playing CBGB and the Mudd Club to playing sporting arenas. At that time she released two more hit singles from the album, "Angel" and "Dress You Up". In July, Penthouse and Playboy magazines published a number of nude photos of Madonna, taken in New York in 1978. She had posed for the photographs as she needed money at the time, and was paid as little as $25 a session. The publication of the photos caused a media uproar, but Madonna remained "unapologetic and defiant". The photographs were ultimately sold for up to $100,000. She referred to the whole experience at the 1985 outdoor Live Aid charity concert saying that she would not take her jacket off because "[the media] might hold it against me ten years from now."
1986–91: True Blue, Who's That Girl, Like a Prayer, and Dick Tracy
In June 1986, Madonna released her third studio album, True Blue, which was inspired by and dedicated to Sean Penn. Rolling Stone magazine was generally impressed with the effort, writing that the album "sound[s] as if it comes from the heart". It spawned three number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100: "Live to Tell", "Papa Don't Preach" and "Open Your Heart", and two more top-five singles: "True Blue" and "La Isla Bonita". The album topped the charts in over 28 countries worldwide, an unprecedented achievement at the time and became her best-selling studio album of her career to this date with sales of 25 million. In the same year, Madonna also starred in the critically panned film Shanghai Surprise for which she was awarded the Golden Raspberry Award for "worst actress". She also made her theatrical debut in a production of David Rabe's Goose and Tom-Tom, both co-starring Penn. The next year, Madonna was featured in the film Who's That Girl. She contributed four songs to its soundtrack, including the title track and "Causing a Commotion".
Madonna embarked on the Who's That Girl World Tour in July 1987, which continued until September. It broke several attendance records, including over 130,000 audience in a concert near Paris, which remains her biggest concert attendance ever. Later that year, she released a remix album of past hits, titled You Can Dance, which reached number 14 on the Billboard 200. After an annulment in December 1987, Madonna filed for divorce from Penn in January 1989 citing irreconcilable differences.
In January 1989, Madonna signed an endorsement deal with soft-drink manufacturer, Pepsi. In one of her Pepsi commercials, she debuted her song "Like a Prayer". The corresponding music video featured many Catholic symbols such as stigmata and cross burning, and a dream about making love to a saint, leading the Vatican to condemn the video. Religious groups sought to ban the commercial and boycott Pepsi products. Pepsi revoked the commercial and canceled her sponsorship contract. The song was included on Madonna's fourth studio album, Like a Prayer, which was co-written and co-produced by Patrick Leonard and Stephen Bray. Madonna received positive feedback for the album, with Rolling Stone writing that it was "as close to art as pop music gets". Like a Prayer peaked at number one on the Billboard 200 and sold 15 million copies worldwide, with 4 million copies sold in the U.S. alone. Six singles were released from the album, including "Like a Prayer", which reached number one, and "Express Yourself" and "Cherish", both peaking at number two. By the end of the 1980s, Madonna was named as the "Artist of the Decade" by MTV, Billboard and Musician magazine.
Madonna starred as Breathless Mahoney in the film Dick Tracy (1990), with Warren Beatty playing the title role. Her performance led to a Saturn Award nomination for Best Actress. To accompany the film, she released the soundtrack album, I'm Breathless, which included songs inspired by the film's 1930s setting. It also featured the US number-one hit "Vogue" and "Sooner or Later", which earned songwriter Stephen Sondheim an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1991. While shooting the film, Madonna began a relationship with Beatty which dissolved by the end of 1990. In April 1990, Madonna began her Blond Ambition World Tour, which was held until August. Rolling Stone called it an "elaborately choreographed, sexually provocative extravaganza" and proclaimed it "the best tour of 1990". The tour was met with strong reaction from religious groups for her performance of "Like a Virgin", during which two male dancers caressed her body before she simulated masturbation. In response, Madonna said, "The tour in no way hurts anybody's sentiments. It's for open minds and gets them to see sexuality in a different way. Their own and others". The Laserdisc release of the tour won Madonna a Grammy Award in 1992 for Best Long Form Music Video.
The Immaculate Collection, Madonna's first greatest-hits compilation album, was released in November 1990. It included two new songs, "Justify My Love" and "Rescue Me". The album was certified diamond by RIAA and sold over 30 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling compilation album by a solo artist in history. "Justify My Love" reached number one in the U.S. and top ten worldwide. Its music video featured scenes of sadomasochism, bondage, same-sex kissing, and brief nudity. The video was deemed too sexually explicit for MTV and was banned from the network. Madonna responded to the banning: "Why is it that people are willing to go and watch a movie about someone getting blown to bits for no reason at all, and nobody wants to see two girls kissing and two men snuggling?"
In December 1990, Madonna decided to leave Jennifer Lynch's film, Boxing Helena, which she had previously agreed to star in, without any explanation to the producers. Around this time, Madonna had an eight-month relationship with rapper Vanilla Ice; he ended their relationship because of Madonna's Sex book. Her first documentary film Truth or Dare (known as In Bed with Madonna outside North America) was released in May 1991. The documentary chronicled her Blond Ambition World Tour.
1992–97: Maverick Records, Sex, Erotica, Bedtime Stories, Evita, and motherhood
In 1992, Madonna had a role in A League of Their Own as Mae Mordabito, a baseball player on an all-women's team. She recorded the film's theme song, "This Used to Be My Playground", which became a Hot 100 number one hit. The same year, she founded her own entertainment company, Maverick, consisting of a record company (Maverick Records), a film production company (Maverick Films), and associated music publishing, television broadcasting, book publishing and merchandising divisions. The deal was a joint venture with Time Warner and paid Madonna an advance of $60 million. It gave her 20% royalties from the music proceedings, one of the highest rates in the industry, equaled at that time only by Michael Jackson's royalty rate established a year earlier with Sony. The first release from the venture was Madonna's book, titled Sex. It consisted of sexually provocative and explicit images, photographed by Steven Meisel. The book caused strong negative reaction from the media and the general public, but sold 1.5 million copies at $50 each in a matter of days. At the same time she released her fifth studio album, Erotica, which debuted at number two on the Billboard 200. Its title track peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100. Erotica also produced five further singles: "Deeper and Deeper", "Bad Girl", "Fever", "Rain" and "Bye Bye Baby". The provocative imagery continued in the 1990s with the erotic thriller, Body of Evidence, a film which contained scenes of sadomasochism and bondage. It was poorly received by critics. She also starred in the film Dangerous Game, which was released straight to video in North America. The New York Times described the film as "angry and painful, and the pain feels real."
In September 1993, Madonna embarked on The Girlie Show World Tour, in which she dressed as a whip-cracking dominatrix surrounded by topless dancers. The show faced negative reaction, specifically in Puerto Rico where she rubbed the island's flag between her legs on stage. In March 1994, she appeared as a guest on the Late Show with David Letterman, using profanity that was required to be censored on television and handing Letterman a pair of her underwear and asking him to smell it. The releases of her sexually explicit films, albums and book, and the aggressive appearance on Letterman all made critics question Madonna as a sexual renegade. She faced strong negative publicity from critics and fans, who commented that "she had gone too far" and that her career was over.
Biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli described her ballad "I'll Remember" (1994) as an attempt to tone down her provocative image. The song was recorded for Alek Keshishian's film With Honors. She made a subdued appearance with Letterman at an awards show and appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno after realizing that she needed to change her musical direction in order to sustain her popularity. With her sixth studio album, Bedtime Stories (1994), Madonna employed a softer image to try to improve the public perception of her. The album debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 and produced four singles, including "Secret" and "Take a Bow", the latter topping the Hot 100 for seven weeks, the longest period of any Madonna single. At the same time, she became romantically involved with fitness trainer Carlos Leon. Something to Remember, a collection of ballads, was released in November 1995. The album featured three new songs: "You'll See", "One More Chance", and a cover of Marvin Gaye's "I Want You".
1996 saw the release of Evita, in which Madonna played the title role of Eva Perón. For a long time, Madonna had desired to play Perón and even wrote to director Alan Parker, explaining how she would be perfect for the part. She stated, "This is the role I was born to play. I put everything of me into this because it was much more than a role in a movie. It was exhilarating and intimidating at the same time..... And I am prouder of Evita than anything else I have done." After securing it, she underwent vocal training and learned about the history of Argentina and Perón. During shooting she fell sick many times due to the intense emotional effort required. However, as she told Oprah, she was also pregnant during the filming, which was also a factor: "I was winded after every take. I had to lie on the couch every ten minutes so I could recover from dizzy spells, I was worried that I was shaking the baby around too much and that would injure it in some way." Nevertheless, Madonna managed to find a positive side to those problems, which she wrote in her personal diary at the time: "Ironically, this feeling of vulnerability and weakness is helping me in the movie. I'm sure Evita felt this way every day of her life once she discovered she was ill."
After its release, Evita garnered critical appreciation. Zach Conner from Time magazine commented "It's a relief to say that Evita is pretty damn fine, well cast and handsomely visualized. Madonna once again confounds our expectations. She plays Evita with a poignant weariness and has more than just a bit of star quality. Love or hate Madonna-Eva, she is a magnet for all eyes." Madonna won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for the role. She released three singles from the Evita soundtrack album including "You Must Love Me" (which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1997) and "Don't Cry for Me Argentina". Madonna was later presented with the Artist Achievement Award by Tony Bennett at the 1996 Billboard Music Awards. On October 14, 1996, Madonna gave birth to Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon, her daughter with Leon. Biographer Mary Cross writes that although Madonna was often ill during the filming and worried that her pregnancy would harm the film, she reached some important personal goals: "Now 38 years old, Madonna had at last triumphed on screen and achieved her dream of having a child, both in the same year. She had reached another turning point in her career, reinventing herself and her image with the public." Her relationship with Carlos Leon ended in May 1997; she declared that they were "better off as best friends." After Lourdes' birth, Madonna became involved in Eastern mysticism and Kabbalah. She was introduced to Jewish mysticism by actress Sandra Bernhard in 1997.
1998–2002: Ray of Light, Music, and second marriage
Madonna's seventh studio album, Ray of Light, (1998) reflected a change in her perception and image. She collaborated with electronica producer William Orbit and wanted to create a sound that could blend dance music with pop and British rock. American music critic Ann Powers explained that what Madonna searched for with Orbit "was a kind of a lushness that she wanted for this record. Techno and rave was happening in the 90's and had a lot of different forms. There was very experimental, more hard stuff like Aphex Twin. There was party stuff like Fatboy Slim. That's not what Madonna wanted for this. She wanted something more like a singer-songwriter, really. And William Orbit provided her with that." The album garnered critical acclaim and Slant Magazine declared it as "one of the great pop masterpieces of the '90s". Ray of Light was honored with four Grammy Awards, and Rolling Stone listed it among "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Commercially, the album peaked at number one in numerous countries and sold more than 16 million copies worldwide. The album's first single, "Frozen", became Madonna's first single to debut at number one in the UK, while in the U.S. it became her sixth number-two single and set another record for Madonna as the artist with the most number two hits. The second single, "Ray of Light", debuted at number five on the Billboard Hot 100.
The 1998 edition of Guinness Book of World Records stated: "No female artist has sold more records than Madonna around the world". In 1999, Madonna signed to play a violin teacher in the film Music of the Heart but left the project, citing "creative differences" with director Wes Craven. She recorded the single "Beautiful Stranger" for the 1999 film Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me. It reached number 19 on the Hot 100 solely on radio airplay and earned Madonna a Grammy Award for "Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media".
In 2000, Madonna starred in the film, The Next Best Thing, and contributed two songs to the film's soundtrack; "Time Stood Still" and a cover of Don McLean's 1971 song "American Pie". She released her eighth studio album, Music, in September 2000. It featured elements from the electronica-inspired Ray of Light era, and catered to her gay audience. Collaborating with French producer Mirwais Ahmadzaï, Madonna commented: "I love to work with the weirdos that no one knows about—the people who have raw talent and who are making music unlike anyone else out there. Music is the future of sound." Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic felt that "Music blows by in a kaleidoscopic rush of color, technique, style and substance. It has so many depth and layers that it's easily as self-aware and earnest as Ray of Light." The album took the number-one position in more than 20 countries worldwide and sold four million copies in the first ten days. In the U.S., Music debuted at the top, and became her first number-one album in eleven years since Like a Prayer. It produced three singles: the Hot 100 number one "Music", "Don't Tell Me", and "What It Feels Like for a Girl". The music video of "What It Feels Like for a Girl" depicted Madonna committing acts of crime and vandalism, and was banned by MTV and VH1.
She met director Guy Ritchie, who would become her second husband, in November 1998 and gave birth to their son Rocco John Ritchie on August 11, 2000 in Los Angeles. Rocco and Madonna suffered complications from the birth due to her experiencing placenta praevia. He was christened at Dornoch Cathedral in Dornoch, Scotland, on December 21, 2000. Madonna married Ritchie the following day at nearby Skibo Castle. Her fifth concert tour, titled Drowned World Tour, started in April 2001. The tour visited cities in the U.S. and Europe and was the highest-grossing concert tour of the year by a solo artist, earning $75 million from 47 sold-out shows. She also released her second greatest-hits collection, titled GHV2, to coincide with the home video release of the tour. GHV2 debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200.
Madonna starred in the film Swept Away, directed by Ritchie. Released direct-to-video in the UK, the film was a commercial and critical failure. In May 2002 she appeared in London in the West End play Up For Grabs at the Wyndhams Theatre (billed as 'Madonna Ritchie'), to universally bad reviews and was described as "the evening's biggest disappointment" by one. That October, she released "Die Another Day", the title song of the James Bond film Die Another Day, in which she had a cameo role, described by The Guardian film reviewer as "incredibly wooden". The song reached number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 and was nominated for both a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song and a Golden Raspberry for Worst Song.
2003–06: American Life, children's books, and Confessions on a Dance Floor
Following Die Another Day, Madonna collaborated with fashion photographer Steven Klein in 2003 for an exhibition installation named X-STaTIC Pro=CeSS. It included photography from a photo shoot in W magazine, and seven video segments. The installation ran from March to May in New York's Deitch Projects gallery. It then traveled the world in an edited form. The same year, Madonna released her ninth studio album, American Life, which was based on her observations of American society, and received mixed reviews. She commented, "[American Life] was like a trip down memory lane, looking back at everything I've accomplished and all the things I once valued and all the things that were important to me." Larry Flick from The Advocate felt that "American Life is an album that is among her most adventurous and lyrically intelligent" while condemning it as "a lazy, half-arsed effort to sound and take her seriously." The title song peaked at number 37 on the Hot 100. Its original music video was canceled as Madonna thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq. With only four million copies sold worldwide, American Life was the lowest-selling album of her career.
Madonna gave another provocative performance later that year at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, while singing "Hollywood" with Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, and Missy Elliott. Madonna sparked controversy for kissing Spears and Aguilera suggestively during the performance. In October 2003, Madonna provided guest vocals on Spears' single "Me Against the Music". It was followed with the release of Remixed & Revisited. The EP contained remixed versions of songs from American Life and included "Your Honesty", a previously unreleased track from the Bedtime Stories recording sessions. Madonna also signed a contract with Callaway Arts & Entertainment to be the author of five children's books. The first of these books, titled The English Roses, was published in September 2003. The story was about four English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of each other. Kate Kellway from The Guardian commented, "[Madonna] is an actress playing at what she can never be—a JK Rowling, an English rose." The book debuted at the top of The New York Times Best Seller list and became the fastest-selling children's picture book of all time.
The next year, Madonna and Maverick sued Warner Music Group and its former parent company Time Warner, claiming that mismanagement of resources and poor bookkeeping had cost the company millions of dollars. In return, Warner filed a countersuit alleging that Maverick had lost tens of millions of dollars on its own. The dispute was resolved when the Maverick shares, owned by Madonna and Ronnie Dashev, were purchased by Warner. Madonna and Dashev's company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music, but Madonna was still signed to Warner under a separate recording contract.
In mid-2004, Madonna embarked on the Re-Invention World Tour in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. It became the highest-grossing tour of 2004, earning around $120 million and became the subject of her documentary I'm Going to Tell You a Secret. In November 2004, she was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as one of its five founding members, along with The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Bob Marley, and U2. In January 2005, Madonna performed a cover version of the John Lennon song "Imagine" at Tsunami Aid. She also performed at the Live 8 benefit concert in London.
Her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor, was released in November 2005. Musically the album was structured like a club set composed by a DJ with Keith Caulfield from Billboard commented that the album was a "welcome return to form for the Queen of Pop." The album won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album. Confessions on a Dance Floor and its lead single, "Hung Up", went on to reach number one in 40 and 41 countries respectively, earning a place in Guinness World Records. The song contained a sample of ABBA's "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)", only the second time that ABBA has allowed their work to be used. ABBA songwriter Björn Ulvaeus remarked "It is a wonderful track—100 per cent solid pop music." "Sorry", the second single, became Madonna's twelfth number-one single in the UK.
Madonna embarked on the Confessions Tour in May 2006, which had a global audience of 1.2 million and grossed over $193.7 million, becoming the highest-grossing tour to that date for a female artist. Madonna used religious symbols, such as the crucifix and Crown of Thorns, in the performance of "Live to Tell". It caused the Russian Orthodox Church and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia to urge all their members to boycott her concert. At the same time, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) announced officially that Madonna had sold over 200 million copies for her albums alone worldwide.
While on tour, Madonna participated in the Raising Malawi initiative by partially funding an orphanage in and traveling to that country. While there, she decided to adopt a boy named David Banda in October 2006. The adoption raised strong public reaction, because Malawian law requires would-be parents to reside in Malawi for one year before adopting, which Madonna did not do. She addressed this on The Oprah Winfrey Show, saying that there were no written adoption laws in Malawi that regulated foreign adoption. She described how Banda had been suffering from pneumonia after surviving malaria and tuberculosis when she first met him. Banda's biological father, Yohane, commented, "These so-called human rights activists are harassing me every day, threatening me that I am not aware of what I am doing..... They want me to support their court case, a thing I cannot do for I know what I agreed with Madonna and her husband." The adoption was finalized in May 2008.
A clothing line titled M by Madonna, in collaboration with Swedish clothing retailer H&M, was launched internationally in 2006. The collection consisted of leather trench coats, sequined shift dresses, cream-colored calf-length pants, and matching cropped jackets. H&M said the collection reflected Madonna's "timeless, unique and always glamorous style."
2007–09: Live Nation and Hard Candy
Madonna released the song "Hey You" for the Live Earth series of concerts. The song was available as a free download during its first week of release. She also performed it at the London Live Earth concert. Madonna announced her departure from Warner Bros. Records, and a new $120 million, ten-year 360 deal with Live Nation. She produced and wrote I Am Because We Are, a documentary on the problems faced by Malawians. The documentary was directed by Nathan Rissman, who worked as Madonna's gardener. She also directed her first film Filth and Wisdom. The plot of the film revolved around three friends and their aspirations. The Times said she had "done herself proud" while The Daily Telegraph described the film as "not an entirely unpromising first effort [but] Madonna would do well to hang on to her day job." In December 2007, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame announced Madonna as one of the five inductees of 2008. At the induction ceremony on March 10, 2008, Madonna did not sing but asked fellow Hall of Fame inductees and Michigan natives The Stooges to perform her songs "Burning Up" and "Ray of Light". She thanked Christopher Flynn, her dance teacher from 35 years earlier, for his encouragement to follow her dreams.
Madonna released her eleventh studio album, Hard Candy, in April 2008. Containing R&B and urban pop influences, the songs on Hard Candy were autobiographical in nature and saw Madonna collaborating with Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, Pharrell Williams and Nate "Danja" Hills. The album debuted at number one in thirty seven countries and on the Billboard 200. Don Shewey from Rolling Stone complimented it as an "impressive taste of her upcoming tour." It received generally positive reviews worldwide though some critics panned it as "an attempt to harness the urban market".
"4 Minutes" was released as the album's lead single and peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100. It was Madonna's 37th top-ten hit on the chart—it pushed Madonna past Elvis Presley as the artist with the most top-ten hits. In the UK, she retained her record for the most number-one singles for a female artist; "4 Minutes" becoming her thirteenth. At the 23rd Japan Gold Disc Awards, Madonna received her fifth Artist of the Year trophy from Recording Industry Association of Japan, the most for any artist. To further promote the album, Madonna embarked on the Sticky & Sweet Tour; her first major venture with Live Nation. With a gross of $280 million, it became the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist then, surpassing the previous record Madonna set with the Confessions Tour; it was later surpassed by Roger Waters' The Wall Live. It was extended to the next year, adding new European dates, and after it ended, the total gross was $408 million.
Life with My Sister Madonna, a book by Madonna's brother Christopher, debuted at number two on The New York Times bestseller list. The book caused some friction between Madonna and her brother, because of the unsolicited publication. Problems also arose between Madonna and Ritchie, with the media reporting that they were on the verge of separation. Ultimately, Madonna filed for divorce from Ritchie, citing irreconcilable differences, which was finalized in December 2008. She decided to adopt from Malawi. The country's High Court initially approved the adoption of Chifundo "Mercy" James; however, the application was rejected because Madonna was not a resident of the country. Madonna appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Court of Malawi granted Madonna the right to adopt Mercy James. She also released Celebration, her third greatest-hits album and final release with Warner. It contained the new songs "Celebration" and "Revolver" along with 34 hits spanning her career. Celebration reached number one in the UK, tying her with Elvis Presley as the solo act with most number one albums in the British chart history. She appeared at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards on September 13, 2009, to speak in tribute to deceased pop star Michael Jackson.
Controversy erupted when Madonna decided to adopt from Malawi again. Chifundo "Mercy" James was finally adopted on June 2009. Madonna had known Mercy from the time she went to adopt David. Mercy's grandmother had initially protested the adoption, but later gave in, saying "At first I didn't want her to go but as a family we had to sit down and reach an agreement and we agreed that Mercy should go. The men insisted that Mercy be adopted and I won't resist anymore. I still love Mercy. She is my dearest." Mercy's father was still adamant saying that he could not support the adoption since he was alive.
Madonna ended the 2000s as the best-selling single artist of the decade in the U.S. and the most-played artist of the decade in the UK. Billboard also announced her as the third top-touring artist of the decade—behind only The Rolling Stones and U2—with a gross of over $801 million, 6.3 million attendance and 244 sell-outs of 248 shows.
2010–12: W.E., MDNA, and business ventures
Madonna performed at the Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earthquake Relief concert in January 2010. In April she released her third live album, Sticky & Sweet Tour. It was her first release under Live Nation, but was distributed by Warner Bros. Madonna granted American TV show Glee the rights to her entire catalogue of music, and the producers planned an episode featuring Madonna songs exclusively. Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna, an EP containing eight cover versions of Madonna songs featured in the episode, was released afterward and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200.
Madonna released the Material Girl clothing line, which she designed with her daughter, Lourdes. The 1980s inspired clothing line, borrowed from Madonna's punk-girl style when she rose to fame in the 1980s, was released under the Macy's label. Madonna also opened a series of fitness centers around the world named Hard Candy Fitness. In November 2011, Madonna and MG Icon announced the release of a second fashion brand called Truth or Dare by Madonna to include footwear, underclothing, and accessories. She also directed her second feature film, W.E., a biographic about the affair between King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson; it was co-written with Alek Keshishian. Critical and commercial response to the film was negative. Madonna contributed the ballad "Masterpiece" for the film's soundtrack, which won her a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.
In 2012, Madonna performed at Super Bowl XLVI halftime show, visualized by Cirque Du Soleil and Jamie King and featured special guests LMFAO, Nicki Minaj, M.I.A. and Cee Lo Green. It became the most-watched Super Bowl halftime show in history with 114 million viewers, higher than the game itself. It was also revealed that the singer had signed a three-album deal with Interscope Records, who would act as the distributor in partnership with her 360 deal with Live Nation. Her twelfth studio album, MDNA, was released in March 2012 and saw collaboration with various producers, most notably with William Orbit again and Martin Solveig. The album was well received by music critics, with Priya Elan from NME calling it "a ridiculously enjoyable romp", citing its "psychotic, soul-bearing stuff" as "some of the most visceral stuff she's ever done." MDNA debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and many other countries worldwide. Madonna surpassed Elvis Presley's record for the most number-one album by a solo artist in the UK. The lead single "Give Me All Your Luvin'", featuring guest vocals from Minaj and M.I.A., became Madonna's record-extending 38th top-ten hit on the Billboard Hot 100.
The MDNA Tour, which further promoted the album, began in May 2012 in Tel Aviv, Israel. The tour has received positive critical reception, but featured controversial subjects such as violence, firearms, human rights, nudity and politics. Lawsuits threatened against Madonna have also been engaged from the tour. It was a box office success with a gross of $305.2 million from 88 sold-out shows, and ended as the highest-grossing tour of 2012 and the tenth highest-grossing tour of all time. At the 2013 Billboard Music Awards, Madonna won three trophies for Top Touring Artist, Top Dance Artist and Top Dance Album. Madonna was named the top-earning celebrity of the year by Forbes, earning an estimated $125 million, due to the success of the tour.
By 2013, Madonna's Raising Malawi organization built ten schools to educate 4,000 children in Malawi at a value of $400,000. When Madonna visited the schools in April 2013, President of Malawi Joyce Banda expressed criticism of the star and her charity, accusing her of exaggerating her charity's contribution. Madonna responded by releasing a statement saying she was saddened that Banda had chosen to act negatively about her endeavors. "I have no intention of being distracted by these ridiculous allegations," she added. Later, it was confirmed that Banda had not approved the statement released written by her press team and was "incandescent with anger" over the mix-up.
2013–present: secretprojectrevolution and Rebel Heart
Working with photographer Steven Klein, Madonna completed a 17-minute film called secretprojectrevolution. The BitTorrent company was selected by Madonna to release the film as part of a Madonna Bundle. It was released on September 24, 2013, and consisted of the 17-minute film, its stills, a Vice interview and a message from Madonna. With the film she launched the Art for Freedom initiative, which helped to promote "art and free speech as a means to address persecution and injustice across the globe". The website for the project has had over 3,000 art related submissions since its inception, with Madonna regularly monitoring and enlisting the help of other artists like David Blaine and Katy Perry as guest curator. After visiting her hometown Detroit during May 2014, Madonna decided to contribute funds to three of the city's organizations, who help in eliminating poverty from there. The singer released a statement saying that she was inspired by their work, adding that "it was obvious to me that I had to get involved and be part of the solution to help Detroit recover".
From the beginning of 2014, Madonna started making multiple media appearances. She appeared at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards in January 2014, performing "Open Your Heart" alongside rappers Macklemore & Ryan Lewis and singer Mary Lambert who sang their single "Same Love", as 33 couples were wed onstage, officiated by Queen Latifah. A few days later, she joined singer Miley Cyrus on her MTV Unplugged special, singing a mash-up of "Don't Tell Me" and Cyrus' single "We Can't Stop" (2013). She also extended her business ventures and in February 2014 the singer premiered MDNA Skin, a range of skin care products, in Tokyo, Japan. She also started working on her thirteenth studio album with collaborators including Avicii, Diplo and Natalia Kills. In December, The New York Times reported that Madonna had been cast as the face of Versace for their Spring/Summer 2015 campaign. In December 2014, thirteen demos of songs from the album leaked onto the Internet. She posted in response that half of the tracks will not be used on the eventual release, while the other half have "changed and evolved". Madonna eventually revealed the album, Rebel Heart, and scheduled it for release on March 10, 2015. From August 2015 to December 2015, she will promote the album with the Rebel Heart Tour.
Musical themes and genres
Madonna's music has been the subject of much analysis and scrutiny. Robert M. Grant, author of Contemporary Strategy Analysis (2005), commented that what has brought Madonna success is "certainly not outstanding natural talent. As a vocalist, musician, dancer, songwriter, or actress, Madonna's talents seem modest." He asserts Madonna's success is in relying on the talents of others, and that her personal relationships have served as cornerstones to the numerous reinventions in the longevity of her career. Madonna's approach was far from the music industry wisdom of "Find a winning formula and stick to it." Her musical career has been a continuous experimentation with new musical ideas and new images and a constant quest for new heights of fame and acclaim. Grant concluded that "having established herself as the queen of popular music, Madonna did not stop there, but continued re-inventing." Musicologist Susan McClary wrote that "Madonna's art itself repeatedly deconstructs the traditional notion of the unified subject with finite ego boundaries. Her pieces explore various ways of constituting identities that refuse stability, that remain fluid, that resist definition."
Throughout her career, Madonna has been involved in writing and producing most of her own music. Madonna's early songwriting skill was developed during her time with the Breakfast Club in 1979. According to author Carol Gnojewski, her first attempts at songwriting are perceived as an important self-revelation, as Madonna said: "I don't know where [the songs] came from. It was like magic. I'd write a song every day. I said 'Wow, I was meant to do this'." Mark Kamins, her first producer, believed that Madonna is "a much underrated musician and lyricist." Rolling Stone has named her "an exemplary songwriter with a gift for hooks and indelible lyrics." According to Freya Jarman-Ivens, Madonna's talent for developing "incredible" hooks for her songs allows the lyrics to capture the attention of the audience, even without the influence of the music. As an example, Jarman-Ivens cites the 1985 single "Into the Groove" and its line "Live out your fantasy here with me, just let the music set you free; Touch my body, and move in time, now I know you're mine." Madonna's songwriting are often autobiographical over the years, dealing with various themes from love and relationships to self-respect and female empowerment. Her songs also speak about taboo and unconventional issues of their period, such as sexuality and AIDS on Erotica (1992). Many of her lyrics contain innuendos and double entendre, which lead to multiple interpretations among music critics and scholars. Madonna was nominated for being inducted in the 2014 Songwriters Hall of Fame.
"Papa Don't Preach" had Madonna singing in a much fuller voice, and incorporated classical instrumentation.
Composed with the darker electronic undertones, eastern strings and Middle Eastern percussion, "Frozen" features Madonna's previously unexplored vocal range.
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
Before emerging as a pop star, Madonna has spent her early years in rock music alongside her bands, Breakfast Club and Emmy. While performing with Emmy, Madonna recorded about 12-14 songs which resemble the punk rock of that period. Her early rock roots also can be found on the demo album Pre-Madonna. Stephen Thomas Erlewine noted that with her self-titled debut album, Madonna began her career as a disco diva, in an era that did not have any such divas to speak of. In the beginning of the '80's, disco was an anathema to the mainstream pop, and according to Erlewine, Madonna had a huge role in popularizing dance music as mainstream music. The album's songs reveal several key trends that have continued to define her success, including a strong dance-based idiom, catchy hooks, highly polished arrangements and Madonna's own vocal style. Her second album, Like a Virgin (1984), foreshadowed several trends in her later works. It contained references to classical works (pizzicato synthesizer line that opens "Angel"); potential negative reaction from social groups ("Dress You Up" was blacklisted by the Parents Music Resource Center); and retro styles ("Shoo-Bee-Doo", Madonna's homage to Motown).
Her mature artistic statement was visible in True Blue (1986) and Like a Prayer (1989). In True Blue, she incorporated classical music in order to engage an older audience who had been skeptical of her music. Like a Prayer introduced live recorded songs and incorporated different genres of music, including dance, funk, R&B and gospel music. Her versatility was further shown on I'm Breathless, which consists predominantly of the 1940s Broadway showtune-flavoured jazz, swing and big band tracks. Madonna continued to compose ballads and uptempo dance songs for Erotica (1992) and Bedtime Stories (1994). Both albums explored element of new jack swing, with Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly saying that "she could actually be viewed as new jack swing's godmother." She tried to remain contemporary by incorporating samples, drum loops and hip hop into her music. With Ray of Light, Madonna brought electronic music from its underground status into massive popularity in mainstream music scene.
Madonna experimented with more folk and acoustic music in Music (2000) and American Life (2003). A change was noted in the content of the songs in Music, with most of them being simple love songs, but with an underlying tone of melancholy. According to Q magazine, American Life was characterized by "a thumping techno rhythm, liquid keyboard lines, an acoustic chorus and a bizarre Madonna rap." The "conventional rock songs" of the album were suffused with dramatic lyrics about patriotism and composition, including the appearance of a gospel choir in the song "Nothing Fails". Madonna returned to pure dance songs with Confessions on a Dance Floor, infusing club beats and retro music with the lyrics about paradoxical metaphors and reference to her earlier works. Madonna moved to urban direction with Hard Candy (2008), mixing R&B and hip hop music with dance tunes. MDNA (2012) largely focused in electronic dance music, which she has embraced since Ray of Light.
Vocal style and instruments
Possessing a mezzo-soprano vocal range, Madonna has always been self-conscious about her voice, especially in comparison to her vocal idols such as Ella Fitzgerald, Prince, and Chaka Khan. Mark Bego, author of Madonna: Blonde Ambition, called her "the perfect vocalist for lighter-than-air songs", despite not being a "heavyweight talent." According to MSNBC critic Tony Sclafani, "Madonna's vocals are the key to her rock roots. Pop vocalists usually sing songs "straight," but Madonna employs subtext, irony, aggression and all sorts of vocal idiosyncrasies in the ways John Lennon and Bob Dylan did." Madonna used a bright, girlish vocal timbre in her early albums which became passé in her later works. The change was deliberate since she was constantly reminded of how the critics had once labelled her as "Minnie Mouse on helium". During the filming of Evita, Madonna had to take vocal lessons, which increased her range further. Of this experience she commented, "I studied with a vocal coach for Evita and I realized there was a whole piece of my voice I wasn't using. Before, I just believed I had a really limited range and was going to make the most of it."
Besides singing, Madonna has the ability to play several musical instruments. She learned to play drum and guitar from her then-boyfriend Dan Gilroy in the late 1970s before joining the Breakfast Club line-up as the drummer. This helped her to form the band Emmy, where she performed as the guitarist and lead vocalist. After her career breakthrough, Madonna focused mainly in singing but was also credited for playing cowbell on Madonna (1983) and synthesizer on Like a Prayer (1989). In 1999, Madonna had studied for three months to play the violin for the role as a violin teacher in the film Music of the Heart, before eventually leaving the project. After two decades, Madonna decided to perform with guitar again during the promotion of Music (2000). She took further lessons from guitarist Monte Pittman to improve her guitar skill. Since then Madonna has played guitar on every tour, as well as her studio albums. At the 2002 Orville H. Gibson Guitar Awards, she received nomination for Les Paul Horizon Award, which honors the most promising up-and-coming guitarist.
According to Taraborrelli, the defining moment of Madonna's childhood was the tragic and untimely death of her beloved mother. Psychiatrist Keith Ablow suggests her mother's death would have had an immeasurable impact on the young Madonna at a time when her personality was still forming. According to Ablow, the younger a child is at the time of a serious loss, the more profound the influence and the longer lasting the impact. He concludes that "some people never reconcile themselves to such a loss at an early age, Madonna is not different than them." Conversely, author Lucy O'Brien feels the impact of the rape she suffered is, in fact, the motivating factor behind everything Madonna has done, more important even than the death of her mother: "It's not so much grief at her mother's death that drives her, as the sense of abandonment that left her unprotected. She encountered her own worst possible scenario, becoming a victim of male violence, and thereafter turned that full-tilt into her work, reversing the equation at every opportunity."
As they grew older, Madonna and her sisters would feel deep sadness as the vivid memory of their mother began drifting farther from them. They would study pictures of her and come to think that she resembled poet Anne Sexton and Hollywood actresses. This would later raise Madonna's interest in poetry, with Sylvia Plath being her favourite. Later, Madonna commented: "We were all wounded in one way or another by [her death], and then we spent the rest of our lives reacting to it or dealing with it or trying to turn into something else. The anguish of losing my mom left me with a certain kind of loneliness and an incredible longing for something. If I hadn't had that emptiness, I wouldn't have been so driven. Her death had a lot to do with me saying—after I got over my heartache—I'm going to be really strong if I can't have my mother. I'm going to take care of myself." Taraborrelli felt that in time, no doubt because of the devastation she felt, Madonna would never again allow herself, or even her daughter, to feel as abandoned as she had felt when her mother died. "Her death had taught [Madonna] a valuable lesson, that she would have to remain strong for herself because, she feared weakness—particularly her own—and wanted to be the queen of her own castle."
In 1985, Madonna commented that the first song to ever make a strong impression on her was "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'" by Nancy Sinatra; she said it summed up her own "take-charge attitude". As a young woman, she attempted to broaden her taste in literature, art, and music, and during this time became interested in classical music. She noted that her favorite style was baroque, and loved Mozart and Chopin because she liked their "feminine quality". Madonna's major influences include Karen Carpenter, The Supremes and Led Zeppelin, as well as dancers Martha Graham and Rudolf Nureyev. She also grew up listening to David Bowie, whose show was the first rock concert she ever attended.
Madonna's Italian-Catholic background and her relationship with her parents are reflected in the album Like a Prayer. It was an evocation of the impact religion had on her career. Her video for the title track contains Catholic symbolism, such as the stigmata. During The Virgin Tour, she wore a rosary and prayed with it in the music video for "La Isla Bonita". The "Open Your Heart" video sees her boss scolding her in the Italian language. On the Who's That Girl World Tour, she dedicated the song "Papa Don't Preach" to the Pope.
During her childhood, Madonna was inspired by actors, later saying, "I loved Carole Lombard and Judy Holliday and Marilyn Monroe. They were all incredibly funny ... and I saw myself in them ... my girlishness, my knowingness and my innocence." Her "Material Girl" music video recreated Monroe's look in the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend", from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953). She studied the screwball comedies of the 1930s, particularly those of Lombard, in preparation for the film Who's That Girl. The video for "Express Yourself" (1989) was inspired by Fritz Lang's silent film Metropolis (1927). The video for "Vogue" recreated the style of Hollywood glamour photographs, in particular those by Horst P. Horst, and imitated the poses of Marlene Dietrich, Carole Lombard, and Rita Hayworth, while the lyrics referred to many of the stars who had inspired her, including Bette Davis, described by Madonna as an idol. However, Madonna's film career has been largely received negatively by the film critic community. Stephanie Zacharek, critic for Time magazine, stated that, "[Madonna] seems wooden and unnatural as an actress, and it's tough to watch, because she's clearly trying her damnedest." According to biographer Andrew Morton, "Madonna puts a brave face on the criticism, but privately she is deeply hurt." After the box office bomb Swept Away (2002), Madonna vowed that she would never again act in a film, hoping her repertoire as a bad actress would never be discussed again.
Influences also came to her from the art world, most notably through the works of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. The music video of the song "Bedtime Story" featured images inspired by the paintings of Kahlo and Remedios Varo. Madonna is also a collector of Tamara de Lempicka's Art Deco paintings and has included them in her music videos and tours. Her video for "Hollywood" (2003) was an homage to the work of photographer Guy Bourdin; Bourdin's son subsequently filed a lawsuit for unauthorised use of his father's work. Pop artist Andy Warhol's use of sadomasochistic imagery in his underground films were reflected in the music videos for "Erotica" and "Deeper and Deeper".
Madonna is dedicated to Kabbalah, and in 2004, she adopted the name Esther which in Persian means "star". She has donated millions of dollars to New York and London schools teaching the subject. She faced opposition from rabbis who felt Madonna's adoption of the Kabbalah was sacrilegious and a case of celebrity dilettantism. Madonna defended her studies, saying: "It would be less controversial if I joined the Nazi Party", and that her involvement with the Kabbalah is "not hurting anybody". The influence of the Kabbalah was subsequently observed in Madonna's music, especially albums like Ray of Light and Music. During the Re-Invention World Tour, at one point in the show, Madonna and her dancers wore T-shirts that read "Kabbalists Do It Better".
Music videos and performances
In The Madonna Companion, biographers Allen Metz and Carol Benson noted that more than any other recent pop artist, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and enhance her recorded work. According to them, many of her songs have the imagery of the music video in strong context, while referring to the music. Cultural critic Mark C. Taylor in his book Nots (1993) felt that the postmodern art form par excellence is video and the reigning "queen of video" is Madonna. He further asserted that "the most remarkable creation of MTV is Madonna. The responses to Madonna's excessively provocative videos have been predictably contradictory." The media and public reaction towards her most-discussed songs such as "Papa Don't Preach", "Like a Prayer", or "Justify My Love" had to do with the music videos created to promote the songs and their impact, rather than the songs themselves. Morton felt that "artistically, Madonna's songwriting is often overshadowed by her striking pop videos."
Madonna's initial music videos reflected her American and Hispanic mixed street style combined with a flamboyant glamor. She was able to transmit her avant-garde downtown New York fashion sense to the American audience. The imagery and incorporation of Hispanic culture and Catholic symbolism continued with the music videos from the True Blue era. Author Douglas Kellner noted, "such 'multiculturalism' and her culturally transgressive moves turned out to be highly successful moves that endeared her to large and varied youth audiences." Madonna's Spanish look in the videos became the fashion trend of that time, in the form of boleros and layered skirts, accessorizing with rosary beads and a crucifix as in the video of "La Isla Bonita".
Academics noted that with her videos, Madonna was subtly reversing the usual role of male as the dominant sex. This symbolism and imagery was probably the most prevalent in the music video for "Like a Prayer". The video included scenes of an African-American church choir, Madonna being attracted to a statue of a black saint, and singing in front of burning crosses. This mix of the sacred and the profane upset the Vatican and resulted in the Pepsi commercial withdrawal. In 2003, MTV named her "The Greatest Music Video Star Ever" and said that "Madonna's innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video art form is what won her the award."
Madonna's emergence occurred during the advent of MTV; Chris Nelson from The New York Times spoke of pop artists like Madonna saying, "MTV, with its almost exclusively lip-synched videos, ushered in an era in which average music fans might happily spend hours a day, every day, watching singers just mouth the words." The symbiotic relationship between the music video and lip-syncing led to a desire for the spectacle and imagery of the music video to be transferred to live stage shows. He added, "Artists like Madonna and Janet Jackson set new standards for showmanship, with concerts that included not only elaborate costumes and precision-timed pyrotechnics but also highly athletic dancing. These effects came at the expense of live singing." Thor Christensen of the Dallas Morning News commented that while Madonna earned a reputation for lip-syncing during her 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, she has subsequently reorganized her performances by "stay[ing] mostly still during her toughest singing parts and [leaves] the dance routines to her backup troupe ... [r]ather than try to croon and dance up a storm at the same time."
To allow for greater movement while dancing and singing, Madonna was one of the earliest adopters of hands-free radio-frequency headset microphones, with the headset fastened over the ears or the top of the head, and the microphone capsule on a boom arm that extended to the mouth. Because of her prominent usage, the microphone design came to be known as the "Madonna mic". Metz noted that Madonna represents a paradox as she is often perceived as living her whole life as a performance. While her big-screen performances are panned, her live performances are critical successes. Madonna was the first artist to have her concert tours as reenactment of her music videos. Author Elin Diamond explained that reciprocally, the fact that images from Madonna's videos can be recreated in a live setting enhances the realism of the original videos. Thus her live performances have become the means by which mediatized representations are naturalized. Taraborrelli said that encompassing multimedia, latest technology and sound systems, Madonna's concerts and live performances are deemed as "extravagant show piece, a walking art show."
Various music journalists, critical theorists, and authors have deemed Madonna the most influential female recording artist of all time. Author Carol Clerk wrote that "during her career, Madonna has transcended the term 'pop star' to become a global cultural icon." Rolling Stone of Spain wrote that "She became the first viral Master of Pop in history, years before the Internet was massively used. Madonna was everywhere; in the almighty music television channels, 'radio formulas', magazine covers and even in bookshops. A pop dialectic, never seen since The Beatles's reign, which allowed her to keep on the edge of tendency and commerciality." Laura Barcella in her book Madonna and Me: Women Writers on the Queen of Pop (2012) wrote that "really, Madonna changed everything the musical landscape, the '80s look du jour, and most significantly, what a mainstream female pop star could (and couldn't) say, do, or accomplish in the public eye." William Langley from The Daily Telegraph felt that "Madonna has changed the world's social history, has done more things as more different people than anyone else is ever likely to." Alan McGee from The Guardian felt that Madonna is a post-modern art, the likes of which we will never see again. He further asserted that Madonna and Michael Jackson invented the terms Queen and King of Pop.
According to Tony Sclafani from MSNBC, "It's worth noting that before Madonna, most music mega-stars were guy rockers; after her, almost all would be female singers ... When The Beatles hit America, they changed the paradigm of performer from solo act to band. Madonna changed it back—with an emphasis on the female." Howard Kramer, curatorial director of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, asserted that "Madonna and the career she carved out for herself made possible virtually every other female pop singer to follow ... She certainly raised the standards of all of them ... She redefined what the parameters were for female performers." According to Fouz-Hernández, subsequent female singers such as Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Kylie Minogue, Spice Girls, Destiny's Child, Jennifer Lopez, and Pink were like her "daughters in the very direct sense that they grew up listening to and admiring Madonna, and decided they wanted to be like her." Time magazine included her in the list of the "25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century", where she became one of only two singers to be included, alongside Aretha Franklin. She also topped VH1's countdowns of "100 Greatest Women in Music" and "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era".
Madonna's use of sexual imagery has benefited her career and catalyzed public discourse on sexuality and feminism. As Roger Chapman documents in Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices, Volume 1 (2010), she has drawn frequent condemnation from religious organizations, social conservatives and parental watchdog groups for her use of explicit, sexual imagery and lyrics, religious symbolism, and otherwise "irreverent" behavior in her live performances. The Times wrote that she had "started a revolution amongst women in music ... Her attitudes and opinions on sex, nudity, style and sexuality forced the public to sit up and take notice." Professor John Fiske noted that the sense of empowerment that Madonna offers is inextricably connected with the pleasure of exerting some control over the meanings of self, of sexuality, and of one's social relations. In Doing Gender in Media, Art and Culture (2009), the authors noted that Madonna, as a female celebrity, performer, and pop icon, is able to unsettle standing feminist reflections and debates. According to lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffreys, Madonna represents woman's occupancy of what Monique Wittig calls the category of sex, as powerful, and appears to gleefully embrace the performance of the sexual corvée allotted to women. Professor Sut Jhally has referred to Madonna as "an almost sacred feminist icon."
Madonna has received acclaim as a role model for businesswomen in her industry, "achieving the kind of financial control that women had long fought for within the industry", and generating over $1.2 billion in sales within the first decade of her career. Professor Colin Barrow from Cranfield School of Management described Madonna as "America's smartest businesswoman ... who has moved to the top of her industry and stayed there by constantly reinventing herself." London Business School academics called her a "dynamic entrepreneur" worth copying; they identified her vision of success, her understanding of the music industry, her ability to recognize her own performance limits (and thus bring in help), her willingness to work hard and her ability to adapt as the keys to her commercial success. Morton wrote that "Madonna is opportunistic, manipulative, and ruthless—somebody who won't stop until she gets what she wants—and that's something you can get at the expense of maybe losing your close ones. But that hardly mattered to her." Hazel Blackmore and Rafael Fernández de Castro in the book ¿Qué es Estados Unidos? from the Fondo de Cultura Económica, noted: "Madonna has been undoubtedly the most important woman in the history of popular music and a great businesswoman in herself; creating fashion, breaking taboos and provoking controversies."
Madonna has sold more than 300 million records worldwide. The Guinness World Records acknowledged her as the best-selling female recording artist and the fourth best-selling act of all time, behind The Beatles, Elvis Presley, and Michael Jackson. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), she is the best-selling female rock artist of the 20th century and the second top-selling female albums artist in the United States, with 64.5 million certified albums. Madonna is the most certified artist of all time in United Kingdom, with 45 awards from the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) as of April 2013. Billboard named Madonna as the top touring female artist of all time. In May 2014, the magazine listed her as the fourth highest grossing touring act since 1990, with total earned revenue of $1.14 billion and 9.7 million attendance at her shows. Madonna has been honored with 20 MTV Video Music Awards—the most for any artist—including the lifetime achievement Video Vanguard Award in 1986.
Madonna holds the record for the most number-ones on all Billboard charts with a total of 156 number-ones, including 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 and 43 on the Hot Dance Club Songs. She has also scored 38 top-ten singles on the Hot 100, more than any other artist in history. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked her at number two, behind The Beatles, on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, making her the most successful solo artist in the history of American singles chart.
- Madonna (1983)
- Like a Virgin (1984)
- True Blue (1986)
- Like a Prayer (1989)
- Erotica (1992)
- Bedtime Stories (1994)
- Ray of Light (1998)
- Music (2000)
- American Life (2003)
- Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005)
- Hard Candy (2008)
- MDNA (2012)
- Rebel Heart (2015)
- A Certain Sacrifice (1979)
- Vision Quest (1985)
- Desperately Seeking Susan (1985)
- Shanghai Surprise (1986)
- Who's That Girl (1987)
- Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989)
- Dick Tracy (1990)
- Madonna: Truth or Dare (1991)
- Shadows and Fog (1991)
- A League of Their Own (1992)
- Body of Evidence (1993)
- Dangerous Game (1993)
- Blue in the Face (1995)
- Four Rooms (1995)
- Girl 6 (1996)
- Evita (1996)
- The Next Best Thing (2000)
- Swept Away (2002)
- Die Another Day (2002)
- I'm Going to Tell You a Secret (2005)
- Arthur and the Invisibles (2006)
- The Virgin Tour (1985)
- Who's That Girl World Tour (1987)
- Blond Ambition World Tour (1990)
- The Girlie Show World Tour (1993)
- Drowned World Tour (2001)
- Re-Invention World Tour (2004)
- Confessions Tour (2006)
- Sticky & Sweet Tour (2008–09)
- The MDNA Tour (2012)
- Rebel Heart Tour (2015)
- Boy Toy, Inc
- Webo Girl Publishing, Inc (1992)
- Maverick (1992)
- Bhakti Touring, Inc (2001)
- Semtex Girls (2006)
- Hard Candy Fitness (2010)
- Truth or Dare by Madonna (2011)
- Culture of the United States
- Honorific nicknames in popular music
- List of best-selling music artists
- List of dance-pop artists
- List of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees
- Mononymous person
- Lansky, Sam (February 26, 2015). "Madonna Stays in Vogue with Rebel Heart". Time. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
- "Brando Enterprises LP v. Madonna Louise Ciccone et al". RFC Express. October 28, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- Taraborrelli 2002, pp. 11–13
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 10
- "The Child Who Became a Star: Madonna Timeline". The Daily Telegraph. July 26, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 92
- Morton 2002, p. 47
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 23
- Claro 1994, pp. 24, 27
- Tilden, Imogen (July 4, 2001). "Madonna". The Guardian. Retrieved May 29, 2008.
- Morton 2002, p. 12
- Taraborrelli 2002, pp. 26–29
- Hosted by Paula Zahn (Saturday 11 am and Sunday 7 pm). "A Star with Staying Power". People in the News. CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/people/shows/madonna/profile.html.
- Hosted by Jim Wallasky. "Madonna: Queen of Pop". Biography. 5 minutes in. The History Channel.
- Rettenmund 1995, p. 45
- O'Brien 2007, p. 56
- Baron, Bruce (July 2, 1999). "Madonna – From Genesis to Revelations". Goldmine (F+W Media) 25 (494). ISSN 1055-2685.
- Morton 2002, p. 23
- Ganz, Caryn (2004). "Biography – Madonna". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- LeRoy, Dan. "Breakfast Club > Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 19, 2014.
- Orzeck, Kurt (September 23, 2007). "Madonna, Beastie Boys Nominated For Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame". MTV. Retrieved May 29, 2008.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 43
- Rooksby 2004, p. 11
- "Madonna – Charts & Awards – Billboard Albums". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "Madonna – Charts & Awards – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Clerk 2002, p. 20
- Voller 1999, p. 22
- Rettenmund 1995, p. 67
- "Ask Billboard: A Lot To 'Like' About Far*East Movement". Billboard. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Cross 2007, p. 31
- Voller 1999, p. 18
- Vena, Jocelyn (August 12, 2009). "Can Lady Gaga Top These Iconic MTV VMA Performances?". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Greig, Geordie (November 6, 2005). "Geordie Greig Meets Madonna: Secret Life of a Contented Wife". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- "Arts News in Brief". Today's Zaman. 2014-11-30. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 13
- Clerk 2002, p. 56
- "Artist Chart History – Madonna". Billboard. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- "Madonna Scores 12th Chart Topper in the UK". BBC. February 26, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- "Desperately Seeking Madonna". Film Journal International (Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, University of Michigan) 10: 20. 1984. ISSN 1536-3155.
- Van Gelder, Lawrence (March 2, 1986). "Critic's Choices". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Entirely Up To You, Darling by Diana Hawkins & Richard Attenborough; page 133; paperback; Arrow Books; published 2009. isbn 978-0-099-50304-0
- Warren et al. 2001, pp. 23–25
- Morton 2002, pp. 134–135
- Dion, Richard. "Madonna Biography". Musicomania. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 67
- Clerk 2002, p. 77
- Sigerson, David (July 7, 1986). "Madonna: True Blue: Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- Bohem 1990, p. 78
- "Madonna Biography". Tribune Entertainment Media Group. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Smith, Neil (May 24, 2004). "Show Stealer Madonna on Tour". BBC. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- Voller 1999, p. 29
- Bassets, Luis (August 31, 1987). "Madonna convocó en París a 130.000 personas". El País (in Spanish). Madrid: Jesús de Polanco. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (December 2, 1987). "Madonna | You Can Dance". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 89
- Bronson 2002, p. 329
- "Madonna Biography, Discography, Filmography". Fox News Channel. January 3, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2008.
- "Pepsi cancels Madonna ad". The New York Times. April 5, 1989. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Madonna (1989). Like a Prayer (Audio CD). Sire Records.
- Considine, J.D. (April 6, 1989). "Madonna: Like A Prayer: Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 21, 2007.
- Ruiz, Julián (November 19, 2013). "Santa Madonna, 'ora pro nobis'". El Mundo (in Spanish) (Unidad Editorial). Retrieved February 9, 2014.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 217
- Press release (May 25, 1990). "Michael, Madonna Top 'Billboard' Poll". Dayton Daily News (Cox Enterprises): 23. ISSN 0897-0920.
- Bego 2000, p. 232
- Morton 2002, p. 98
- "Showbiz > Madonna". China Daily. November 4, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- Herrera, Monica (September 15, 2000). "Poll: 'Vogue' Is Fave Madonna Chart-Topper". Billboard. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- Pitts 2004, p. 40
- Sporkin, Elizabeth (July 2, 1990). "He Still Leaves 'Em Breathless". People. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Ciccone, Christopher (July 19, 2008). "Warren Beatty, Sean Penn ... and My Sister Madonna's Great Daddy Chair Dilemma". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Madonna.com > Tours > Blond Ambition Tour". Madonna.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Walters, Barry (June 1, 2006). "Crucifixes, Leather and Hits". Rolling Stone 1067 (56). ISSN 0035-791X.
- Fisher, Carrie (August 1991). "True Confessions: The Rolling Stone Interview With Madonna". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X.
- "Grammy Award Winners – Madonna". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Cross 2007, p. 128
- "Diamond Awards – Certified Albums – RIAA". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- Clayton-Lea, Tony (March 23, 2012). "Girl gone wild: is it time for Madonna to grow up?". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Madonna – Justify My Love – Worldwide peaks". Hung Medien. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Rich, Joshua (November 20, 1998). "Madonna Banned". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Lippens, Nate (2007). "Making Madonna: 10 Moments That Created an Icon". MSN Music. Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- Bronson 2002, p. 775
- Birnbaum, Jane (May 22, 1992). "Unarmed and Dangerous". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
- Weiss, Shari (January 11, 2011). "Vanilla Ice: I broke up with 'great lover' Madonna over her 'Sex' book". Daily News (New York: Daily News, L.P.). Retrieved August 30, 2002.
- "In Bed With Madonna – BBFC rating". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Holden, Stephen (April 20, 1992). "Madonna Makes a $60 Million Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Morton 2002, p. 54
- Kirschling, Gregory (October 25, 2002). "The Naked Launch". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- "Discography > Erotica". Madonna.com. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Metz & Benson 1999, pp. 17–20
- "Body of Evidence". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Maslin, Janet (November 19, 1993). "A Movie Within a Movie, With a Demure Madonna". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Tetzlaff 1993, p. 143
- Taraborrelli 2002, pp. 232–235
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 242
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 235
- "Madonna's 40 Biggest Billboard Hits". Billboard. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Voller 1999, p. 221
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (November 17, 1995). "Something to Remember". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Gleiberman, Owen (December 20, 1996). "Evita (1997)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Maslin, Janet (December 6, 1996). "Madonna, Chic Pop Star, As Chic Political Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
- Michael 2004, p. 67
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 276
- Madonna on Oprah, December 13, 1996, American Broadcasting Company, 15:56 in.
- Ciccone, Madonna (November 1996). "The Madonna Diaries". Vanity Fair (Advance Publications): 174–188. ISSN 0733-8899.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 285
- Corliss, Richard (December 16, 1996). "Cinema: Madonna and Eva Peron: You Must Love Her". Time. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Busari, Stephanie (March 24, 2008). "Hey Madonna, Don't Give Up the Day Job!". CNN. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (September 23, 1997). "Madonna | Evita [Original Soundtrack] > Overview". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "Performers, Presenters Add Spark To Billboard Music Awards". Billboard 108 (51): 12. December 21, 1996. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
- Steward, Jason (October 16, 1996). "Girl for Madonna". The Independent. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Cross 2007, p. 71
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 288
- Cross 2007, p. 134
- Barnes, Anthony (July 9, 2006). "Kabbalah: is Madonna losing her religion?". The Independent (London). Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 50
- Michael 2004, p. 46
- Powers, Ann (September 13, 2013). "'Ray Of Light' Was Madonna's 'Mid-Life Enlightenment' Record". WNYC Soundcheck. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Cinquemani, Sal (March 9, 2003). "Madonna: Ray Of Light – Music Review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "Madonna's secret to making 'Music'". CNN. November 10, 2000. Retrieved February 9, 2008.
- "The Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 303
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 167
- "Discography (Ray of Light)". Madonna.com. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Glenday 1998, p. 228
- Clinton, Paul (October 28, 1999). "Review: "Music of the Heart" Hits All the Right Notes". CNN. Retrieved August 12, 2007.
- Presenter, Radio 2. "Top 100 47: American Pie". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Bronson 2002, p. 989
- Erlewine, Bogdanov & Woodstra 2002, p. 245
- Caulfield, Keith (September 28, 2000). "After 11 Year Absence, Madonna's Back At No. 1". Billboard. Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Lee, Hann C. (March 23, 2001). "Controversial new Madonna video airs on the Web". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Cross 2007, pp. xix; 88–89
- Davies, Hugh; Aldrick, Philip (December 8, 2000). "Madonna's wedding will be the Highlands' biggest fling". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Caulfield, Keith (December 29, 2001). "The Year in Touring". Billboard (New York City) 113 (52): 44. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (November 12, 2001). "Madonna | GHV2". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
- "Madonna flop goes straight to video". BBC. November 8, 2002. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
- "Up for Grabs Reviews at Wyndham's Theatre – London". Whatsonstage.com. May 27, 2002. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Michael Billington (May 25, 2002). "Up for Grabs, Wyndham's Theatre, London | Stage". The Guardian. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Theatre review: Up for Grabs at Wyndham's". Britishtheatreguide.info. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Peter Bradshaw (September 13, 2006). "Film: Die Another Day | Culture". The Guardian (London). Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Lieberman, Rhonda (May 9, 2003). "Weighty Madonna: Rhonda Lieberman on "X-STaTIC PRo=CeSS"". BNET. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "American Life by Madonna: Review". Metacritic. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- Norris, John (April 9, 2003). "Madonna: Her American Life". MTV. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Flick, Larry (March 2003). "All-American Girl". The Advocate (887): 45. ISSN 0001-8996.
- Susman, Gary (April 1, 2003). "Miss 'American'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Hastings, Chris (October 16, 2005). "Thank You For the Music! How Madonna's New Single Will Give Abba Their Greatest-Ever Hit". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- Moss, Corey (August 28, 2003). "Madonna Smooches With Britney And Christina". MTV. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Gardner, Elysa (August 28, 2003). "Madonna, Spears, Aguilera shock at MTV Awards". USA Today. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 233
- Brackett, & Hoard 2004, p. 304
- Cross 2007, p. 97
- Kellaway, Kate (September 21, 2003). "Immaterial girl". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Horton & Simmons 2007, pp. 196–198
- "Madonna's label sues record giant". BBC. March 26, 2004. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
- Shawhan, Jason (August 26, 2007). "Madonna sells record company". NME. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- "Madonna Heads List Of Year's Top Tours". Billboard. January 2, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (June 12, 2006). "Madonna | I'm Going to Tell You a Secret". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- Jury, Louise (November 12, 2004). "Cliff Richard and Robbie Williams join British music's Hall of Fame". The Independent (London). Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- "Hollywood, music stars join forces in tsunami telethon". Australian Broadcasting Company. Associated Press. January 16, 2005. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- "The Live 8 Event". BBC. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- "Madonna: Dancing Queen". MTV. October 24, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Caulfield, Keith (November 19, 2005). "Albums: Confessions on a Dance Floor". Billboard (New York) 117 (47): 45. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
- Glenday 2007, p. 187
- "Madonna 'begged' Abba for sample". BBC. October 18, 2005. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Caulfield, Keith (September 4, 2006). "Madonna's 'Confessions' Tour Sets Record". Billboard. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Khyam, Omar (August 18, 2006). "Boycott of Madonna Moscow concert urged". Jewish News Weekly (The Emanu-El). Retrieved January 21, 2008.
- "IFPI Platinum Europe Awards: July & August 2006". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. September 13, 2006. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- "Madonna 'adopts child in Africa'". BBC. October 11, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- "Madonna's adoption appeal begins in Malawi". CNN. Associated Press. April 4, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Pilkington, Ed (October 26, 2006). "Confessions on a TV show: Oprah hears Madonna's side of the story". The Guardian. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Thomas, Karen (October 26, 2006). "Madonna speaks out over furor". USA Today. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Itzkoff, David (June 12, 2009). "Court Rules That Madonna May Adopt Malawi Girl". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- "Madonna, H&M Offer New Collection". Billboard. December 9, 2006. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Herrera, Monica (July 16, 2007). "Live Earth London Wraps With Madonna Spectacular". Billboard. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Caulfield, Keith (October 16, 2007). "Update: Madonna Confirms Deal With Live Nation". Billboard. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Petridis, Alexis (August 9, 2007). "I Am Because We Are review". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Elan, Priya (April 3, 2008). "Review: Madonna's Filth and Wisdom". The Times (London). Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Johnston, Sheila (February 14, 2008). "Filth and Wisdom: Don't give up the day job, Madonna". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- "Madonna, Others Named to Rock Hall of Fame". USA Today. Associated Press. December 13, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2007.
- Campbell, Jim (March 11, 2008). "Madonna, Beasties, Mellencamp Up For Rock Hall". Billboard. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Madonna Has Her Say At Rock Hall Ceremony". CBS News. March 18, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
- Reid, Shaheem (August 8, 2008). "Timbaland Talks About His And Justin Timberlake's 'Hot' Collabo With Madonna". MTV. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- "Madonna's Hard Candy Debuts At No. 1 in 37 countries". Madonna.com. April 30, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- Hasty, Katie (May 7, 2008). "Madonna Leads Busy Billboard 200 with 7th #1". Billboard. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Shewey, Don (May 1, 2008). "Madonna Debuts 'Hard Candy' With Justin Timberlake at New York Club Show". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Hard Candy by Madonna: Review". Metacritic. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- Savage, Mark (April 8, 2008). "Review: Madonna's Hard Candy". BBC. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- Sischy, Ingrid (April 2008). "Madonna: the one and only, on her life unchained". Interview (CNET Networks).
- Hasty, Katie (April 2, 2008). "Mariah, Madonna Make Billboard Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
- Schmidt, Veronica (April 21, 2008). "Madonna Goes to No. 1 For the 13th Time". The Times (London). Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- 第２３回日本ゴールドディスク大賞で"アーティスト・オブ・ザ・イヤー"を受賞！ (in Japanese). Warner Music Japan. March 3, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
- Kaufman, Gil (September 3, 2009). "Madonna Breaks Her Own Solo-Tour Record With Sticky & Sweet". MTV. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Roger Waters Passes Madonna For Solo Boxscore Record With 459m Wall Live". Billboard. October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Herrera, Monica (January 30, 2009). "Madonna Resuming Sticky & Sweet Tour This Summer". Billboard. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
- "Bestsellers: Hardcover Nonfiction". The New York Times. August 3, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- "Madonna's brother's book explores Guy Ritchie marriage". The Daily Telegraph (London). October 15, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Madonna and Ritchie Confirm Split". BBC. October 16, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- "Madonna gives Guy £50m in divorce". BBC. December 15, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- Banda, Mabvuto; Georgy, Michael (May 25, 2009). "Madonna Loses Adoption Bid In Malawi". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
- Tyre, Blan (June 12, 2009). "Madonna Wins Adoption Battle". CBS News. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- Caulfield, Keith (July 23, 2009). "Madonna's 'Celebration' Hits Collection To Feature Two New Songs". Billboard. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- Sexton, Paul (September 29, 2009). "Madonna's U.K. Chart 'Celebration'". Billboard. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- Crosley, Hillary; Kaufman, Gil (September 13, 2009). "Madonna Pays Tearful Tribute To Michael Jackson At 2009 VMAs?". MTV. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Leach, Dan (June 20, 2009). "Madonna's adopted daughter Mercy was to be returned to family, grandmother claims". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Billboard Charts – Decade-end Artists – Singles Sales Artists". Billboard. Archived from the original on December 27, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- "Madonna 'most played' artist of decade". BBC News. April 5, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- "Top Touring Artists of the Decade". Billboard. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
- Johnston, Maura (January 22, 2010). "Madonna Brings Classic 'Like A Prayer' To 'Hope For Haiti Now' Telethon". MTV. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Madonna's 'Sticky & Sweet' Concert To Be Released March 30 On DVD, Blu-Ray And CD". Madonna.com. January 12, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Stack, Tim (October 21, 2009). "'Glee' Exclusive: Madonna is on board! Is Adam Lambert next?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
- Caulfield, Keith (April 28, 2010). "Madonna's 'Glee'tastic 'Celebration' Continues on Hot 100, Digital Chart". Billboard. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- Serjeant, Jill (August 20, 2010). "Madonna sued over 'Material Girl' clothing line". Reuters. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Lee, Joyce (October 26, 2010). "Madonna to Open 'Hard Candy' Gym Chain". CBS News. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- "Madonna And MG Icon Announce The Launch of The 'Truth or Dare by Madonna' Brand". Madonna.com. November 3, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Jafaar, Ali (February 13, 2010). "Madonna directing 'W.E.'". Variety. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "W.E. Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic. December 9, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- "W.E.". Rotten Tomatoes. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- Vena, Jocelyn (January 15, 2012). "Madonna's 'Masterpiece' Wins The Golden Globe". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Super Bowl XLVI Halftime show featured Madonna". National Football League. December 4, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Bauder, David (February 6, 2012). "Super Bowl most watched TV show in U.S. history, draws record 111.3 million viewers". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012.
- Halperin, Shirley (December 15, 2011). "Madonna's Interscope-Live Nation Deal Worth $40 Million; Album Due Out in March". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 15, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Interscope Records (January 29, 2012). "The Material Girl is Back on the Dance Floor". PR Newswire. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "MDNA Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Elan, Priya (March 23, 2012). "Album Reviews – Madonna – 'MDNA'". NME. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Caulfield, Keith (September 14, 2009). "Madonna Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200, Lionel Richie at No. 2". Billboard. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- Kreisler, Lauren (April 1, 2012). "Madonna lands 12th Number 1 with MDNA and overtakes Elvis' career record". Official Charts Company. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "Madonna Scores Record-Extending 38th Hot 100 Top 10". Billboard. September 14, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
- Cadan, Dan (June 1, 2012). "Madonna Kicks Off 'MDNA' Tour in Tel Aviv". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Pareles, Jon (August 29, 2012). "A Pop Queen Flaunts Her Toned Maturity". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Gig review (including picture gallery): Madonna, MDNA Tour, Birmingham's NIA". Birmingham Mail. July 20, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Waddell, Ray (January 24, 2013). "Madonna's 'MDNA' Tour Makes Billboard Boxscore's All-Time Top 10". Billboard. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- Payne, Chris (May 19, 2013). "Madonna Humbly Accepts Top Touring Artist Trophy at Billboard Music Awards". Billboard. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- Nardine Saad (August 28, 2013). "Madonna is Forbes' top-earning celebrity thanks to MDNA tour". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- "madonna-leaves-malawi-charity". Daily News (New York). April 7, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Malawi labels Madonna a 'bully' after recent visit". BBC. April 11, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- Mapondera, Godfrey; Smith, David (April 12, 2013). "Malawi president's attack on Madonna said to be a 'goof'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Madonna continues to tease Secret Project with Steven Klein in third trailer". Metro. Associated Newspapers Limited. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Caitlin McGarry (September 17, 2013). "BitTorrent and Madonna join forces for free speech". TechHive. IDG Consumer & SMB. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Blistein, John (January 7, 2014). "Madonna Names Katy Perry Art for Freedom Guest Curator". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- Grow, Kory (June 30, 2014). "Madonna Aims to Help Detroit Hometown by Funding Charities". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Watch Madonna Join Macklemore & Ryan Lewis for 'Same Love' Grammy Wedding". Spin (Spin Media LLC). January 26, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Gallo, Phil (January 29, 2014). "Madonna, Miley Cyrus Team for Country-Themed MTV 'Unplugged' Special". Billboard. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Rutherford, Kevin (February 14, 2014). "Madonna Premiering Skin Care Brand in Japan". Billboard. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Hampson, Sarah (February 14, 2014). "My seven-minute, speed-date interview with Madonna". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Madonna hits studio with Kills". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- "Madonna Stars in New Versace Ad Campaign". December 3, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- D'Addario, Daniel (December 18, 2014). "Madonna on Leaked Demos of New Album: 'This Is Artistic Rape'". Time. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Petridis, Alexis (December 21, 2014). "Madonna: I did not say, 'Hey, here's my music, and it's finished.' It was theft". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved December 22, 2014.
- Spanos, Brittany (March 2, 2015). "Madonna Plots Rebel Heart Tour for North America, Europe". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Sears, Stephen (March 4, 2013). "Madonna’s ‘Ray Of Light’ Turns 15: Backtracking". Idolator. Spin Media. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Grant 2005, p. 6
- Grant 2005, p. 3
- Lancaster & di Leonardo 1997, p. 355
- "Madonna > Credits". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Gnojewski 2007, p. 57
- Morton 2002, p. 20
- "Madonna: Album Guide". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, pp. 55–58
- Cross 2007, p. 19
- Rooksby 2004, p. 30
- Myers, John (April 9, 2009). "Classic 90's Music Reviews: Madonna's Erotica". Yahoo!. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 19
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 169
- Coulhan, Erin (October 9, 2013). "Madonna, Led Zeppelin Among Songwriters Hall of Fame Nominees". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Sclafani, Tony (March 7, 2008). "Madonna: A true blue rock star". MSNBC. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- "Madonna – Madonna > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, pp. 59–61
- Kellner 1995, p. 277
- "CG: Madonna". Robert Christgau. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Anderson, Kyle (October 20, 2010). "Madonna Gets Kinky With Erotica: Wake-Up Video". MTV. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Farber, Jim (October 28, 1994). "Album Review: 'Bedtime Stories' (1994)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 44
- Taraborrelli 2002, pp. 301
- Cross 2007, p. 96
- Rees, Paul (May 2003). "Madonna Attacks!". Q 67: 31. ISSN 0955-4955. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Todd, Matthew (November 2005). "Madonna: Confessions of an Icon". Attitude (Vitality Publishing).
- Pareles, Jon (March 26, 2012). "‘MDNA,’ Madonna’s 12th Studio Album". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Dean 2003, p. 34
- Bego 2000, p. 122
- Lamsweerde, Inez van; Matadin, Vinoodh (April 1998). "Madonna Chooses Dare". Spin (SPIN Media LLC) 14 (4): 70–76. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Kuklenski, Valerie (November 1, 1999). "‘Slashmeister’ Craven tackles different genre with 'Music'". Las Vegas Sun (The Greenspun Corporation). Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Crane, Kelly (June 3, 2012). "Monte Pittman reveals what it's like on tour with Madonna". Gulf News (Al Nisr Publishing). Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Goodman, Abbey (February 15, 2002). "Madonna: The Next Guitar God?". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Burston, Paul (September 9, 2007). "Madonna: Like an Icon, By Lucy O'Brien". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Worrell, Denise (May 27, 1985). "Madonna, Why She's Hot". Time. ISSN 0040-781X.
- Michael 2004, p. 199
- King, Larry (January 19, 1999). "Interview: Madonna reviews life on Larry King Live". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- "Madonna accepts for David Bowie". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- O'Brien 2007, pp. 126–131
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, pp. 67–70
- "Online English-Italian Dictionary". WorldReference.com. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- Victor 2001, p. 78
- Morton 2002, p. 293
- Voller 1999, p. 170
- Guralnick & Wolk 2000, p. 149
- Cross 2007, p. 47
- Susman, Gary (September 30, 2003). "Strike a Pose". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 69
- Friskics-Warren 2006, p. 72
- Ross, Rick (August 5, 2004). "Madonna opens her own school". The Times of India. The Times Group. Retrieved February 20, 2006.
- "Madonna defends Kabbalah interest". BBC. October 21, 2005. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 161
- Taylor 1993, p. 191
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 163
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 145
- Kellner 1995, p. 271
- Clerk 2002, p. 44
- Rettenmund 1995, p. 34
- Welton 1998, p. 234
- Cross 2007, p. 70
- Landrum 2007, p. 258
- Nelson, Chris (February 1, 2004). "Lip-Synching Gets Real". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Christensen, Thor (September 15, 2001). "Loose Lips: Pop Singers' Lip-Syncing In Concert Is An Open Secret". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. B.8. ISSN 1068-624X.
- Harada, Kai (September 1, 2007). "Kai Harada, sound designer and sound handbook author, writes about "The Feeding and Care of RF Microphones". Harada-Sound.com. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- Castle, Andrew (July 2, 2007). "Wimbledon's No 1 seat". The Independent (London: Independent News & Media). Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 290
- Diamond 1996, p. 202
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 90
- Kellner 1995, p. 263
- Kaye, Ben (April 10, 2012). "MDNA in the time of MDMA: The End of Madonna’s Reign?". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- "Review: Madonna Style". M. November 12, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Mujeres que cambiaron las reglas del rock". Rolling Stone Spain (in Spanish). April 14, 2012. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- Barcella 2012
- Langley, William (August 9, 2008). "Madonna, mistress of metamorphosis". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- McGee, Alan (August 20, 2008). "Madonna Pop Art". The Guardian. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Sclafani, Tony (August 12, 2008). "At 50, has Madonna surpassed the Beatles?". MSNBC. NBCUniversal. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- Gormly, Kellie B. (November 1, 2012). "Flamboyant Divas Can Thank Madonna". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 161
- Castillo, Michelle (November 18, 2010). "The 25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century: Madonna (1958–present)". Time. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- Graham, Mark (February 13, 2012). "VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Music". VH1. Viacom. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era". VH1. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 168
- Roger Chapman (2010). "Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices, Volume 1". M.E. Sharpe. p. 333.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 162
- Fiske 1989, p. 102
- Buikema & van der Tuin 2009, p. 119
- Jeffreys 2005, p. 96
- Jhally 2006, p. 194
- Kramarae & Spender 2000, p. 459
- Johnston, Ian (September 23, 2004). "Get a head for business, tune into Madonna". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- Anderson, Jamie; Kupp, Martin (January 18, 2007). "Case Study: Madonna". The Times (News Corp). Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Morton 2002, p. 89
- Blackmore & de Castro 2008, p. 496
- Lane, Dan (March 29, 2012). "Madonna's Top 40 most downloaded tracks revealed!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- Egan, Barry (January 3, 2010). "U2 strike a chord in the best albums from 2009". The Independent (Independent News & Media). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
- "Best-Selling Female Recording Artist of All Time". Guinness World Records. Jim Pattison Group. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "Top Selling Artists". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- "The American Recording Industry Announces Its Artists of the Century". Recording Industry Association of America. November 10, 1999. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- "BPI – Certified Awards Search". British Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Waddell, Ray (May 27, 2014). "Rolling Stones No. 1 on List of Top 25 Live Artists Since 1990". Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- "Who has won the most MTV Video Music Awards?". Vibe 16 (2): 58. March 2008. ISSN 1070-4701.
- Trust, Gary (November 6, 2012). "Madonna Celebrates 30th Anniversary On Billboard Charts". Billboard. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Barcella, Laura (2012). Madonna and Me: Women Writers on the Queen of Pop. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-59376-475-8.
- Bego, Mark (2000). Madonna: Blonde Ambition. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-0-8154-1051-5.
- Blackmore, Hazel; de Castro, Rafael Fernández (2008). ¿Qué es Estados Unidos? (in Spanish). Fondo de Cultura Economica. ISBN 978-968-16-8461-7.
- Bohem, David A. (1990). Guinness World Records 1990. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 0-8069-5791-3.
- Bronson, Fred (2002). The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits. Billboard books. ISBN 0-8230-7677-6.
- Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- Buikema, Rosemarie; van der Tuin, Iris (2009). Doing Gender in Media, Art and Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203876800.
- Claro, Nicole (1994). Madonna. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-2330-3.
- Clerk, Carol (2002). Madonnastyle. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-8874-9.
- Cross, Mary (2007). Madonna: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-33811-6.
- Dean, Maury (2003). Rock 'n' Roll Gold Rush: A Singles Un-Cyclopedia. Algora Publishing. ISBN 0-87586-207-1.
- Diamond, Elin (1996). Performance and Cultural Politics. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-12767-7.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris (2002). All music guide to rock: the definitive guide to rock, pop, and soul. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 1399. ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty And Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices In The West. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35183-9.
- Fiske, John (1989). Reading the popular. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07875-X.
- Fouz-Hernández, Santiago; Jarman-Ivens, Freya (2004). Madonna's Drowned Worlds. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-3372-1.
- Friskics-Warren, Bill (2006). I'll Take You There: Pop Music and the Urge for Transcendence. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1921-6.
- Glenday, Craig (1998). Guinness World Records 1998. Jim Pattison Group. ISBN 0-85112-070-9.
- Glenday, Craig (2007). Guinness World Records 2007. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-58992-X.
- Gnojewski, Carol (2007). Madonna: Express Yourself. Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-2442-7.
- Grant, Robert (2005). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1999-3.
- Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002). Madonna as postmodern myth. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1408-1.
- Guralnick, Peter; Wolk, Douglas (2000). Best Music Writing. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80999-0.
- Horton, Ros; Simmons, Sally (2007). Women Who Changed the World. Quercus. ISBN 1-84724-026-7.
- Kellner, Douglas (1995). Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10570-6.
- Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale (2000). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92091-4.
- Lancaster, Roger Nelson; di Leonardo, Micaela (1997). The Gender/sexuality Reader: Culture, History, Political Economy. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91005-6.
- Landrum, Gene N. (2007). Paranoia & Power: Fear & Fame of Entertainment Icons. Morgan James Publishing. ISBN 1-60037-273-2.
- Metz, Allen; Benson, Carol (1999). The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Group. ISBN 0-8256-7194-9.
- Morton, Andrew (2002). Madonna. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-312-98310-7.
- O'Brien, Lucy (2007). Madonna: Like an Icon. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-593-05547-0.
- Pitts, Michael (2004). Famous Movie Detectives. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3690-4.
- Rettenmund, Matthew (1995). Madonnica: The Woman & The Icon From A To Z. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-11782-5.
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004). The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9883-3.
- Michael, Mick St. (2004). Madonna talking: Madonna in Her Own Words. Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84449-418-7.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2002). Madonna: An Intimate Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2880-4.
- Taylor, Mark C. (1993). Nots. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-79131-9.
- Tetzlaff, David (1993). Metatextual Girl. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1396-1.
- Victor, Barbara (2001). Goddess, Inside Madonna. Cliff Street Books. ISBN 0-06-019930-X.
- Voller, Debbie (1999). Madonna: The Style Book. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-7511-6.
- Warren, Holly; George, Patricia Romanowski; Bashe, Patricia Romanowski; Pareles, Jon (2001). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Fireside. ISBN 0-7432-0120-5.
- Welton, Donn (1998). Body and flesh: a philosophical reader. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-57718-126-3.
- Jhally, Sut (2006). The Spectacle of Accumulation: Essays in Culture, Media, And Politics. Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-7904-7.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Database entry Q1744 on Wikidata|
- Official website
- Madonna at AllMovie
- Madonna at AllMusic
- Madonna at the Internet Movie Database
- Madonna at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- Madonna at the TCM Movie Database
- Works by or about Madonna in libraries (WorldCat catalog)