American entertainer Madonna has released 69 music videos, 10 concert tour videos, 4 music video compilations, 5 music video singles, 2 documentaries, 2 box sets, and 4 promotional videos. In 1982, Madonna signed a recording contract with Sire Records and released her first two singles before launching her eponymous debut album. Her first video to receive attention on MTV was "Borderline" which was followed by "Lucky Star". Together with the 1984 video for "Like a Virgin", they led to an increase in Madonna's image, fashion and popularity. With the "title track" from her third studio album True Blue (1986), Madonna's impact on MTV and popular music was established when a contest entitled Making My Video, was held to create a music video for the song. "La Isla Bonita" and "Who's That Girl", both released in 1987, portrayed Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture and included religious symbolism. In 1989, Madonna signed a $5 million deal with Pepsi to use her song "Like a Prayer" in one of their commercial advertisements. The video portrayed her dancing in front of burning crosses, receiving stigmata, kissing a black saint and having sex with him in a church altar. When she released it, the video faced strong reaction from religious groups and media. "Express Yourself" released the same year was critically appreciated for its positive feminist themes.
In 1990, Madonna released the song "Vogue", which portrayed the underground gay subculture dance routine called voguing, and the glamorous look of golden era Hollywood. The following videos all explored sexuality and erotica in them, including "Justify My Love" (1990) and "Erotica" (1992). Facing backlash for the overtly sexual undertones portrayed in them, the video for "Secret", lead single from her sixth studio album, Bedtime Stories (1994), showed Madonna with scenes of rebirth and social stigma. "Bedtime Story", from the same album, showed a dream sequence, inspired by paintings of Frida Kahlo and Remedios Varo, while incorporating new age surrealistic images. In 1998, Madonna released her seventh studio album, Ray of Light. The music video for the lead single, "Frozen", ushered in a new image for her with the incorporation of Indian influences. The video for the title track was a high-speed one, portraying Japanese people going through their daily lives, interspersed with Madonna in black denim dancing to the music. Her incorporation of Asian culture continued with the video of "Nothing Really Matters" (1999) where she appeared as a geisha.
In 2000, Madonna released her eighth studio album, Music. The video for the title song featured her in the role of a glamorous cowgirl-cum-pimp. With the follow-up music videos, the singer portrayed violence and vandalism, in "What It Feels Like for a Girl" (2001), "Die Another Day" (2002) and "American Life" (2003), the latter being pulled from release due to the Iraq war of 2003. "Hung Up", lead single from Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005) was a tribute to John Travolta and his movies. "4 Minutes", the lead single from Hard Candy (2008), portrayed her as a superhero tackling physical obstacles. Her more recent music videos like that of the song "Celebration" (2009) and "Girl Gone Wild" (2012) was received favorably for paying homage to her past videos and a return to her dance roots.
Madonna has worked with successful directors and produced music videos that are considered by critics as works of art. Her videos have depicted controversial subjects such as teen pregnancy, racism, religion, sex, and violence. In their book, The Madonna Companion, authors Allen Metz and Carol Benson explained that more than any other pop star, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and to enhance her recorded work. Madonna has been honored with 20 MTV Video Music Awards—the most for any artist—including the lifetime achievement "Video Vanguard Award" in 1986. In 2003, MTV named her "The Greatest Music Video Star Ever" and said that "Madonna's innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video art form is what won her the award."
|"Everybody"||1982||Ed Steinberg||An in-house video featuring Madonna singing with a group of dancers against a neon-lit background||
|"Burning Up"||1983||Steve Barron||The video portrays Madonna, in a white dress, writhing on a road, singing the song about her lover, who drives a car around.||
|"Borderline"||1984||Mary Lambert||The video portrays Madonna as a young woman who is dancing in the streets when she catches the eye of a professional photographer. She leaves her boyfriend and goes with the photographer. After accidentally spray painting the photographer's car during a photo shoot, he yells at her and she returns to her boyfriend.||
|"Lucky Star"||1984||Arthur Pierson||The video portrays Madonna in her boy-toy image, dancing in front of a white background, flanked by two dancers. One of the dancers is her brother, Christopher Ciccone, as it says so in his book, "Life With My Sister Madonna."||
|"Like a Virgin"||1984||Mary Lambert||In the video, Madonna roams around the streets of Venice and through marble-pillared rooms wearing a white wedding dress; this clip is interspersed by images of a lion and a man wearing a lion mask. It faced negative reaction from family organizations and social workers, who complained that it promoted sex outside marriage and undermined family values, offering an unsavory image of Madonna as a whore.||
|"Material Girl"||1985||Mary Lambert||Pictured as a video-within-a-video, Madonna sings the song dressed up in a pink sleeveless gown, flanked by boys in black coats. The video imitated Marilyn Monroe's version of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. The video and the song together culminated in Madonna's nickname as "material girl" in mainstream media.||
|"Crazy for You"||1985||Harold Becker||The music video consists of scenes from the film, Vision Quest.||
|"Into the Groove"||1985||Susan Seidelman||The music video consists of scenes from the film, Desperately Seeking Susan.|||
|"Gambler"||1985||Harold Becker||The music video consists of scenes from the film, Vision Quest.||
|"Dress You Up"||1985||Danny Kleinman||The music video consists of scenes from the live performance of the song on The Virgin Tour.||
|"Live to Tell"||1986||James Foley||The video portrays Madonna with a new pale and subtle look, her shoulder-length hair is wavy and golden blond. Footage from the movie At Close Range is interspersed, with Madonna appearing to speak for the character.||
|"Papa Don't Preach"||1986||James Foley||In this video, Madonna adopts the gamine look portrayed by Shirley MacLaine and Audrey Hepburn during the 1950s. She portrays a tomboy who wants to tell her father about her pregnancy. Interspersed with scenes of a sexier Madonna with a toned body, wearing a black bustier.||
|"True Blue"||1986||James Foley||The American version from MTV's Make My Video Contest was directed by Ángel Gracia and Cliff Guest, where Madonna does not appear. The international release directed by Foley portrays Madonna and her friends in an all-blue diner.||
|"Open Your Heart"||1986||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||The video pays homage to actresses Liza Minnelli and Marlene Dietrich. Madonna plays an exotic dancer in a peep-show club who befriends a little boy and escapes from there. The video was negatively received, because it portrays the entry of a child in a strip club.||
|"La Isla Bonita"||1987||Mary Lambert||Madonna plays a woman living in a Spanish barrio. She portrays two characters: a boyishly-dressed Catholic woman and a colorful Flamenco dancer. The video portrays Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture and the inclusion of religious symbolism.|||
|"Who's That Girl"||1987||Peter Rosenthal||The video portrays Madonna dressed in Spanish style as a young lady in search of a treasure. It includes scenes from the film of the same name.|||
|"Like a Prayer"||1989||Mary Lambert||The video portrays Madonna to be a witness of an interracial murder and goes to pray in a church. Various scenes like Madonna kissing a black saint, receiving stigmata, scantily dressed and dancing in front of burning crosses are shown. In the end, she helps to free the man who is falsely accused of murder. Religious groups protested that the video was a blasphemous use of Christian imagery. The Pope banned Madonna from appearing in Italy and urged a national boycott of Pepsi. The latter withdrew their contract with Madonna while letting her keep the $5 million.||
|"Express Yourself"||1989||David Fincher||Inspired by the film Metropolis, the video portrays Madonna as the leader of a company, and later as a glamorous lady and chained masochist. Muscular men act as her workers. In the end, Madonna picks one of them to be her date. The music video for "Express Yourself" was the most expensive video at the time of its release with production cost of $5 million.||
|"Cherish"||1989||Herb Ritts||Madonna plays on the beach with mermen and merchild. In the end she falls in love with one of the mermen.|||
|"Dear Jessie"||1989||Derek Hayes||An animated video featuring Madonna as an animated fairy. The video was released only outside the United States.|||
|"Oh Father"||1989||David Fincher||A black-and-white video portraying the death scene of a young mother and the tempestuous relationship that ensues between the husband and the daughter. Years later Madonna, as the grown-up daughter, reconciles with the father at the woman's grave.|||
|"Vogue"||1990||David Fincher||Black-and-white video recreating the glamorous look of old Hollywood with men in suits and Madonna dressed in gowns. It also displays the dance form called vogue. The video was praised for making the sex and gender roles ambiguous in its portrayal of people, and for bringing an underground culture in the mainstream limelight.||
|"Justify My Love"||1990||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||Black-and-white video portraying Madonna coming to a hotel room to satisfy her sexual fantasy. Scenes of sadomasochism, voyeurism and bisexuality are also portrayed. Critics were polarized over the video's content with some of them applauding Madonna's boldness while others took the brazenness of the video negatively. Madonna called the video "a celebration of sex". She released the video as a video single and it went on to become the best-selling music video single of all time, earning a four-times platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America.||
|"This Used to Be My Playground"||1992||Alek Keshishian||The video is a walk-through of Madonna singing about the old days, as the viewer flips through a photo album which feature moving images of a singing Madonna as well as images from the film A League of Their Own.|||
|"Erotica"||1992||Fabien Baron||Madonna is portrayed as a masked dominatrix with a golden tooth and a whip. Montages of sexual imagery are shown that are shot during the photography of Madonna's Sex book. It is a montage of sexually charged images, designed to shock the audience. MTV put the video into heavy rotation, but only after midnight.|||
|"Deeper and Deeper"||1992||Bobby Woods||Madonna portrays Warhol protégé Edie Sedgwick. She goes to a disco and looks for something which ends with a man releasing the balloons she is carrying. Interspersed with scenes of Madonna being photographed and she and her friends watching a man dancing in underwear.|||
|"Bad Girl"||1993||David Fincher||The video opens and closes with shots of a murdered Madonna, who, having lived a life of promiscuous sex, presumably joins her dead lover and guardian angel, portrayed by actor Christopher Walken.|||
|"Fever"||1993||Stéphane Sednaoui||The video portrays Madonna as a Balinese idol with red hair and another shot of her being silver painted. Interspersed with scenes of a man in thongs, his body painted gold.|||
|"Rain"||1993||Mark Romanek||The video portrays Madonna with short cropped, black hair, recording the song in a studio. Interspersed with scenes of Madonna kissing a man behind a glass on which water falls. Critical appreciation came for the music video, whose technical brilliance was awarded at the 1993 MTV Video Music Awards.||
|"I'll Remember"||1994||Alek Keshishian||Madonna singing the song in a recording studio, while being directed by an androgynous version of herself. Interspersed with clips from the film With Honors.|||
|"Secret"||1994||Melodie McDaniel||Black-and-white video featuring Madonna as a blues singer singing in a club. Scenes of rebirth, transvestites and damnation are interspersed with Madonna walking down a street to her home.|||
|"Take a Bow"||1994||Michael Haussman||Madonna portrays the mistress of a Spanish bullfighter. Their affair ends after Madonna is being abused by the fighter. Religious imagery forms the backbone of the video.|||
|"Bedtime Story"||1995||Mark Romanek||A surreal dream sequence arising from some sort of controlled experiment on a prostrate Madonna, lying in a blue spaceship-like room. The production cost of the video was $5 million, making it one of the costliest videos. The video was honored as a permanent collection in New York's Museum of Modern Art in 1996.||
|"Human Nature"||1995||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||Madonna and her dancers in front of a white background, wearing black, PVC catsuits, perform a number of S&M-inspired dance moves.|||
|"I Want You"
(featuring Massive Attack)
|1995||Earle Sebastian||Madonna in an apartment and on a bed, longing for whomever, but not daring to phone him. A very slow b/w-video. Madonna's only video to date for a non-single song.|||
|"You'll See"||1995||Michael Haussman||Sequel to the music video of "Take a Bow". Madonna leaves the bullfighter but he still chases her around the world. Ultimately she sets herself free from him.|||
|"Love Don't Live Here Anymore"||1996||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||Single-shot sepia-colored video showing Madonna in the middle of an empty suite of an abandoned hotel.|||
|"You Must Love Me"||1996||Alan Parker||Madonna was pregnant with her daughter Lourdes at the time of shooting the video. Her stomach was hidden behind a piano in the video.|||
|"Don't Cry for Me Argentina"||1996||Alan Parker||The music video for "Don't Cry for Me Argentina" is an excerpt from the film Evita.|||
|"Another Suitcase in Another Hall"||1996||Alan Parker||The music video for "Another Suitcase in Another Hall" is an excerpt from the film Evita.|||
|"Frozen"||1998||Chris Cunningham||An all-blue video shot in the middle of Mojave Desert. Dressed in black clothing from head to foot, her long hair colored black and straight and mehndi on her hands, Madonna portrays a mystical creature and a witchy persona who sometimes turns into a dog, sometimes into a bird and sometimes levitates from the ground.|||
|"Ray of Light"||1998||Jonas Åkerlund||A high-speed video, showing ordinary people doing their daily routines. In between Madonna, dressed in casual jeans and flowing golden hair, dances to the song, ultimately falling asleep on a dance floor. It won the Video of the Year award at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards.||
|"Drowned World/Substitute for Love"||1998||Walter Stern||Portrays Madonna running away from the paparazzi in a car. After reaching home she takes her daughter in her arms.|||
|"The Power of Good-Bye"||1998||Matthew Rolston||Madonna and her lover play chess, and Madonna wins. After her lover reprimands her, Madonna goes out to the beach and starts walking along the shore, where she possibly commits suicide.|||
|"Nothing Really Matters"||1999||Johan Renck||Japanese-themed video, featuring Madonna as a geisha wearing a red kimono and white clad Swedes of Asian heritage performing butoh dance moves.|||
|"Beautiful Stranger"||1999||Brett Ratner||Shot for the film, Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (1999), the video features Madonna dancing in a club and actor Mike Myers as Austin Power trying to seduce her; his plan ultimately backfiring.|||
|"American Pie"||2000||Philip Stolzl||Madonna sings the song in front of a giant Flag of the United States. Interspersed with scenes which are characteristic of the American life. Actor Rupert Everett makes an appearance.|||
|"Music"||2000||Jonas Åkerlund||Madonna and her friends board a limousine which takes them to a strip-club and disco. The strippers are brought over in the limousine by Madonna and her friends. An animated section is present where Madonna fights with some goons.|||
|"Don't Tell Me"||2000||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||The video shows Madonna walking on a conveyor belt in front of a video screen where cowboys are shown dancing. They join Madonna in front of the screen near the end of the video.|||
|"What It Feels Like for a Girl"||2001||Guy Ritchie||Madonna picks up an old woman from an old-age home and speeds down the streets with her in a car. While driving she commits a number of crimes, including theft, destruction of property and murder. The video was banned in the United States for being too violent. The audio used in the video is the Above & Beyond remix instead of the original album version.|||
|"Die Another Day"||2002||Traktor||Features a heavily-beat-up Madonna being brought to be executed in a gas chamber. Interspersed with scenes of a white-dressed and black-dressed Madonna sword fighting. In the end Madonna escapes from the execution. The former's video was the second most expensive video, production cost being around $6 million.||
|"American Life"||2003||Jonas Åkerlund||Original video showed Madonna among military-garbed models at a fashion show. Interspersed with shots of the catwalk was footage of explosions and planes dropping bombs. The video ends with Madonna throwing what appears to be a grenade into the lap of a George W. Bush lookalike. Madonna had initially claimed that the video was non-specific and anti-war. However, before its premiere on music channels in March 2003, Madonna cancelled the release and issued a statement saying that, "I do not believe that it is appropriate to air it [the video] at this time. Due to the volatile state of the world and out of sensitivity and respect for the armed forces, who I support and pray for, I do not want to risk offending anyone who might misinterpret the meaning of this video." Because of this, Madonna released the edited version of the video that features her singing in front of the world's flags.||
|"Hollywood"||2003||Jean-Baptiste Mondino||Madonna portrays some of Hollywood's former actresses and the upheaval of a glamorous life.|||
|"Me Against the Music"
(Britney Spears featuring Madonna)
|2003||Paul Hunter||Britney Spears and Madonna are shown in a club, playing opposite characters with Britney in the dark and Madonna in the white. A cat-and-mouse like chase ensues; Spears catches up to Madonna in the end.|||
|"Love Profusion"||2003||Luc Besson||Madonna walks on the sky and on the water with fairies, fishes, flowers and clouds surrounding her.|||
|"Hung Up"||2005||Johan Renck||The video portrays Madonna clad in a pink leotard dancing alone in a ballet studio and concludes at a gaming parlour where she dances with her backup troupe. Interspersed are scenes of people displaying their dancing skills in a variety of settings.|||
|"Sorry"||2006||Jamie King||A continuation from the "Hung Up" music video. Madonna and her troupe go around the town in a white van and dance in a skating arena.|||
|"Get Together"||2006||Logan||The video shows Madonna singing the song among graphical visuals portraying volcanoes erupting and a cityscape.|||
|"Jump"||2006||Jonas Åkerlund||The video features Madonna in a blond bob wig and singing the song in front of several neon signs. The video also features dancers performing the physical discipline parkour.|||
(featuring Justin Timberlake and Timbaland)
|2008||Jonas & François||Madonna and Timberlake sing and run away from a giant black screen that devours everything in its path. At the end of the video, Madonna and Timberlake are consumed by the screen||.|
|"Give It 2 Me"||2008||Tom Munro
|Madonna in retro-makeup look dancing in a photography studio in various garments. Cameo appearance by Pharrell Williams.|||
|"Miles Away"||2008||Nathan Rissman||Live footage from the Sticky & Sweet Tour in Buenos Aires, mostly footage of the fans and stadium before and during the show. Originally unreleased, but finally included on the Celebration: The Video Collection DVD.|||
|"Celebration"||2009||Jonas Åkerlund||A simple dance video featuring Madonna and her dancers doing the popping and locking style of dancing against black-and-white backgrounds. The audio used in the video is the Benny Benassi remix instead of the original album version.|||
|"Give Me All Your Luvin'"
(featuring Nicki Minaj and M.I.A.)
|2012||Megaforce||The video shows Nicki Minaj and M.I.A (who are featured in the song), in cheerleader outfits cheering on Madonna, who wears a black outfit for most of the video. It then leads into a scene where Madonna, Minaj, and M.I.A are all dressed as Marilyn Monroe.||
|"Girl Gone Wild"||2012||Mert and Marcus||The black-and-white video opens with Madonna with a retro-glam look, followed by scenes of her against a stark white background, erotic scenes with shirtless / nude male models (Sean O'Pry, Simon Nessman, Jon Kortajarena), and a dance sequence with heeled male dancers (Kazaky).||
|"Turn Up the Radio"||2012||Tom Munro||After a successful escape from the paparazzi, Madonna rides through Florence, Italy, picking up the best looking men on the roadside.|||
|"Living for Love"||2015||J.A.C.K.||Madonna dressed as a bullfighter performs a battle inspired choreography where she confronts and tames a number of male minotaurs.|||
|"Ghosttown"||2015||Jonas Åkerlund||Set in a post-nuclear destroyed city, the video shows Madonna as a survivor searching through the destruction, when she meets another man, played by actor Terence Howard.|||
|"Bitch I'm Madonna"
(featuring Nicki Minaj)
|2015||Jonas Åkerlund||The "one-shot" colorful music video shows Madonna in a party, dancing and interacting with the partygoers. Many celebrities appear in the video, some in the real footage (Rita Ora, Diplo, Chris Rock, Alexander Wang and Madonna sons Rocco and David), while others (Katy Perry, Miley Cyrus, Beyonce and Kanye West) were added separately. Nick Minaj appears on a screen at the party while she's rapping.|||
Concert tour videos
|Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour||1985||
||Contains The Virgin Tour as shot live in Detroit, Michigan, 1985 in support of her second studio album Like a Virgin. The video was certified two-times multi-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 200,000 units in the United States.||
|Who's That Girl: Live in Japan||1987||Contains the TV special of the same name, recorded during the Who's That Girl World Tour live from Tokyo, Japan, 1987. It was a Japan-only release and was used as a cross-promotion for Mitsubishi Electronics, as Madonna had starred in television commercials in that country.|||
|Ciao Italia: Live from Italy||1988||
||Contains a date filmed on the Who's That Girl World Tour live from Italy in 1987, which was originally broadcast as a TV special entitled Madonna in Concerto. It was certified two-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 200,000 units in the United States.||
|Blond Ambition: Japan Tour 90||1990||
||Contains the TV special from Blond Ambition World Tour, shot live from Yokohama, Japan in 1990. It was broadcast and released commercially in Japan only.|||
|Blond Ambition World Tour Live||1990||
||Contains the HBO special, Live! Madonna: Blond Ambition World Tour 90, filmed in Nice, France in August 1990. It was available on the Laserdisc format only and released exclusively by Pioneer Electronics, the sponsors of the Blond Ambition World Tour.|||
|The Girlie Show: Live Down Under||1994||
||Contains the HBO special Madonna Live Down Under: The Girlie Show broadcast from Sydney Cricket Ground in 1993 during The Girlie Show World Tour. It was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 50,000 units in the United Kingdom,> and gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 50,000 units in the United States.||
|Drowned World Tour 2001||2001||
||Contains the HBO special Madonna: Live! Drowned World Tour 2001, shot live from The Palace of Auburn Hills in Detroit during the Drowned World Tour in August 2001. The DVD release included a photo gallery and on-screen song lyrics as special features. It was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 50,000 units in the United Kingdom, and platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 100,000 units in the United States.||
|The Confessions Tour||2007||
||Contains the Confessions Tour, shot live from London, England, in 2006. Debuted at fifteen on the Billboard 200 on the issue dated February 2, 2007.|||
|Sticky & Sweet Tour||2010||
||Contains the Sticky & Sweet Tour, shot live from River Plate Stadium, Buenos Aires in December 2008. Debuted at ten on the Billboard 200, becoming Madonna's 19th top-ten album.|||
|MDNA World Tour||2013||Contains the concert special of The MDNA Tour originally aired on Epix in the United States on June 22, 2013. The show was directed by Danny B. Tull and Stephane Sennour and produced by Madonna.||
|Truth or Dare (aka In Bed with Madonna)||1991||Documentary following the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour. Includes live performances of "Express Yourself", "Oh Father", "Like a Virgin", "Live to Tell", "Holiday", "Vogue" and "Keep It Together". In the UK an additional VHS "15" certificate, edited version of In Bed with Madonna was released in November 1991, to allow younger teenagers to watch it. A Blu-ray version of the film was released in North America on April 3, 2012. It was certified Platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 50,000 units in the United Kingdom.||
|I'm Going to Tell You a Secret||2006||
||Documentary following the 2004 Re-Invention World Tour, originally broadcast by MTV on October 21, 2005. The DVD release included an extra six minutes footage and it also included a live CD album. The album debuted at number 33 on the Billboard 200 and was nominated for a Grammy Award at the 2007 show in the category of Best Long Form Music Video. It was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 25,000 units in the United Kingdom.||
Music video compilations
||Includes the music videos of "Burning Up", "Lucky Star", "Borderline" and "Like a Virgin". Madonna was the top-selling music video cassette of 1985. It was certified two times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 100,000 units in the United States.||
|The Immaculate Collection||1990||
||Includes the music videos for "Lucky Star", "Borderline", "Like a Virgin", "Material Girl", "Papa Don't Preach", "Open Your Heart", "La Isla Bonita", "Like a Prayer", "Express Yourself", "Cherish", "Oh Father", "Vogue" and its live performance from the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards. It was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 50,000 units in the United Kingdom, and three times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 300,000 copies.||
|The Video Collection 93:99||1999||
||Includes the music videos for "Bad Girl", "Fever", "Rain", "Secret", "Take a Bow", "Bedtime Story", "Human Nature", "Love Don't Live Here Anymore", "Frozen", "Ray of Light", "Drowned World", "Power of Goodbye", "Nothing Really Matters" and "Beautiful Stranger". It was certified two-times platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 100,000 units in the United Kingdom, and platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 100,000 units in the United States.||
|Celebration: The Video Collection||2009||
||DVD containing 47 music videos, released alongside the Celebration compilation album. It was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 100,000 units in the United States.||
|The Ultimate Collection||2000||
||UK only box set includes the video release of The Immaculate Collection and The Video Collection 93:99. Released in both VHS and DVD box sets. It was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 25,000 units in the United Kingdom.||
|The Madonna Collection||2000||
||UK only VHS box set includes Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour, The Immaculate Collection and The Girlie Show: Live Down Under.|||
|It's That Girl||1987||
||UK-only 14 track promotional instore compilation to accompany the Who's That Girl World Tour". Includes the music videos: "Holiday" (1984 Top of the Pops performance), "Lucky Star", "Like a Virgin", "Material Girl", "Into the Groove", "Angel", "Dress You Up" (Live), "Borderline", "Live to Tell", "Papa Don't Preach", "True Blue" (Remix), "Open Your Heart" (Remix), "La Isla Bonita" (Remix) and "Who's That Girl".|||
||UK-only 18 track promotional compilation to accompany the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour. Includes the music videos: "Like a Virgin", "Material Girl", "Into the Groove", "Angel", "Dress You Up" (Live), "Borderline" (Edit), "Live to Tell" (Edit without gun-scene), "Papa Don't Preach", "True Blue", "Open Your Heart" (Remix), "La Isla Bonita" (Remix), "Who's That Girl", "Causing a Commotion" (Live from Italy), "Like a Prayer", "Express Yourself", "Cherish", "Dear Jessie" and "Vogue".|||
|Rays of Light||1999||
||UK-only promotional compilation which includes the music videos for the five singles from Ray of Light.|||
||UK-only promotional instore video including "Music" remix video to promote GHV2. Artwork also refers to the album being named Greatest Hits – The Second Coming, its original title.|||
|"Justify My Love"||1990||
||Music video of "Justify My Love" and "Vogue" performed live at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards. It was certified four times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 400,000 copies of the single. The video has sold 440,000 copies and is the best-selling music video single of all time.||
|"Ray of Light"||1998||
||Special Limited Edition music video for "Ray of Light". It sold 7,381 copies in its first week.|||
||Music video for "Music". It was certified gold by both the Recording Industry Association of America and the British Phonographic Industrye.||
|"What It Feels Like for a Girl"||2001||
||Music video for "What It Feels Like for a Girl".|||
|"Music" / "Nobody Knows Me" (Live)||2006||
||Live music video of "Music" and "Nobody Knows Me" from the 2004 Re-Invention World Tour. The video single was released on iTunes Store to promote documentary I'm Going to Tell You a Secret.|||
- Madonna albums discography
- Madonna singles discography
- List of unreleased Madonna songs
- List of most expensive music videos
- Lipshutz, Jason (June 18, 2015). "Why Madonna's 'Bitch I'm Madonna' Video Is the Video She Needed to Make". Billboard. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Caulfield, Keith (March 18, 2009). "Madonna Plans New Tracks For Hits Collection". Billboard. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Cross 2007, p. 30
- Cross 2007, p. 32
- Clerk 2002, p. 99
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 67
- Hand, John (March 5, 2009). "Madonna's banned advert". BBC. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 56
- Cagle, Jess (May 4, 1990). "What, me vogue?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 227
- Miklitsch 1998, p. 124
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 56
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 168
- Cardwell, Annette (September 12, 1998). "Madonna's 'Ray of Light' shines at MTV awards". Boston Herald. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Reporter, BW (February 11, 1999). "Madonna's "Nothing Really Matters" World Premieres On MTV". Business Wire. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 94
- Fonseca, Nicholas (March 22, 2001). ""What It Feels Like for a Girl" – DVD". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- "Die teuersten Musikvideos aller Zeiten". Die Welt (in German) (Axel Springer AG). April 27, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 123
- Vineyard, Jennifer (August 25, 2006). "With No Director And Broken Ribs, Madonna Was 'Hung Up'". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Harris, Chris (April 3, 2008). "Madonna's '4 Minutes' Video Gets Online Sneak Peek". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Montogomery, James (September 1, 2009). "Madonna Returns To Her Dark Era With 'Celebration' Video". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Vena, Jocelyn (May 20, 2012). "Madonna Owns 'Girl Gone Wild' Title In New Video". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 161
- "Who has won the most MTV Video Music Awards?". Vibe 16 (2): 58. March 2008. ISSN 1070-4701.
- Landrum 2007, p. 258
- Morton 2002, p. 332
- Cross 2007, p. 26
- Allen 1987, p. 281
- Kellner 1995, p. 327
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 162
- Whiteley 2000, p. 136
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 277
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 310
- Voller 1999, p. 24
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 309
- Butler 2002, p. 232
- Voller 1999, p. 25
- Mansour 2005, p. 352
- Clerk 2002, p. 49
- Bordo & Heywood 2004, p. 273
- Dirks, Eley & Ortner 1994, p. 471
- Rettenmund 1995, p. 98
- Canby, Vincent (August 23, 1987). "Film View; In Search of Madonna's Persona". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 167
- Guilbert 2002, p. 120
- McIntyre, Hugh (August 24, 2014). "The 5 Most Expensive Music Videos Of All Time". Forbes. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 45
- Bego 2000, p. 78
- Clerk 2002, p. 80
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 283
- Rich, Joshua (November 20, 1998). "Madonna Banned". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- Pietrolungo, Silvio (July 18, 1998). "Video Singles Look For Higher Retail Profile". Billboard 110 (29): 83. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Pitman, Randy (August 27, 2000). "The Video Librarian" 19. University of Michigan. ISSN 0887-6851. OCLC 13306621.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 69
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 181
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 91
- Meyers 1999, p. 326
- "MTV Video Music Awards > Winners By Category". MTV. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- Clerk 2002, p. 112
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 147
- Clerk 2002, p. 132
- Brevett, Brad (June 11, 2008). "Comparing Tarsem's 'Fall' and 'Cell' to Romanek's 'Bedtime Story'". Rope of Silicon.com. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Press, Contact Music (September 9, 2002). "One Hour Photo – Robin Williams Gets Obsessive". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Vernallis 2004, p. 166
- Guilbert 2002, p. 172
- Solomon, Rizal (November 3, 2000). "Madonna TV". The Malay Mail (Media Prima Berhad). Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Strong, Brenda (May 21, 1999). "Madonna's to spy for Austin Power". Daily Record. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Wright, Matthew (February 12, 2000). "Madonna's bum wiped; She Censors Video". Daily Mirror. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Nettles, John G. (September 12, 2004). "Madonna: Music < PopMatters". PopMatters. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Reporter, BW (January 16, 2001). "Warner Bros. Records Selects CDKnet.". Business Wire (Berkshire Hathaway). Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Partridge, James (October 2, 2002). "Madonna Tries Out Karate in Video". Daily Mail. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Susman, Gary (April 1, 2003). "Miss 'American'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Benjamin, Laura (June 17, 2003). "Madonna in the image of Hollywood stars for her latest pop video". Daily Mail. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Vena, Jocelyn; Elias, Matt (November 20, 2009). "Britney Spears And Madonna 'Tease' Fans In 'Me Against The Music' Video". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Jarvis, Judy (May 1, 2003). "Madonna babbles her way into irrelevance". Intelligencer Journal. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Moody, Clemmie (February 10, 2006). "That looks painful... not bad for 47, Madonna!". Daily Mail. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "Madonna – Get Together music video". Yahoo!. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Slezak, Michael (October 9, 2006). "Snap Judgement: Madonna's 'Jump'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Cultured, Pop (June 11, 2008). "New Video: Madonna, 'Give It 2 Me'". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Reporter, Icon (August 25, 2009). "Madonna.com > News > 'Celebration' – Track Listing for CD & DVD Announced". Icon: Official Madonna website (Madonna.com). Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- Ramirez, Erika (December 8, 2011). "Madonna & Nicki Minaj Share a 'Romantic' Kiss On Video Set". Billboard. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- "Madonna – 'Give Me All Your Luvin''". Rolling Stone. February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Daw, Robbie (February 20, 2012). "Madonna Shooting 'Girl Gone Wild' Video This Week". Idolator. Buzz Media. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- Trust, Gary (March 21, 2012). "Madonna Channels 'Erotica' Days in 'Girl Gone Wild' Video". Billboard. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Carly, Brennan (July 16, 2012). "Madonna Escapes Paparazzi, Explores Italy in 'Turn Up the Radio' Video". Billboard. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Caulfield, Keith (December 28, 2014). "Madonna's Alleged Diss Track 'Not About Gaga,' Manager Says". Billboard. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Spedding, Emma (2015-04-07). "Exclusive: The Story Behind The Costumes For Madonna's Ghosttown Video". Grazia. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Lipshutz, Jason (June 18, 2015). "Why Madonna's 'Bitch I'm Madonna' Video Is the Video She Needed to Make". Billboard. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Deming, Mark (September 12, 2006). "Madonna: The Virgin Tour (Live) > Overview". AllMovie. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "American video certifications – Madonna". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved December 10, 2009. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Video Longform, then click SEARCH
- Fleming, Michael (September 3, 2004). "Madonna: Who's That Girl? (Live) > Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Deming, Mark. "Madonna: Ciao Italia – Live from Italy > Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Deming, Mark. "Madonna: Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90 > Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 254
- "British video certifications – Madonna". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved September 4, 2013. Enter Madonna in the field Search. Select Artist in the field Search by. Select DVD in the field By Format. Click Search
- Pavlides, Dan (March 23, 2006). "Madonna: The Girlie Show – Live Down Under > Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Seibert, Perry (September 12, 2008). "Madonna: Drowned World Tour > Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Cohen, Jonathan (February 7, 2007). "Better 'Late' Than Never: Jones Debuts At No. 1". Billboard. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Billboard – Madonna – The Sticky & Sweet Tour". Billboard. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
- "MDNA Tour To Premiere On Epix On June 22". Madonna.com. May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "MDNA Tour To Be Released On DVD & Blu-Ray August 27 (US) /August 26 (Internationally)". Madonna.com. June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- Sheward, Don (December 8, 2000). "Truth or Dare: Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Title « British Board of Film Classification". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "'Madonna: Truth or Dare' Blu-ray". Blu-Ray. February 1, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Carter, Kelly (December 8, 2006). "Local Grammy Nominees". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (September 4, 2004). "I'm Going to Tell You a Secret > Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Vare, Ethlie (November 23, 1985). "Music Videocassette Chart Review". Billboard 97 (47): 14. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 303
- "Top Upcoming DVDs". Billboard: 7. November 6, 1999. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- Caulfield, Keith (July 23, 2009). "Madonna's 'Celebration' Hits Collection To Feature Two New Songs". Billboard. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- The Ultimate Collection (Media notes). Madonna. Warner Music Vision. 2000. 7599-38519-3.
- The Madonna Collection (Media notes). Madonna. Warner Music Vision. 2000. 7599-38517-3.
- It's That Girl (Media notes). Madonna. Sire, WEA Records UK. 1987. SAM 379.
- She's Breathless (Media notes). Madonna. Sire, Warner Bros., WEA Records UK. 1990. SAM 684.
- Rays of Light (Media notes). Madonna. Maverick, Warner Bros., Warner Music UK. 1999. PRO-RAY-VHS.
- GHV2 (Media notes). Madonna. Maverick, Warner Bros., Warner Music UK. 2001. SAM 925.
- Rooksby 2004, p. 6
- "Music / Nobody Knows Me (Live) - Single". iTunes Store (US). Retrieved May 28, 2016.
- Allen, Robert Clyde (1987), Channels of discourse: television and contemporary criticism, Routledge, ISBN 0-416-07082-5
- Bego, Mark (2000), Madonna: blonde ambition, Cooper Square Press, ISBN 0-8154-1051-4
- Bordo, Susan R.; Heywood, Leslie (2004), Unbearable weight : feminism, Western culture, and the body, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24054-5
- Butler, Jeremy G. (2002), Television: critical methods and applications, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, ISBN 0-8058-4209-8
- Clerk, Carol (2002), Madonnastyle, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-8874-9
- Cross, Mary (2007), Madonna: A Biography, ISBN 0-313-33811-6
- Dirks, Nicholas B.; Eley, Geoff; Ortner, Sherry B. (1994), Culture/power/history: a reader in contemporary social theory, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02102-3
- Fouz-Hernández, Santiago; Jarman-Ivens, Freya (2004), Madonna's Drowned Worlds, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0-7546-3372-1
- Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002), Madonna as postmodern myth, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1408-1
- Kellner, Douglas (1995), Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10570-6
- Landrum, Gene N. (2007), Paranoia & Power: Fear & Fame of Entertainment Icons, Morgan James Publishing, ISBN 1-60037-273-2
- Mansour, David (2005), From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century, Andrews McMeel Publishing, ISBN 0-7407-5118-2
- Metz, Allan; Benson, Carol (1999), The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary, Music Sales Group, ISBN 0-8256-7194-9
- Meyers, Marian (1999), Mediated women: representations in popular culture, University of Virginia, ISBN 1-57273-239-3
- Miklitsch, Robert (1998), From Hegel to Madonna: towards a general economy of "commodity fetishism", SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3539-3
- Morton, Andrew (2002), Madonna, Macmillan Publishers, ISBN 0-312-98310-7
- Rettenmund, Matthew (1995), Totally Awesome 80s: A Lexicon of the Music, Videos, Movies, TV Shows, Stars, and Trends of that Decadent Decade, Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-14436-9
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004), The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-9883-3
- Taraborrelli, Randy J. (2002), Madonna: An Intimate Biography, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2880-4
- Vernallis, Carol (2004), Experiencing music video: aesthetics and cultural context, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11799-X
- Voller, Debbi (1999), Madonna: The Style Book, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-7511-6
- Whiteley, Sheila (2000), Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21190-5