Madura Island

Coordinates: 07°03′36″S 113°24′00″E / 7.06000°S 113.40000°E / -7.06000; 113.40000
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Madura Island
Pulau Madura (Indonesian)
Polo Madhurâ (Madurese)
ڤولو مادْوراْ‎‎ (Pèghu)
ꦥꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦩꦢꦸꦫ (Carakan)
ᨄᨘᨒᨚ ᨆᨉᨘᨑ (Lontara')
Nickname: Pulau Garam (Indonesian)
"The Salt Island"
Topography of Madura (above)
Location of Madura in East Java (below)
Map
Geography
LocationSoutheast Asia
Coordinates07°03′36″S 113°24′00″E / 7.06000°S 113.40000°E / -7.06000; 113.40000
ArchipelagoGreater Sunda Islands
Total islands127
Major islandsMadura, Kangean
Area5,379.22 km2 (2,076.93 sq mi)
Highest elevation500 m (1600 ft)
Highest pointLanjari Hill
Administration
Indonesia
ProvinceEast Java
Largest settlementPamekasan
Demographics
Population4,064,503 (mid 2022 estimate)
Pop. density756/km2 (1958/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsMadurese
Additional information
Time zone

Madura Island (Indonesian: Pulau Madura, Madurese: Polo Madhurâ; [pɔlɔ ˈmaʈʰurɤ], Pèghu: ڤولو مادْوراْ‎‎, Carakan: ꦥꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦩꦢꦸꦫ, Lontara': ᨄᨘᨒᨚ ᨆᨉᨘᨑ) is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java. The island comprises an area of approximately 4,442 square kilometres (1,715 sq mi) (administratively 5,379.22 km2; 2077 sq. mi. including various smaller islands to the east, southeast and north that are administratively part of Madura's easternmost Sumenep Regency). Administratively, Madura is part of the province of East Java. It is separated from Java by the narrow Madura Strait. The administered area has a density of 756 people per km2 (1958 per sq. mi.) in 2022, while the main island has a somewhat higher figure of 826 per km2 (2140 per sq. mi.) in 2020.[1]

Etymology[edit]

Madura is named for Madurai, the home of the Hindu deity Azhagar.[2]

History[edit]

In 1624, Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura, and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats, a single princely line.[3] The Cakraningrat family opposed Central Javanese rule and often conquered large parts of Mataram.[4]

Following the First Javanese War of Succession between Amangkurat III and his uncle, Pangeran Puger, the Dutch gained control of the eastern half of Madura in 1705. Dutch recognition of Puger was influenced by the lord of West Madura, Cakraningrat II who is thought to have supported Puger's claims in the hope that a new war in central Java would provide the Madurese with a chance to interfere. However, while Amangkurat was arrested and exiled to Ceylon, Puger took the title of Pakubuwono I and signed a treaty with the Dutch that granted them, East Madura.

The Cakraningrats agreed to help the Dutch quash the 1740 rebellion in Central Java after the Chinese massacre in 1740. In a 1743 treaty with the Dutch, Pakubuwono I ceded the full sovereignty of Madura to the Dutch, which was contested by Cakraningrat IV. Cakraningrat fled to Banjarmasin, took refuge with the British, was robbed and betrayed by the sultan, and captured by the Dutch and exiled to the Cape of Good Hope.

The Dutch continued Madura's administrative divisions of four states each with their own regent. The island was initially important as a source of colonial troops and in the second half of the nineteenth century it became the main source of salt for Dutch-controlled territories in the archipelago. The Dutch gradually sidelined the Sultan and took over direct control of the entire island in the 1880s, governing it as the Madoera Residency. From 1948 to 1950, under the United States of Indonesia, Madura was administered as a federative state known as the State of Madura.

Geography[edit]

Madura Island is a relatively flat topography and there is no significant difference in elevation, which makes Madura a badland. Geologically, Madura is part of the northern limestone mountains of Java. The limestone hills in Madura are lower, rougher, and rounder than the hills in northern Java.

Demography[edit]

Madura (including its offshore islands) has a population of about four million, most of whom are ethnically Madurese. The main language of Madura is Madurese, one of a family of Austronesian languages, which is also spoken in part of eastern Java and on many of the 66 outlying islands.

The Madurese are a large ethnic population in Indonesia, numbering around 7 million inhabitants. They come from the island of Madura as well as surrounding islands, such as Gili Raja, Sapudi, Raas, and the Kangean Islands. In addition, many Madurese live in the eastern part of East Java, commonly called the "Horseshoe", from Pasuruan to the north of Banyuwangi. Madurese are found in Situbondo and Bondowoso, and east of Probolinggo, Jember, and a few at most who speak Javanese, including North Surabaya, as well as some of Malang.

Madura has a Sunni Muslim majority and a large Shia minority. However, since 2012, interfaith discord has escalated into violence, with many Shia villages around the city of Sampang being attacked and the population fleeing their homes for government refugee centers. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has provided details of such attacks in 2013.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Madura Island is part of East Java province and is divided into the following four regencies, listed from west to east:

Name Capital Area
(km2)
Population
2000
census
Population
2010
census
Population
2020
census
Population
mid 2022
estimate
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,260.15 805,048 906,761 1,060,377 1,086,620
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.30 750,046 877,772 969,694 984,162
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 792.30 689,225 795,918 850,057 857,818
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 2,093.47 985,981 1,042,312 1,124,436 1,135,903
Totals 5,379.22 3,230,300 3,622,763 4,004,564 4,064,503

Note: Sumenep Regency, besides including the eastern quarter of Madura Island, also includes many offshore islands - notably the Kangean Islands (648.56 km2; 250½ sq. mi.) to the east of Madura, the smaller Sapudi Islands (167.38 km2; 64¾ sq. mi.) lying between Madura and the Kangean Islands, and Talango Island (50.27 km2; 19½ sq. mi.) closer to Madura; it also includes the small Masalembu Islands (40.85 km2; 15¾ sq. mi.) to the north (between Madura and Kalimantan) and the Giligenteng Islands (30.32 km2; 11¾ sq. mi.) to the southeast of Madura. The mainland (i.e. the area on Madura Island itself) covers 1,156.21 km2 (446½ sq. mi.) (with 802,541 inhabitants in 2022) consisting of 18 districts, while the various islands are 937.38 km2 (362 sq. mi.) in area (with 333,362 people in 2022), comprising 9 districts, with 128 islands, 46 inhabited.[5] [6][7]

Economy[edit]

Salt making in Madura in 1948

On the whole, Madura is one of the poorest regions of the East Java province.[8] Unlike Java, the soil is not fertile enough to make it a major agricultural producer. Limited economic opportunities have led to chronic unemployment and poverty. These factors have led to long-term emigration from the island, such that most ethnically Madurese people do not now live on Madura. People from Madura were some of the most numerous participants in government transmigration programs, moving to other parts of Indonesia.

Subsistence agriculture is a mainstay of the economy. Maize is a key subsistence crop, on the island's many small landholdings. Cattle-raising is also a critical part of the agricultural economy, providing extra income to peasant farmer families, in addition to being the basis for Madura's famous bull-racing competitions. Small-scale fishing is also important to the subsistence economy.

Among export industries, tobacco farming is a major contributor to the island's economy. Madura's soil, while unable to support many food crops, helps make the island an important producer of tobacco and cloves for the domestic kretek (clove cigarette) industry. Since the Dutch era, the island has also been a major producer and exporter of salt.

Bangkalan, on the western end of the island, has industrialized substantially since the 1980s. This region is within a short ferry ride of Surabaya, Indonesia's second-largest city, and hence has gained a role as a suburb for commuters to Surabaya, and as a location for industry and services that need to be near the city.

The Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) Bridge, opened in 2009, is expected to further increase the Bangkalan area's interaction with the regional economy.

Climate[edit]

Almost all parts of Madura are lowlands and closer to equator, which make the island is warmer and drier than the mainland of East Java.[9]

Climate data for Pamekasan, East Java, Indonesia (elevation 15 meters or 49 feet)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31
(88)
30.8
(87.4)
31
(88)
31.5
(88.7)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
31.1
(88.0)
31.6
(88.9)
32.3
(90.1)
33
(91)
33
(91)
31.6
(88.9)
31.7
(89.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
27
(81)
27.1
(80.8)
26.5
(79.7)
26
(79)
26.3
(79.3)
26.9
(80.4)
27.7
(81.9)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26.9
(80.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.5
(72.5)
21.7
(71.1)
21
(70)
21.1
(70.0)
21.6
(70.9)
22.5
(72.5)
23
(73)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 260
(10.2)
239
(9.4)
254
(10.0)
179
(7.0)
107
(4.2)
72
(2.8)
41
(1.6)
11
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
38
(1.5)
122
(4.8)
239
(9.4)
1,573
(61.7)
Average relative humidity (%) 82.9 83.5 84.2 80.8 80.1 77.5 74.9 72.8 72.2 72.1 75.6 81.2 78.2
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[10]
Source 2: Weatherbase (humidity)[11]

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the climate of coastal Madura is tropical savannah (Aw).

Climate data for Payudan Nangger, Sumenep, East Java (elevation 337 meters or 1,106 feet)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 28.7
(83.7)
28.7
(83.7)
29
(84)
29.7
(85.5)
29.7
(85.5)
29.4
(84.9)
29
(84)
29.5
(85.1)
30.3
(86.5)
31
(88)
30.8
(87.4)
29.4
(84.9)
29.6
(85.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.8
(76.6)
25.3
(77.5)
25.2
(77.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
24.6
(76.3)
25.2
(77.4)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25.0
(77.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.9
(69.6)
20.8
(69.4)
20.3
(68.5)
19.7
(67.5)
19.7
(67.5)
20.2
(68.4)
21
(70)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
20.5
(68.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 331
(13.0)
288
(11.3)
294
(11.6)
219
(8.6)
116
(4.6)
66
(2.6)
39
(1.5)
17
(0.7)
11
(0.4)
63
(2.5)
172
(6.8)
272
(10.7)
1,888
(74.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[12]

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the climate of inland Madura is tropical savannah (Aw).

Culture[edit]

Bull racing[edit]

Bull racing in Sumenep, Madura

Madura is famous for its bull-racing competition (called karapan sapi), where a jockey, usually a young boy, rides a simple wooden sled pulled by a pair of bulls over a course of about 100 meters in ten to fifteen seconds.

Music and theatre[edit]

Several forms of music and theatre are popular on Madura, particularly among lower-class people for whom they provide an inexpensive form of entertainment and community-building. The topeng theatre, which involves masked performances of classic stories such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata, is the Madurese performance artist best known outside the island, due to its role as a representative Madurese art form at exhibitions of regional cultures from all over Indonesia. However, performances of it are rare on Madura and are generally restricted to entertainment at large official functions. The less formal loddrok theatre, where performers do not wear masks and perform a wider range of themes, is more popular on the island.

The gamelan orchestra, best known as a classical Javanese instrument, is also played on Madura, where several of the former royal courts, such as at Bangkalan and Sumenep, possess elaborate gamelans. Tongtong music, more exclusive to Madura, is played on several wooden or bamboo drums, and often accompanies bull-racing competitions.

Vessels[edit]

The Madurese are considered to be excellent sailors. Madurese vessels loaded with cargoes of wood from other islands, like Borneo, used to ply their trade between Indonesia and Singapore. Traditional vessels of Madura include the golekan, leti leti (or leteh-leteh), lis-alis, and janggolan.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Naik 0,79%, Jumlah Penduduk Jatim Mencapai 40,67 Juta Jiwa - Ayo Surabaya". 23 January 2021.
  2. ^ Ed. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, 1903-09, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those peoples from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Arthur H. Clark Company, Volumes 34-35 p.169.
  3. ^ Ricklefs 2008, p. 47.
  4. ^ Akhmad Saiful Ali 1994, p. 62.
  5. ^ BPS Kabupaten Sumenep Archived 2013-01-07 at archive.today
  6. ^ 2010 Population Census – Jawa Timur Province
  7. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  8. ^ JawaPos.com (18 July 2017). "4 Kabupaten di Madura Masuk Daerah Termiskin". radarmadura.jawapos.com (in Indonesian). Jawa Pos Group. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  9. ^ "Kondisi geografi dan iklim Sampang, Madura". Pemerintah Kabupaten Sampang (in Indonesian). Government of Sampang. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  10. ^ "Climate: Pamekasan". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Pamekasan, Indonesia". Weatherbase. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  12. ^ "Climate: Payudan Nangger, Sumenep". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  13. ^ Clifford W. Hawkins, Praus of Indonesia ISBN 0-333-31810-2 / 0-333-31810-2

Bibliography[edit]

  • Akhmad Saiful Ali (1994). Ekspansi Mataram terhadap Surabaya Abad ke-17 (Thesis) (in Indonesian). Surabaya: Islamic Institute of Sunan Ampel.
  • Bouvier, Hélène (1994) La matière des émotions. Les arts du temps et du spectacle dans la société madouraise (Indonésie). Publications de l'École Française d'Extrême-Orient, vol. 172. Paris : EFEO. ISBN 2-85539-772-3.
  • Farjon, I.(1980) Madura and surrounding islands : an annotated bibliography, 1860-1942 The Hague: M. Nijhoff. Bibliographical series (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands)) ; 9.
  • Kees van Dijk, Huub de Jonge, and Elly Touwen-Bouswsma, eds. (1995). Across Madura Strait: the dynamics of an insular society. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 90-6718-091-2.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (11 September 2008). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C.1200. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 46–48. ISBN 978-1-137-05201-8.
  • Smith, Glenn (1995) Time Allocation Among the Madurese of Gedang-Gedang. Cross-Cultural Studies in Time Allocation, Volume XIII. New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations Area Files Press.
  • Smith, Glenn (2002) Bibliography of Madura (including Bawean, Sapudi and Kangean). [1]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Madura at Wikimedia Commons
  • Madura travel guide from Wikivoyage