A mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate whose primary activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions. Secondary activities may be practiced such as drug-trafficking, loan sharking and fraud.
The term was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia, but has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e.g. "the Russian Mafia", "the Japanese Mafia", "the Albanian Mafia" or "Maltese Mafia". The term is applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g. the Sicilian and American Mafia call themselves "Cosa Nostra", the Mexican Mafia calls itself La Eme and the "Japanese Mafia" calls itself yakuza).
When used alone and without any qualifier, "Mafia" typically refers to either the Sicilian Mafia or the Italian-American Mafia.
The word "mafia" originated in Sicily, though its origins are uncertain. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu (in Italian: mafioso), roughly translated, means "swagger," but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta. In reference to a woman, however, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive.
Sicily was once an Islamic emirate, therefore "mafia" might have Arabic roots. Possible Arabic roots of the word include:
- maha = quarry, cave; especially the mafie caves in the region of Marsala, which acted as hiding places for persecuted Muslims and later served other types of refugees.
- mahyas (مهياص) = aggressive boasting, bragging
- marfud (مرفوض) = rejected
- mu'afa = safety, protection
- Ma àfir = the name of an Arab tribe that ruled Palermo.
The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, and talk of "umirtà" (omertà or code of silence) and "pizzu" (a codeword for extortion money). The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio.
A formal definition of "mafia" can be hard to come by. The term was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as "Cosa Nostra". Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. The expansion of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. Giovanni Falcone, an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general:
While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" ... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term ... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.—Giovanni Falcone, 1990
Mafias as private protection firms
Scholars such as Diego Gambetta and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms", whose primary business is protection racketeering: they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling, robbing, or competing with those who pay them for protection. For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves (this is often because they are engaged in black market deals). Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods.
For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves. These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term "krysha".
With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, [...] cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option. [...] most businessmen had to find themselves a reliable krysha under the leadership of an effective vor.
Mafia-type organizations under Italian law
In Italy, the term associazione di tipo Mafioso ("Mafia-type organisation") is used to clearly distinguish the uniquely Sicilian Mafia from other criminal organisations that are structured like the Sicilian Mafia, such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta and the Sacra Corona Unita. Article 416-bis of the Italian Penal Code, under which all criminal organisations are prosecuted, defines an association as being of Mafia-type nature "when those belonging to the association exploit the potential for intimidation which their membership gives them, and the compliance and omertà which membership entails and which lead to the committing of crimes, the direct or indirect assumption of management or control of financial activities, concessions, permissions, enterprises and public services for the purpose of deriving profit or wrongful advantages for themselves or others."
Mafia-proper can refer to either:
Other Italian criminal organizations include:
- Camorra, operating in the region of Campania
- 'Ndrangheta in Calabria
- Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia
- Stidda and Cosa Nostra in Sicily
- Aboriginal-based organized crime
- African-American gangs, including
- Albanian mafia
- Armenian mafia
- Aryan Brotherhood
- Asian-American gangs, including
- Azeri mafia
- Brazilian criminal organizations, including
- British crime firms, including
- Bulgarian mafia
- Cape Verdean organized crime
- Chaldean mafia
- Chechen mafia
- Colombian neo-paramilitary organized crime, including
- Corsican mafia
- Cuban mafia
- Dixie Mafia
- Dutch Penose, including
- French Milieu, such as
- Georgian mafia
- Greek mafia
- Hispanic-American gangs, including
- Indian mafia
- Irish Mob
- Israeli mafia, including
- Lebanese crime families, including
- Mexican cartels, including
- Mexican-American prison gangs, including
- Nigerian mafia
- No Limit Soldiers
- Outlaw motorcycle gangs, including
- Pakistani mafia
- Russian mafia, including
- Serbian mafia
- The Company
- Triads, including
- Turkish and Kurdish mafia
- Zoe Pound
- Gambetta 2009
- This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below).
- Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia. pp. 259-261.
- Henner Hess (1998). Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power and Myth. NYU Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9781863331432.
- John Follain (8 Jun 2009). The Last Godfathers. Hachette UK. ISBN 9781848942493.
Even the origin of the word 'mafia' remains obscure. Some believe its roots lie in the Arab domination of Sicily from 827 to 1061 and the Arabic word mahias (daring) or Ma àfir (the name of a Saracen tribe).
- Henner Hess (1998). Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power and Myth. NYU Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781863331432.
- Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136.
- Lupo, The History of the Mafia, p. 3.
- Lupo, History of the Mafia, pp. 1–2
- Diego Gambetta (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection
- Glenny 2008
- Mafia and Mafia-type organizations in Italy, by Umberto Santino, in: Albanese, Das & Verma, Organized Crime. World Perspectives, pp. 82-100
- Seindal, Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, p. 20
- Art. 416-bis, codice penale - Associazione di tipo mafioso
- Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime 16 (1): 49–73. doi:10.1007/s12117-012-9179-8.
- Albanese, Jay S., Dilip K. Das & Arvind Verma, (eds.) (2003). Organized Crime. World Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 9780130481993
- Dickie, John (2007). Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. Hodder. ISBN 978-0-340-93526-2.
- Gambetta, Diego (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-674-80742-1.
- Gambetta, Diego (2009). Codes of the Underworld. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691119373.
- Glenny, Misha (2008). McMafia. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400095124.
- Hess, Henner (1998). Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power, and Myth, London: Hurst & Co Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-500-6
- Mosca, Gaetano (2014). "What is Mafia." M&J, 2014. Translation of the book "Cosa è la Mafia," Giornale degli Economisti, Luglio 1901, pp. 236–62. ISBN 979-11-85666-00-6
- Paoli, Letizia (2003). Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515724-9
- Seindal, René (1998). Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, 1950-1997, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, ISBN 87-7289-455-5
- Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2