Coordinates: 52°07′54″N 11°38′21″E / 52.13167°N 11.63917°E / 52.13167; 11.63917
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Meideborg (Low German)
From top, left to right:
Aerial view to a part of the city centre – Town Hall – "Green Citadel" – "Millennium Tower" – Magdeburg Cathedral at night – and panorama: city wall
Flag of Magdeburg
Coat of arms of Magdeburg
Location of Magdeburg
Magdeburg is located in Germany
Magdeburg is located in Saxony-Anhalt
Coordinates: 52°07′54″N 11°38′21″E / 52.13167°N 11.63917°E / 52.13167; 11.63917
DistrictUrban district
Subdivisions40 boroughs
 • Mayor (2022–29) Simone Borris[1] (Ind.)
 • Total201.03 km2 (77.62 sq mi)
43 m (141 ft)
 • Total236,188
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
Dialling codes0391
Vehicle registrationMD

Magdeburg (German: [ˈmakdəbʊʁk] ; Low German: [ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐ̯x]) is the capital of the German state Saxony-Anhalt. The city is situated at the Elbe river.[3]

Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor and founder of the Archdiocese of Magdeburg, was buried in the city's cathedral after his death.[3] Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. In the Late Middle Ages, Magdeburg was one of the largest and most prosperous German cities and a notable member of the Hanseatic League. One of the most notable people from the city is Otto von Guericke, famous for his experiments with the Magdeburg hemispheres.

Magdeburg has experienced three major devastations in its history. In 1207 the first catastrophe struck the city, with a fire burning down large parts of the city, including the Ottonian cathedral.[4] The Catholic League sacked Magdeburg in 1631,[3] resulting in the death of 25,000 non-combatants, the largest loss of the Thirty Years' War. During World War II the Allies bombed the city in 1945 and destroyed much of the city centre.

After World War II, the city belonged to the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Since then, many new construction projects have been implemented and old buildings have been restored.[5] Magdeburg celebrated its 1,200th anniversary in 2005.

Magdeburg is situated on Autobahn 2 and Autobahn 14, and hence is at the connection point of Eastern Europe (Berlin and beyond) with Western Europe, as well as the north and south of Germany. For the modern city, the most significant industries are: machine industry, healthcare industry, mechanical engineering, environmental technology, circular economy, logistics, culture industry, wood industry and information and communications technology.[6][7]

There are numerous cultural institutions in the city, including the Theater Magdeburg and the Museum of Cultural History. The city is also the location of two universities, the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences.[8]


Early years[edit]

Kaiser Otto I and his wife Edith arrive near Magdeburg (Hugo Vogel 1898, Ständehaus Merseburg)

Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg (probably from Old High German magado for big, mighty and burga for fortress[9]), the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 King Otto I granted the city to his English-born wife Edith as dower. Queen Edith loved the town and often resided there;[10] at her death she was buried in the crypt of the Benedictine abbey of Saint Maurice, later rebuilt as the cathedral. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I repeatedly visited Magdeburg, establishing a convent here about 937[3] and was later buried in the cathedral. He granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside.

The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968[3] at the synod of Ravenna; Adalbert of Magdeburg was consecrated as its first archbishop. The archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Brandenburg, Merseburg, Meissen and Naumburg-Zeitz. The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river.

In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions. This formed the basis of German town law to become known as the Magdeburg rights. These laws were adopted and modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg. The town was burnt down in 1188.[3]

In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire. The town had active maritime commerce on the west (towards Flanders), with the countries of the North Sea, and maintained traffic and communication with the interior (for example Braunschweig).[10]


Gaspar Schott's sketch of Otto von Guericke's Magdeburg hemispheres experiment.

The citizens constantly struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century. Around Easter 1497, the then twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life. In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Roman Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had quickly found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V repeatedly outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the League of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League.[10]

As it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim decree (1548), the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged (1550–1551) by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years, Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Martin Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist.[10]

In 1629 the city withstood its first siege during the Thirty Years' War, by Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Protestant convert to Catholicism. However, in 1631, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and massacred the inhabitants, killing about 20,000 and burning the city.[11]

After the war, a population of only 4,000 remained. Under the Peace of Westphalia (1648), Magdeburg was to be assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the administrator August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg. This occurred in 1680.[12][13][14]

The city made an astonishingly quick recovery, due especially to the energy and dedication of its mayor Otto von Guericke, who was also a noted scientist. Just six years after the end of the terribly destructive war, Magdeburg was the scene of the famous scientific experiment known as The Magdeburg hemispheres by which the existence of vacuum - hitherto hotly debated - was empirically proven, with enormous implications for the later developments of physics.[15]

19th century[edit]

In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806. The city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony.

20th century[edit]

In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, and in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg.[16]

Magdeburg was heavily bombed by British and American air forces during the Second World War. The RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945 destroyed much of the city centre. The death toll is estimated at 2,000–2,500. Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from lignite coal was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II. The Gründerzeit suburbs north of the city, called the Nordfront, were destroyed as well as some of the city's main streets with its Baroque buildings.

It was occupied by 9th US Army troops on 18 April 1945 and was left to the Red Army on 1 July 1945. Post-war the area was part of the Soviet Zone of Occupation and many of the remaining pre-World War II city buildings were destroyed, with only a few buildings near the cathedral and in the southern part of the old city being restored to their pre-war state. Before the reunification of Germany, many surviving Gründerzeit buildings were left uninhabited and, after years of degradation, waiting for demolition. From 1949 until German reunification on 3 October 1990, Magdeburg belonged to the German Democratic Republic.

Since German reunification[edit]

In 1990 Magdeburg became the capital of the new state of Saxony-Anhalt within reunified Germany. Huge parts of the city and its centre were also rebuilt in a modern style. Its economy is one of the fastest-growing in the former East German states.[17]

In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary.

The city was hit by 2013 European floods. Authorities declared a state of emergency and said they expected the Elbe river to rise higher than in 2002. In Magdeburg, with water levels of five metres (16 ft) above normal, about 23,000 residents had to leave their homes on 9 June.[18]

Intel will build its largest plant in Europe in the south of the city by 2027.[19]


Magdeburg is one of the major towns along the Elbe Cycle Route (Elberadweg). Its area is 201.03 km2 (77.62 sq mi).[20]

Districts of Magdeburg


The city of Magdeburg is divided into 40 Stadtteile (districts).[21] Three of these, the former municipalities Beyendorf-Sohlen, Pechau and Randau-Calenberge, have a special status as Ortschaften.[22] The Stadtteile of Magdeburg are:[21]

  • Alt Olvenstedt
  • Alte Neustadt
  • Altstadt
  • Barleber See
  • Berliner Chaussee
  • Beyendorfer Grund
  • Beyendorf-Sohlen
  • Brückfeld
  • Buckau
  • Cracau
  • Diesdorf
  • Fermersleben
  • Gewerbegebiet Nord
  • Großer Silberberg
  • Herrenkrug
  • Hopfengarten
  • Magdeburg-Industriehafen
  • Kannenstieg
  • Kreuzhorst
  • Leipziger Straße
  • Lemsdorf
  • Neu Olvenstedt
  • Neue Neustadt
  • Neustädter Feld
  • Neustädter See
  • Nordwest
  • Ottersleben
  • Pechau
  • Prester
  • Randau-Calenberge
  • Reform
  • Rothensee
  • Salbke
  • Stadtfeld Ost
  • Stadtfeld West
  • Sudenburg
  • Sülzegrund
  • Werder
  • Westerhüsen
  • Zipkeleben


Magdeburg has a Humid continental climate (Dfb) bordering on an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to Köppen climate classification.

Climate data for Magdeburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
Average low °C (°F) −3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.7 69.5 117.4 159.1 216.1 218.7 218.5 207.2 151.1 107.5 56.1 40.8 1,608.7
Source 1: DWD.DE
Source 2:


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. Source:[23][circular reference]

As of 2021, Magdeburg has a population of about 237,000. Its population grew rapidly after the end of 19th century due to industrialization. In 1885, the population was 100,000, and doubled after only five years. Magdeburg reached its greatest population in 1940, at approximately 346,000. At that time the city was poised to become a giant metropolis, but the events of WWII changed its future. After the war, in the East Germany era, Magdeburg recovered its industrial base to a degree, particularly the Machine industry, and became one of the important cities of East Germany. In 1991, when Magdeburg became the capital of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, its population was about 275,000. After the German Reunification, the population of Magdeburg declined due to some loss of industries, when many residents moved to former West Germany. Since 2011, the population has stabilized at around 240,000.

Rank Nationality Population (2022)
1  Syria 5,341
2  Ukraine 4,893
3  Romania 2,379
4  India 1,431
5  Vietnam 1,348
6  Afghanistan 1,253
7  Poland 1,013
8  Croatia 947
9  Italy 833
10  Turkey 674



Winning party by locality in the 2019 city council election.
Seat distribution in the 2019 city council election.

The current mayor of Magdeburg is independent politician Simone Borris since 2022. The most recent mayoral election was held on 24 April 2022, with a runoff held on 8 May, and the results were as follows:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Simone Borris Independent (FDP, future!, MUT) 33,065 44.3 39,201 64.8
Jens Rösler SPD/Greens 20,080 26.3 21,298 35.2
Tobias Krull Christian Democratic Union 9,327 12.2
Nicole Anger The Left 5,230 6.8
Frank Pasemann Alternative for Germany 3,802 5.0
Till Isenhuth Independent 1,676 2.2
Sarah Biedermann Free Voters 1,289 1.7
Bettina Fassl Animal Protection Alliance 1,103 1.4
André Jordan Die PARTEI 860 1.1
Valid votes 76,432 99.6 60,508 99.4
Invalid votes 302 0.4 340 0.6
Total 76,734 100.0 60,848 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 189,916 40.4 189,471 32.1
Source: City of Magdeburg

City council[edit]

The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows:

Party Votes % +/- Seats +/-
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 55,969 18.6 Decrease 6.6 10 Decrease 4
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 50,794 16.9 Decrease 8.5 9 Decrease 5
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) 46,127 15.4 Increase 4.8 9 Increase 3
The Left (Die Linke) 45,922 15.3 Decrease 6.9 9 Decrease 4
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 43,200 14.4 Increase 9.6 8 Increase 5
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 16,157 5.4 Increase 2.1 3 Increase 1
Magdeburg Garden Party (Gartenpartei) 12,709 4.2 Increase 2.3 2 Increase 1
Human Environment Animal Protection (Tierschutzpartei) 9,871 3.3 Increase 1.2 2 Increase 1
future! 8,651 2.9 Increase 0.9 2 Increase 1
Alliance for Magdeburg (BfM) 4,384 1.5 Decrease 0.1 1 ±0
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Protection (Tierschutzallianz) 4,061 1.4 Increase 1.0 1 Increase 1
Die PARTEI 2,548 0.8 New 0 New
Total 300,393 100.0
Valid votes 101,994 98.5
Invalid votes 1,547 1.5
Total 103,541 100.0 56 ±0
Electorate/voter turnout 193,826 53.4 Increase 15.1
Source: City of Magdeburg


The Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg (German: Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg) was founded in 1993 and is one of the newest universities in Germany. The university in Magdeburg has about 13,000 students in nine faculties. There are 11,700 papers published in international journals from this institute.

The Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1991. There are 30 direct study programs in five departments in Magdeburg and two departments in Stendal. The university has more than 130 professors and approximately 4,500 students at Magdeburg and 1,900 at Stendal.

Culture and architecture[edit]

Christmas-Market Magdeburg


Magdeburg has a municipal theatre, Theater Magdeburg.

Magdeburg is well known for its Christmas market, which is an attraction for 1.5 million visitors every year. Other events are the Stadtfest, Christopher Street Day, Elbe in Flames, and the Europafest Magdeburg.[24][25] The autumn fair (formerly men's fair) of Magdeburg goes back to Germany's oldest folk festival. The tradition dates back to September 1010, when the holy feast of the Theban Legion was celebrated in Magdeburg (then called Magathaburg).[26]

Event venues[edit]

The GETEC Arena
View of the Lake-Stage in Elbauenpark
Magdeburg Vertical-lift bridge (Hubbrücke)
  • Altes Theater am Jerichower Platz – Former theater, used for parties and large conferences
  • AMO – Culture and congress building
  • Buttergasse - Night club near the city centre at "Alter Markt" – house-, electro, pop and black music
  • Cathedral of Magdeburg
  • Concert hall Georg Philipp Telemann at "Kloster unser lieben Frauen"
  • Factory – Former factory building, German and international pop, rock, metal, and indie music artists are featured
  • Festung Mark – Part of the former city fortification, now reconstructed for parties and conventions
  • Feuerwache – Former fire station, repurposed for events
  • GETEC Arena – Biggest multi-purpose hall in Saxony-Anhalt, home of handball team SC Magdeburg
  • halber85 - Conventions, partys, conferences
  • Kunstkantine – Factory cafeteria, monthly electro-music parties
  • MDCC-Arena – Home of 1. FC Magdeburg
  • Messe Magdeburg - Official trade fair site
  • Paulus Church
  • Prinzzclub – Night club at Halberstädter Straße – house-, electro, and black music
  • Seebühne at Elbauenpark
  • Stadthalle – Concert hall
  • Studentenclub Baracke - Night club especially for students - house-, electro, rock, pop, indie and black music
  • St. Johannis Church
  • St. Petri Church, with stained glass by Charles Crodel
  • Tessenow Loft - Conventions, partys, conferences


  • Magdeburg Museum of Cultural History
  • Otto-von-Guericke-Museum Lukasklause
  • Jahrtausendturm
  • Magdeburg Museum of Nature
  • Magdeburg Museum of Technology
  • Art Museum in the Monastery of Our Lady
  • Magdeburg Circus Museum
  • Magdeburg Hairdressing Museum
  • Steamboat Württemberg - a museum ship


Cathedral of Magdeburg
The three churches at night
Entrance - Zoo Magdeburg


One of Magdeburg's most impressive buildings is the Lutheran Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice with a height of 104 m (341.21 ft), making it the tallest church building of eastern Germany. It is notable for its beautiful and unique sculptures, especially the "Twelve Virgins" at the Northern Gate, the depictions of Otto I the Great and his wife Editha as well as the statues of St Maurice and St Catherine. The predecessor of the cathedral was a church built in 937 within an abbey, called St. Maurice. Emperor Otto I the Great was buried here beside his wife in 973. St. Maurice burnt to ashes in 1207. The exact location of that church remained unknown for a long time. The foundations were rediscovered in May 2003, revealing a building 80 m (262.47 ft) long and 41 m (134.51 ft) wide.

The construction of the new church lasted 300 years. The cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice was the first Gothic church building in Germany. The building of the steeples was completed as late as 1520.

While the cathedral was virtually the only building to survive the massacres of the Thirty Years' War, it suffered damage in World War II. It was soon rebuilt and completed in 1955.

The square in front of the cathedral (also called the Neuer Markt, or "new marketplace") was occupied by an imperial palace (Kaiserpfalz), which was destroyed in the fire of 1207. The stones from the ruin were used for the building of the cathedral. The presumed remains of the palace were excavated in the 1960s.

Other sights[edit]

  • Unser Lieben Frauen Monastery (Our Lady), 11th century, containing the church of St. Mary. Today a museum for Modern Art. Home of the National Collection of Small Art Statues of the GDR (Nationale Sammlung Kleinkunstplastiken der DDR).
  • The Magdeburger Reiter ("Magdeburg Rider", 1240), the first free-standing equestrian sculpture north of the Alps. It probably depicts the Emperor Otto I.
  • City hall (1698). This building had stood on the market place since the 13th century, but it was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War; the new city hall was built in a Renaissance style influenced by Dutch architecture. It was renovated and re-opened in Oct 2005.
  • Landtag; the seat of the government of Saxony-Anhalt with its Baroque façade built-in 1724.
  • Monuments depicting Otto von Guericke (1907), Eike von Repkow and Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
  • Ruins of the greatest fortress of the former Kingdom of Prussia.
  • Rotehorn-Park
  • Elbauenpark containing the highest wooden structure in Germany.
  • St. Sebastian's Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Magdeburg.
  • St. John Church (Johanniskirche)
  • The Gruson-Gewächshäuser, a botanical garden within a greenhouse complex
  • The Magdeburg Water Bridge, Europe's longest water bridge
  • "Die Grüne Zitadelle" or The Green Citadel of Magdeburg, a large, pink building of a modern architectural style designed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser and completed in 2005.
  • Jerusalem Bridge
  • Zoo Magdeburg
View to a part of the city centre, seen from the tower of the St.-Johannis Church



Magdeburg has a proud history of sports teams, with Association football proving the most popular. 1. FC Magdeburg currently plays in the 2. Bundesliga, the second division of German football. They are the only East German football club to have won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. The now-defunct clubs SV Victoria 96 Magdeburg and Cricket Viktoria Magdeburg were among the first football clubs in Germany.

There is also the very successful handball team, SC Magdeburg. They won multiple times the Handball-Bundesliga (HBL), DHB-Pokal, DHB-Supercup, EHF European League, EHF Champions League, EHF Men's Champions Trophy and the IHF Men's Super Globe.

The discus was re-discovered in Magdeburg in the 1870s by Christian Georg Kohlrausch, a gymnastics teacher.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Magdeburg is twinned with:[27]



Otto von Guericke
Georg Philipp Telemann


Erich Ollenhauer, Bundestag 1954
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben 1782


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mayoral election results, 2022, accessed 4 October 2022. (in German)
  2. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden – Stand: 31. Dezember 2021" (PDF) (in German). Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt. June 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Magdeburg" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 301.
  4. ^ "Brandkatastrophen und deren Bedeutung für die Verbreitung gotischer Sakralarchitektur" (PDF). (in German). Jens Kremb. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
  5. ^ "Bilanz zum Stadtumbau". (in German). Magdeburg. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  6. ^ "Key industries". Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  7. ^ "The paper industry in Saxony-Anhalt". Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  8. ^ "Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal".
  9. ^ "Magdeburg: Jungfrau oder Groß? Der Ortsname erklärt" (in German). Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainLöffler, Klemens (1910). "Magdeburg". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ "Religijski rat – "Ubili smo Boga u Magdeburgu!"" (in Serbo-Croatian). Večernji list. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  12. ^ Heinrich Rathmann (1806). Geschichte der Stadt Magdeburg von ihrer ersten Entstehung an bis auf gegenwärtige Zeiten. Bey dem Buchhändler Johann Adam Creutz.
  13. ^ Nathan Rein (5 December 2016). The Chancery of God: Protestant Print, Polemic and Propaganda against the Empire, Magdeburg 1546–1551. Taylor & Francis. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-1-351-89314-5.
  14. ^ Daniel Gehrt; Johannes Hund; Stefan Michel (28 January 2019). Bekennen und Bekenntnis im Kontext der Wittenberger Reformation. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-3-647-57095-2.
  15. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Guericke, Otto von" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 670. ...he attempted the creation of a vacuum...
  16. ^ "City & History - Navigation". Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  17. ^ "Zur Situation der Städte". Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  18. ^ Thousands evacuated as Elbe bursts dam in German floods 10 June 2013
  19. ^ "Intel Germany Mega Site Gets €6.8bn in European Chips Act Funding". 7 June 2022.
  20. ^ "Tabellen Bodenfläche". Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
  21. ^ a b Bevölkerung & Demografie 2021, Magdeburger Statistik.
  22. ^ Lesefassung der Hauptsatzung der Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg Archived 4 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, 9 November 2017.
  23. ^ Link
  24. ^ "Magdeburg-Tourist - PFD" (PDF). Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  25. ^ "Christopher Street Day - Magdeburg". Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  26. ^ Ottopix (2 October 2018). "The oldest folk festival in Germany". Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  27. ^ "Partnerstädte". (in German). Magdeburg. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  28. ^ Pace, Eric (23 August 1999). "Alfons Bach, 95, Designer of Tubular Furniture". Arts. Retrieved 1 October 2012.

External links[edit]