|Regions with significant populations|
(Sunni; also Shi'a, Ibadi)
|Related ethnic groups|
|Sahrawi, Tuareg, Berbers, other Afroasiatic-speaking peoples|
a Primarily in France, where nearly half of all Maghrebis in Europe reside.
b Primarily in Quebec, which has the largest Maghrebi community in North America.
Population statistics from the CIA World factbook (July 2011 pop est.)
Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of Maghreb, the westernmost part of North Africa and the Arab world, an area stretching from Libya to Spain. Maghrebis were known in medieval times as Roman Africans or Moors. The term Moor is derived from Mauri, the Roman name for the Berbers of Mauretania, land of the Moors, the Roman name for the westen part of the Maghreb. Vast majority of Maghrebis are Arab-Berbers, Arabs, and Berbers, who are native to the region and synonymous with the term in older and historiographical literature.
- 1 Religion
- 2 Culture
- 3 Diaspora
- 4 Anthropology
- 5 See also
- 6 References and notes
- 7 External links
This section does not cite any sources. (September 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Historic records of religion in the Maghreb region show its gradual inclusion in the Classical World, with coastal colonies established first by Phoenicians, some Greeks, and later extensive conquest and colonization by the Romans. By the 2nd century common era, the area had become a center of Latin-speaking Christianity. Both Roman settlers and Romanized populations converted to Christianity. The region produced figures such as Christian Church writer Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 202); and Christian Church martyrs or leading figures such as St Cyprian of Carthage (+ 258); Saint Monica; her son the philosopher Augustine of Hippo (+ 430) (1); and Julia of Corsica (5th century). The region was a birthplace of many Christians movements like arianism and donatism, now casted-off.
The domination of Christianity ended when Arab invasions brought Islam in 647. Carthage fell in 698 and the remainder of the region followed in subsequent decades. Gradual Islamization proceeded, although surviving letters showed correspondence from regional Christians to Rome up until the 9th century. Christianity was still a living faith. Christian bishoprics and dioceses continued to be active, with relations continuing with Rome. As late as Pope Benedict VII (974-983) reign, a new Archbishop of Carthage was consecrated. Evidence of Christianity in the region then faded through the 10th century.
During the seventh century, the region's peoples began their nearly total conversion to Islam. There is a small but thriving Jewish community, as well as a small Christian community. Most Muslims follow the Maliki school of Sunni Islam. Small Ibadi communities remain in some areas. A strong tradition of venerating marabouts and saints' tombs is found throughout regions inhabited by Berbers. Any map of the region demonstrates the tradition by the proliferation of "sidi"s, showing places named after the marabouts. Like some other religious traditions, this has substantially decreased over the 20th century. A network of zawiyas traditionally helped proliferate basic literacy and knowledge of Islam in rural regions.
Recently, the Christian community of Berber or Arab descent has experienced significant growth, and conversions to Christianity, especially to Evangelicalism, is common in Algeria, especially in the Kabylie, Morocco and Tunisia. A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria.
Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Île-de-France and Mediterranean regions. Many famous French people like Édith Piaf, Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon and many others have Maghrebi ancestry.
According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, there were more than 4.6 million people of Maghrebi origin (with at least one Maghrebi grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia) living in France in 2011 (3 millions in 1999). Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France in 2011, numbers are in thousands:
|Country of origin (2011)||Immigrants||1st generation born in France||2nd generation born in France (aged under 60 only)||Total|
|Algeria||737||1 170||563||2 470|
|Total Maghreb||1 662||2 148||821||4 631|
Note : for 2nd generation born in France only individuals under 60 are taken into account.
According to Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies), 16% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 have at least one Maghrebi grandparent born in the Greater Maghreb.
In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent) were about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Île-de-France, 13% in Lyon, 21% in Perpignan, 22% in the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, 37% in 18th arrondissement of Paris and 40% in several arrondissements of Marseille.
Various disciplines shed light on the origin of the Maghrebis (both Berber and Arabic-speakers).
The genetic proximity observed between the North-Africans and Southern Europeans is due to the fact that both these groups shared a common ancestor either in the Upper Paleolithic, in the Neolithic or alternatively during history with the invasion and the occupation during nearly seven centuries of the Iberian Peninsula by Moorish troops. A genetic study published in January 2012 stated that the indigenous Northwest African ancestry appears most closely related to populations outside of Africa but "divergence between Maghrebi peoples and Near Eastern/Europeans likely precedes the Holocene (>12,000 ya)."
The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Maghreb population seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1b-M215 and J, which are common among Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa and the Middle East, are frequent in the Maghreb; especially the haplogroup E-M215 (formerly E1b1b1b, E-M81 and E3b1b) which is typical of the indigenous Berber populations. In some parts of Tunisia, E1b1b-M215 can peak at 100% of the population. Followed by Haplogroup J, especially Haplogroup J-M267 , which is typically Middle Eastern, which can reach frequencies of 40% in the region, and has its highest density founded in the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, Followed by Haplogroup R1 which is primarily concentrated in the Chad Basin, though it is also found in the Maghreb at lower frequencies. These Y-DNA haplogroups are observed in both Berber and Arabic speakers.
The Maghreb Y chromosome pool (including both Berber and Arabic-speaking populations) may be summarized as follows, where only two haplogroups E1b1b-M215 and J comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes:
- E-M215 (mainly E-M81) (50-100%)
- J (mainly J-M267) (0-45%)
- R1b (0-15%)
- Sub-Saharan and other haplogroups (0-8%)
Haplogroup E-Z827 is the most common Y haplogroup among Maghreb Berbers and Arabs, dominated by its subclade, E-M183. It is thought to have originated in Northwest Africa 14,200 years ago. Colloquially referred to as the "Berber marker" for its prevalence among Mozabite, Middle Atlas, Kabyle and other Berber groups, E-M81 is also quite common among Maghreb Arab groups (45% in Oran). It can reach frequencies of up to 100% in the Greater Maghreb.
Regarding J1-M267, according to a recent study in 2011 about Tunisia, it is significantly more abundant in the urban (31.3%) than in the rural total population (2.5%). According to the authors, these results could be explained supposing that Arabization in Tunisia was a military enterprise, therefore, mainly driven by men that displaced native Berbers to geographically marginal areas but that frequently married Berber women.
|1 Algeria||156||0||5.78%||0.64%||6.4%||44.23%||1.28%||3.85%||0.64%||0||0||21.8%||0.64%||0.64%||0||14.1%||Bekada et al. (2013)|
|2 Algeria/Oran||102||0||7.9%||0||5.9%||45.1%||0||0||0||0||0||22.5%||4.9%||1%||11.8%||1%||Robino et al. (2008)|
|3 Algeria/Algiers||35||0||2.9%||0||11.4%||42.9%||0||11.8%||2.9%||0||0||22.9%||5.7%||0||0||0||Arredi et al. (2004)|
|4 Algeria/Kabyles, Tizi Ouzou||19||0||0||0||0||47.4%||10.5%||10.5%||0||0||0||15.8%||0||0||15.8%||0||Arredi et al. (2004)|
|5 Algeria/Mozabites||67||0||4.5%||0||1.5%||86.6%||1.5%||0||0||1.5%||0||1.5%||0||0||3%||0||Dugoujon et al. (2009)|
|6 Algeria/Reguibat||60||0||0||5%||0||80%||0||1.67%||0||0||0||10%||0||0||0||3.33%||Bekada et al. (2015) |
|7 Tunisia/Tunis||148||0||2%||3.4%||5.4%||37.8%||2.7%||4.7%||0.7%||0||0||32.4%||3.4%||0.7%||6.1%||0.7%||Arredi et al. (2004)|
|8 Tunisia||52||0||0||9.6%||15.4%||32.7%||0||1.9%||1.9%||0||0||34.6%||3.8%||0||0||0||Onofri et al. (2008)|
|9 Tunisia/Bou Omrane||40||0||5%||0||5%||87.5%||0||2.5%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Ennafaa et al. (2011)|
|10 Tunisia/Bou Saad||40||0||0||0||0||92.5%||0||0||0||0||0||5%||0||0||0||2.5%||Ennafaa et al. (2011)|
|11 Tunisia/Jerbian cosmopolitan||46||2.2%||0||0||15.2%||60.9%||4.3%||0||0||0||0||8.7%||2.2%||4.3%||2.2%||0||Ennafaa et al. (2011)|
|12 Tunisia/Jerbian Berbers||47||0||0||0||17%||76.6%||0||4.25%||2.1%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Ennafaa et al. (2011)|
|13 Tunisia/Chenini–Douiret Berbers||27||0||0||0||0||100%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)|
|14 Tunisia/Sened Berbers||35||0||0||0||0||65.7%||0||2.9%||0||0||0||31.4%||0||0||0||0||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)|
|15 Tunisia/Jradou Berbers||32||0||0||0||0||100%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)|
|16 Tunisia/Andalusian Zaghouan||32||0||0||0||3.1%||40.6%||0||9.4%||0||0||0||43.8%||3.1%||0||0||0||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)|
|17 Tunisia/Cosmopolitan Tunis||33||0||0||3.0%||6.0%||54.5%||3.0%||6.0%||0||3.0%||0||24.2%||0||0||0||0||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)|
|18 Morocco||760||0||6.05%||4.21%||6.83%||67.4%||0||0.9%||0.53%||0.66%||0.13%||6.32%||1.32%||0||0||5.65%||Bekada et al. (2013)|
|19 Morocco/Sous Berbers||65||0||0||0||0||98.5%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Reguig et al. (2014)|
|20 Morocco/Amizmiz Valley||33||3%||6.1%||0||3%||84.8%||3%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||Alvarez et al. (2009)|
|21 Sahrawi||89||0||20.2%||0||0||59.55%||0||0||0||0||0||20.22%||0||0||0||0||Fregel et al. (2009)|
|22 Libya/Tuaregs from Fezzan||47||0||42.5%||0||0||48.9%||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||6.4%||2.1%||Ottoni et al. (2011)|
Many studies have attempted to describe the genetic diversity of North-African populations, evaluating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation and the results may be summarized as follows (data for 536 individuals from 9 populations : Morocco (Asni, Bouhria, Figuig, Souss), Algeria (Mozabites), Tunisia (Chenini-Douiret, Sened, Matmata, Jerba)):
- Total Eurasian lineages (H, HV0, HV, R0, J, T, U (without U6), K, N1, N2, X) : 50-90% with an average of about 5/8
- Total sub-Saharan lineages (L0, L1, L2, L3, L4-L5) : 3-50% with an average of about 2/8
- Total North African lineages (U6, M1) : 0-35% with an average of about 1/8
The North-African mtDna pool is characterized by an "overall high frequency of Western Eurasian haplogroups, a somehow lower frequency of sub-Saharan L lineages, and a significant (but differential) presence of North African haplogroups U6 and M1." According to Cherni et al. 2009 "the post-Last glacial maximum expansion originating in Iberia not only led to the resettlement of Europe but also of North Africa".
According to an Ottoni et al. 2010, besides the "autochthonous" South-Saharan component, the maternal pool of Northern Africa appears to be characterized by at least two other major components: (i) a Levantine contribution (i.e. haplogroups U6 and M1), associated with the return to Africa around 45 kya, and (ii) a more recent West European input associated with the postglacial expansion.
Until recently, some papers suggested that the distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa was mainly due to trans-Saharan slave trade. However, in September 2010, a thorough study about Berber mtDNA by Frigi et al. concluded that most of L haplogroups were much older and introduced by an ancient African gene flow around 20,000 years ago.
In an autosomal study in 2012 by Henn et al., the authors conclude that Northwest African populations retain a unique signature of early "Maghrebi" ancestry, but are not a homogeneous group and most display varying combinations of five distinct ancestries (Maghrebi, European, Near Eastern, eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa). The majority of their ancestry derives from populations outside of Africa and is the result of at least three distinct episodes:
- ancient "back-to-Africa" gene flow prior to the Holocene
- more recent gene flow from the Near East resulting in a longitudinal gradient
- limited but very recent migrations from sub-Saharan Africa.
They observed two distinct, opposite gradients of ancestry : an east-to-west increase in likely autochthonous Northwest African ancestry likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow more than 12,000 years ago and an east-to-west decrease in likely Near Eastern Arabic ancestry. The indigenous Northwest African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. They also find significant signatures of sub-Saharan African ancestry that vary substantially among populations. According to the authors "these sub-Saharan ancestries appear to be a recent introduction into Northwest African populations, dating to about 1,200 years ago in southern Morocco and about 750 years ago into Egypt, possibly reflecting the patterns of the trans-Saharan slave trade that occurred during this period".
Recent genetic analysis of North African populations have found that, despite the complex admixture genetic background, there is an autochthonous genomic component which is likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow older than 12,000 years ago (ya) (i.e., prior to the Neolithic migrations). This local population substratum seems to represent a genetic discontinuity with the earliest modern human settlers of North Africa (those with the Aterian industry) given the estimated ancestry is younger than 40,000 years ago. North Morocco, Libya and Egypt carry high proportions of European and Near Eastern ancestral components, whereas Tunisia and Saharawi are those populations with highest autochthonous Northwest African component.
- Average ancestry proportions in Northwest African populations estimated by ADMIXTURE for k = 4 different ancestries (October 2012)
|Population||N||Greater Maghreb||Europe||Near East||Sub-Saharan Africa|
According to a recent autosomal study in 2013 by Botigué et al. using genome-wide SNP data from over 2,000 individuals, "southwestern European populations averaged between 4% and 20% of their genomes assigned to a Northwest African ancestral cluster, whereas this value did not exceed 2% in southeastern European populations". The highest Northwest African admixture (20%) was found into Canarians while in the Iberian peninsula, the average was 10-12%.
A similar 2014 autosomal study by Lazaridis et al. found an average African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba) in the Spanish population, confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan and Northwest African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.
In the Iberian Peninsula, Northwest African male haplogroups, especially E1b1b1b (E-M81), E1b1b1a-b (M78 derived chromosomes showing the rare DYS439 allele 10 or E-V65) and a subset of J1 (M267 derived), are found in significant amounts with an average frequency of about 7-8% in the peninsula with frequencies surpassing 10% in some regions, like 18.6% in Cantabria.
- Historically introduced NW African types in Italy and Iberia (Capelli et al. (2009))
|J1 (subset)||Total %|
Concerning the level of male genetic admixture in Iberia, an important study by Adams et al. 2008 that analysed 1140 individuals in Iberia found a mean Northwest African admixture of 10.6%, with wide geographical variation, ranging from 2.5% in Catalonia, 11.8% in North Portugal, 16.1% in South Portugal, 20.8% in Galicia to 21.7% in North Castile.
|Iberian region||%NW African |
MtDna (female lineages) genetic studies on Iberian populations also show that Northwest African mitochondrial DNA sequences (haplogroup U6) are found at much higher levels than those generally observed elsewhere in Europe. Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself. U6 reaches its highest frequency in North Portugal at about 4-6% where Gonzalez et al. 2003 estimated a possible North African ancestry proportion of 27%.
Iberia is also the region in Europe with the highest frequency of the female mediated mtDNA haplogroup L of Sub-Saharan origin, likely a result of Berber and Arab colonization or African slave trade. Pereira et al. 2005, who analysed 1045 Iberian individuals, found sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups at rates of 11.38% in south Portugal, 5.02% in Center Portugal, 3.21% in North Portugal and 3.26% in Galicia. According to Alvarez et al. 2010 who found L haplogroups at a rate of 4.70% in the Spanish province of Zamora, "as the Hts found in the area are also shared with North African populations, we cannot discard the possibility that these lineages derived from the North African Muslim permanence in the Iberian Peninsula". In another study, Casas et al. 2006 extracted DNA from human remains that were exhumed from historic burial sites in Al-Andalus, Spain (between 12th-13th century). The frequency of Sub-Saharan lineages detected in the medieval samples was 14.6% and 8.3% in the present population of Priego de Cordoba. The authors suggest both the Muslim occupation, and prehistoric migrations before the Muslim occupation would have been the source of these lineages. Brehm at al. 2003 also found a significant Sub-Saharan imprint in the Autonomous regions of Portugal, with L haplogroups constituting about 13% of the lineages in Madeira and 3.4% in the Azores.
|Iberian region/NW African mtDna > 2%||N||%U6||%L||Total||Study|
|Portugal, Alcácer do Sal||50||6.00%||22.00%||28.00%||Pereira 2010|
|Spain, Canary islands (Avg)||300||14.00%||6.60%||20.60%||Brehm 2003|
|Portugal, Madeira||155||3.90%||12.90%||16.80%||Brehm 2003|
|Spain, Huelva (Andalusia)||135||8.86%||5.70%||14.56%||Hernandez 2014|
|Portugal, South||123||1.63%||11.38%||13.01%||Pereira 2005|
|Portugal, South||203||0.49%||10.84%||11.33%||Achilli 2007|
|Portugal, Coruche||160||0.62%||8.7%||9.32%||Pereira 2010|
|Spain, Priego de Cordoba||108||0.93%||8.33%||9.26%||Casas 2006|
|Portugal, Center||203||2.46%||6.40%||8.87%||Achilli 2007|
|Portugal, North||187||5.35%||3.21%||8.56%||Pereira 2005|
|South Iberian Peninsula||310||0.65%||7.42%||8.07%||Casas 2006|
|Portugal, Center||239||2.51%||5.02%||7.53%||Pereira 2005|
|Portugal, North||188||4.26%||3.19%||7.45%||Achilli 2007|
|Spain, Galicia||92||2.17%||3.26%||5.43%||Pereira 2005|
|Spain, Zamora||214||0.47%||4.67%||5.14%||Alvarez 2010|
|Portugal, Açores||179||1.70%||3.40%||5.10%||Brehm 2003|
|Spain, NorthWest||216||1.39%||3.70%||5.09%||Achilli 2007|
|Spain, Center||148||4.05%||0.68%||4.73%||Achilli 2007|
|Spain, NorthEast||118||1.69%||2.54%||4.24%||Pereira 2005|
|Spain, multiple regions||312||1.28%||2.88%||4.16%||CarlosAlvarez 2007|
|Portugal, Pias||75||0.00%||3.9%||3.9%||Pereira 2010|
|Spain, Andalusia||114||1.75%||1.75%||3.51%||Achilli 2007|
|Spain, Granada (Andalusia)||117||2.48%||0.83%||3.31%||Hernandez 2014|
|Spain, Leon||61||1.64%||1.64%||3.28%||Pereira 2005|
|Spain, Andalusia||65||1.54%||1.54%||3.08%||Pereira 2005|
|Spain, NorthEast||179||1.12%||1.68%||2.79%||Achilli 2007|
|Spain, Castile||38||2.63%||0.00%||2.63%||Pereira 2005|
|Spain, Balearic islands||231||0.00%||2.16%||2.16%||Picornell 2005|
In Canary Islands, a study by Nicole Maca-Meyer in 2003 found mtDna haplogroup U6 at rate of 14% in the present-day Canary Islands populations reflecting the Berber origin of the Guanches, the aboriginal population of the Canary Islands. In this study they compared aboriginal Guanche mtDNA (collected from Canarian archaeological sites) to that of today's Canarians and concluded that, "despite the continuous changes suffered by the population (Spanish colonization, slave trade), aboriginal mtDNA lineages constitute a considerable proportion [42–73%] of the Canarian gene pool". MtDNA haplogroup L were also found at rate of 6.6% and E-M81 at a rate of 8.28% with frequencies over 10% in the three largest islands of Tenerife (10.68%), Gran Canaria (11.54%) and Fuerteventura (13.33%). According to Fregel et al. 2009 the presence of autochthonous North African E-M81 lineages, and also other relatively abundant markers (E-M78 and J-M267) from the same region in the indigenous Guanche population, "strongly points to that area [North Africa] as the most probable origin of the Guanche ancestors". In this study, they estimated that, based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the relative female and male indigenous Guanche contributions to the present-day Canary Islands populations were respectively of 41.8% and 16.1%.
NW African mtDna
|La Gomera||46||50.01%||10.86%||60.87%||Fregel 2009|
|El Hierro||32||21.88%||12.49%||34.37%||Fregel 2009|
|Gran Canaria||80||11.25%||10%||21.25%||Fregel 2009|
|La Palma||68||17.65%||1.47%||19.12%||Fregel 2009|
An autosomal study in 2011 found an average North African influence of about 17% in Canary Islanders with a wide interindividual variation ranging from 0% to 96%. According to the authors, the substantial North African ancestry found for Canary Islanders supports that, despite the aggressive conquest by the Spanish in the 15th century and the subsequent immigration, genetic footprints of the first settlers of the Canary Islands persist in the current inhabitants. Paralleling mtDNA findings, the largest average North African contribution was found for the samples from La Gomera.
|Canary Islands||N||Average |
|Total Canary Islanders||104||17.40%|
In Sicily, the contribution of Northwest African populations is estimated to be about 6%-8% which shows a "genetic affinity between Sicily and Northwest Africa". In Italy, North African haplogroups were found especially in a region of Southern Italy (East Campania, Northwest Apulia, Lucera) at frequency of 4.7% due to Frederick II’s relocation of Sicilian Muslims in the city of Lucera in the 13th century. Haplogroup U6 have also been detected in Sicily and Southern Italy at very low levels. In a 2014 study by Stefania Sarno et al. with 326 samples from Cosenza, Matera, Lecce and 5 Siclian provinces, E-M81 shows an average frequency of 1.5%, but the typical Maghrebin core haplotype 13-14-30-24-9-11-13 has been found in only two out of the five E-M81 individuals. These results, along with the negligible contribution from North-African populations revealed by the admixture-like plot analysis, suggest only a marginal impact of trans-Mediterranean gene flows on the current SSI genetic pool.
Haplogroup E-M81 is also found in some regions of France (excluding recent immigration as only men with French surnames were analysed). 2.70% (15/555) overall with frequencies surpassing 5% in Auvergne (5/89) and Île-de-France (5/91).
According to a genetic study in 2000 based on HLA, French from Marseilles "are more or less isolated from the other western European populations. They are in an intermediate position between the Northwest Africans (Algerians from Algiers and Oran; Tunisians) and the western Europeans populations (France, Spain, and Portugal)". According to the authors "these results cannot be attributed to recent events because of the knowledge of the grandparents’ origin" in the sample. This study reveals "that the southern French population from Marseilles is related genetically to the southwestern Europeans and Northwest Africans, who are geographically close" and that "a substantial gene flow has thus probably been present among the populations of these neighboring areas".
As a consequence of Spanish and Portuguese colonization of Latin America, Northwest African haplogroups are also found throughout Latin America especially in Brazil and Cuba where frequencies surpass generally 5%. and among Hispanic men in USA.
According to Fregel et al. (2009), the fact that male North African E-M81 and female U6 lineages from the Canaries have been detected in Cuba and Iberoamerica, demonstrates that Canary Islanders with indigenous Guanche ancestors actively participated in the American colonization.
The Greater Maghreb have hosted several languages. Berber or also known as Amazigh is the indigenous language family of the region, belonging to the greater Afro-Asiatic family. Two thousand years ago, Punic, Berber and Latin would have alternated in communication among the populations of Northwest Africa and the rest of the Mediterranean basin. The Arabic language as known throughout the region nowadays arrived later in the Greater Maghreb with the historical Arab conquest and Islam. This language ousted the Berber languages in its various variants, although the process was a long time one, Berber has long been a very prominent language in Algeria and Morocco till our contemporary era. Romance language itself might still have existed in the Greater Maghreb in the 12th century. The Greater Maghreb once again became partly Romance with colonisation. From the 1830s, the French began by conquering Algeria, where French was declared the official language of the country. It also obtains the position of highly placed languages of local elites.
The Berber language also has official status in Algeria and Morocco. While French is doing well in the region at the start of the 21st century.
English is becoming quite popular as a second language subject at schools across the Greater Maghreb.
- Maghrebi Jews
- Northwest Africa
- List of Maghrebis
- E1b1b1b (Y-DNA)
- Berber Revolt
- Berber Spring
- Muslim conquest of North Africa
- Berbers and Islam
- Berber Jews
- Arabized Berber
- Kabylism, Algerianism, Berberism
- Barbary Coast
References and notes
The citations in this 2 lack sufficient bibliographical information (e.g. author, title, date of publication, publisher, ISBN, OCLC number, pages cited, etc.). (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- without Ceuta and Melilla
- "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia". National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. 12 September 2014. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Estimé à six millions d'individus, l'histoire de leur enracinement, processus toujours en devenir, suscite la mise en avant de nombreuses problématiques...", « Être Maghrébins en France » in Les Cahiers de l’Orient, n° 71, troisième trimestre 2003
- Maghreb people represent 45% of people born in Arab countries who emigrated to Europe and N.America, they are 41% of the all Immigrants in Europe
- CIA World Factbook. "Libya". Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "1: Répartition spatiale de la population" (PDF). Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat (RGPH) 2013 (Report) (in French). National Statistical Office of Mauritania. July 2015. p. v. Retrieved 20 December 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census
- Titus Burckhardt, "Moorish culture in Spain". Suhail Academy. 1997, p.7
- *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001
- Lucien Oulahbib, Le monde arabe existe-t-il ?, page 12, 2005, Editions de Paris, Paris.
- Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011)
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Carolyn Burke. No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, p.5
- Michèle Tribalat , « Mariages « mixtes » et immigration en France », Espace populations sociétés [En ligne] , 2009/2 | 2009 , mis en ligne le 01 avril 2011
- Michèle Tribalat, « Une estimation des populations d’origine étrangère en France en 2011 », Espace populations sociétés, 2015/1-2, en ligne
- Les immigrés, les descendants d'immigrés et leurs enfants, Pascale Breuil-Genier, Catherine Borrel, Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee 2011
- Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°126, p.436
- Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
- Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
- Drouet, Jean-Baptiste; Alex Masson (December 2008). "Culture Le cinéma français est-il raciste ?". Première (in French): 75–78.
- Marie-Claude Chamla in Physical Anthropology of European Populations, Mouton, 1980, p.264: "Basically, there are three main types to be found (...). The Mediterranean element is always the major one making up about three-quarters of the population , and it appears to have three recognizable variants: (1) an Ibero-insular type (...); (2) an Atlanto-Mediterranean type (...); (3) finally, a type called "Saharan", rather infrequent (...). A second element which is fundamental but not widespread has been classed as Alpine by certain authors. (...) They constitute about one-tenth of the population, but it does not seem that they can be confused with the European Alpine type (...). A third element with Armenoid ties characterizes less than ten percent of the subjects (...). Beside these classes, some traces of the ancient Mechta-Afalou type can be found (...)."
- Marie-Claude Chamla in Physical Anthropology of European Populations, Mouton, 1980, p.265-66 :"Green or light chestnut-colored eyes can frequently be found in the mountains areas (Kabylie and especially aures) and in the high plains of the east. This relative frequency of "mixed" colored eyes is not peculiar to Algerians but is apparent in other countries of Northwest Africa as well, especially in Morocco (...) The frequency of pale-colored eyes (blue and gray), varies from two to fifteen percent according to the region concerned"
- Coudray C, Olivieri A, Achilli A, et al. (March 2009). "The Complex and Diversified Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Berber Populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (2): 196–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00493.x. ISSN 0003-4800. PMID 19053990.
- Henn BM, Botigué LR, Gravel S, Wang W, Brisbin A, et al. (January 2012). Schierup MH, ed. "Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations". PLOS Genetics. 8 (1): e1002397. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397. PMC 3257290. PMID 22253600.
- combined (Semino et al. 2004 30%) & (Arredi et al. 2004 32%)
- Alshamali F, Pereira L, Budowle B, Poloni ES, Currat M (2009). "Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula revealed by Y-STR diversity". Hum. Hered. 68 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1159/000210448. PMID 19339785.
- *Alshamali et al. 2009 81% (84/104) *Malouf et al. 2008: 70% (28/40) *Cadenas et al. 2008:45/62 = 72.6% J1-M267
- Robino, C; Crobu, F; Di Gaetano, C; et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". Int. J. Legal Med. 122: 251–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. PMID 17909833.
- Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, et al. (April 2001). "High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (4): 1019–29. doi:10.1086/319521. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1275654. PMID 11254456.
- Nebel A, Landau-Tasseron E, Filon D, et al. (June 2002). "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (6): 1594–6. doi:10.1086/340669. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 379148. PMID 11992266.
- Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, et al. (May 2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.
- Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, et al. (August 2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (2): 338–345. doi:10.1086/423147. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071.
- Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, et al. (May 2004). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509.
- Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (3): 251–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. ISSN 0937-9827. PMID 17909833.
- Onofri V, Alessandrini F, Turchi C, et al. (August 2008). "Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 1 (1): 235–6. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.173.
- "E-M81 YTree". www.yfull.com.
- Ennafaa et al. (2011)
- Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, José M.; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M. (2013-02-19). "Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e56775. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856775B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3576335. PMID 23431392.
- Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (3): 251–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. PMID 17909833.
- Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, et al. (August 2004). "A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (2): 338–45. doi:10.1086/423147. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071.
- Dugoujon J.M., Coudray C., Torroni A., Cruciani F., Scozzari F., Moral P., Louali N., Kossmann M. The Berber and the Berbers: Genetic and linguistic diversities. In: D'Errico, Francesco; Hombert, Jean Marie (2009). Becoming Eloquent: Advances in the Emergence of Language, Human Cognition, and Modern Cultures. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-3269-5.
- Bekada, Asmahan; Arauna, Lara R.; Deba, Tahria; Calafell, Francesc; Benhamamouch, Soraya; Comas, David (2015-09-24). "Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138453. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038453B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138453. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4581715. PMID 26402429.
- Ennafaa; Fregel; Khodjet-el-khil; Gonzalez (2011), "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome microstructure in Tunisia", Journal of Human Genetics, 56: 734–41, doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.92, PMID 21833004
- Fadhlaoui-Zid, K.; Martinez-Cruz, B.; Khodjet-el-khil, H.; Mendizabal, I.; Benammar-Elgaaied, A.; Comas, D. (2011). "Genetic structure of Tunisian ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 146: 271–80. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21581. PMID 21915847.
- Ahmed, Reguig,; Nourdin, Harich,; Abdelhamid, Barakat,; Hassan, Rouba, (2014-01-01). "Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup and Analysis of its Subclades in Morocco". 86 (2).
- Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M. (2009-08-03). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893.
- Ottoni C, Larmuseau MH, Vanderheyden N, Martínez-Labarga C, Primativo G, Biondi G, Decorte R, Rickards O (May 2011). "Deep into the roots of the Libyan Tuareg: a genetic survey of their paternal heritage". Am J Phys Anthropol. 145 (1): 118–24. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21473. PMID 21312181.
- Achilli A, Rengo C, Battaglia V, et al. (May 2005). "Saami and Berbers—An Unexpected Mitochondrial DNA Link". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 76 (5): 883–6. doi:10.1086/430073. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1199377. PMID 15791543.
- Brakez Z, Bosch E, Izaabel H, et al. (May–June 2001). "Human mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Moroccan population of the Souss area". Annals of Human Biology. 28 (3): 295–307. doi:10.1080/030144601300119106. ISSN 0301-4460. PMID 11393336.
- Cherni L, Loueslati BY, Pereira L, et al. (February 2005). "Female Gene Pools of Berber and Arab Neighboring Communities in Central Tunisia: Microstructure of mtDNA Variation in North Africa". Human Biology. 77 (1): 61–70. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0028. ISSN 0018-7143. PMID 16114817.
- Fadhlaoui-Zid, K; Plaza, S; Calafell, F; Ben Amor, M; Comas, D; Bennamar El Gaaied, A; Gaaied, El (May 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers" (PDF). Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 3): 222–33. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00096.x. ISSN 0003-4800. PMID 15180702.
- Krings, M; Salem, A; Bauer, K; Geisert, H; Malek, A; Chaix, L; Simon, C; Welsby, D; Dirienzo, A (1999). "mtDNA Analysis of Nile River Valley Populations: A Genetic Corridor or a Barrier to Migration?". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 (4): 1166–76. doi:10.1086/302314. PMC 1377841. PMID 10090902.
- Loueslati et al. 2006[verification needed]
- Macaulay, V; Richards, M; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Cruciani, F; Guida, V; Scozzari, R; Bonné-Tamir, B; Sykes, B (Jan 1999). "The Emerging Tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: A Synthesis of Control-Region Sequences and RFLPs". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 (1): 232–49. doi:10.1086/302204. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1377722. PMID 9915963.
- Olivieri, A.; Achilli, A; Pala, M; Battaglia, V; Fornarino, S; Al-Zahery, N; Scozzari, R; Cruciani, F; Behar, DM (Dec 2006). "The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa". Science. 314 (5806): 1767–70. Bibcode:2006Sci...314.1767O. doi:10.1126/science.1135566. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17170302.
- Plaza, S.; Calafell, F; Helal, A; Bouzerna, N; Lefranc, G; Bertranpetit, J; Comas, D (2003). "Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean" (PDF). Annals of Human Genetics. 67 (Pt 4): 312–28. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00039.x. PMID 12914566.
- Rando, JC; Pinto, F; González, AM; Hernández, M; Larruga, JM; Cabrera, VM; Bandelt, HJ (Nov 1998). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of North African populations reveals genetic exchanges with European, Near-Eastern, and sub-Saharan populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 62 (Pt 6): 531–50. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6260531.x. ISSN 0003-4800. PMID 10363131.
- Stevanovitch, A.; Gilles, A; Bouzaid, E; Kefi, R; Paris, F; Gayraud, RP; Spadoni, JL; El-Chenawi, F; Béraud-Colomb, E (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 1): 23–39. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00057.x. PMID 14748828.
- Coudray, C; Olivieri, A; Achilli, A; Pala, M; Melhaoui, M; Cherkaoui, M; El-Chennawi, F; Kossmann, M; Torroni, A (Mar 2009). "The Complex and Diversified Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Berber Populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (2): 196–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00493.x. ISSN 0003-4800. PMID 19053990.
- Cherni, L; Fernandes, V; Pereira, JB; Costa, MD; Goios, A; Frigi, S; Yacoubi-Loueslati, B; Amor, MB; Slama, A (Jun 2009). "Post-last glacial maximum expansion from Iberia to North Africa revealed by fine characterization of mtDNA H haplogroup in Tunisia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 139 (2): 253–60. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20979. ISSN 0002-9483. PMID 19090581.
- Ottoni C, Primativo G, Hooshiar Kashani B, Achilli A, Martínez-Labarga C, et al. (2010). Kayser M, ed. "Mitochondrial Haplogroup H1 in North Africa: An Early Holocene Arrival from Iberia". PLoS ONE. 5 (10): e13378. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513378O. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013378. PMC 2958834. PMID 20975840.
- Harich (2010). "The trans-Saharan slave trade - clues from interpolation analyses and high-resolution characterization of mitochondrial DNA lineages".
- Frigi; et al. (2010). "Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian Berber Populations". Human Biology. 82 (4).
- Henn BM, Botigué LR, Gravel S, Wang W, Brisbin A, et al. (2012). "Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations". PLoS Genet. 8 (1): e1002397. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397. PMC 3257290. PMID 22253600.
- Sánchez-Quinto F, Botigué LR, Civit S, Arenas C, Ávila-Arcos MC, et al. (2012). "North African Populations Carry the Signature of Admixture with Neandertals". PLoS ONE. 7 (10): e47765. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...747765S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047765. PMC 3474783. PMID 23082212.
- Sánchez-Quinto F et al. 2012
- "With the reassuring exception of the Basque population isolate, the Iberian Peninsula showed the greatest imprint. Specifically, southwestern European populations averaged between 4% and 20% of their genomes assigned to a Northwest African ancestral cluster, whereas this value did not exceed 2% in southeastern European populations. " Karl Skorecki and Doron M. Behar, North Africans traveling north PNAS July 16, 2013 vol. 110 no. 29 Karl Skorecki, 11668–11669
- Botigué, LR; et al. (2013). "Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 110 (29): 11791–11796. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11011791B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1306223110. PMC 3718088. PMID 23733930.
- David Comas, one of the authors of the study : "La cifra del 20% sólo se da en Canarias, para el resto del país oscila entre el 10% y 12%", Los españoles somos los europeos con más genes magrebíes, Huffington post, 3 June 2013
- See Data Supplements, "Table S11.2: Estimates of African admixture in Spanish population", p.65 in Lazaridis; et al. (2014). "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans" (PDF). arXiv:1312.6639. doi:10.1101/001552.
- Capelli et al. 2008
- Flores, C; Maca-Meyer, N; González, AM; Oefner, PJ; Shen, P; Pérez, JA; Rojas, A; Larruga, JM; Underhill, PA (October 2004). "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography" (Free full text). European Journal of Human Genetics. 12 (10): 855–63. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201225. ISSN 1018-4813. PMID 15280900. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Beleza, S; Gusmão, L; Lopes, A; Alves, C; Gomes, I; Giouzeli, M; Calafell, F; Carracedo, A; Amorim, A (Mar 2006). "Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages". Annals of Human Genetics. 70 (Pt 2): 181–94. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x. ISSN 0003-4800. PMID 16626329.
- Adams, SM; Bosch, E; Balaresque, PL; Ballereau, SJ; Lee, AC; Arroyo, E; López-Parra, AM; Aler, M; Grifo, MS (Dec 2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–36. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982.
- Capelli, C; Onofri, V; Brisighelli, F; Boschi, I; Scarnicci, F; Masullo, M; Ferri, G; Tofanelli, S; Tagliabracci, A (Jun 2009). "Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 848–52. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.258. ISSN 1018-4813. PMC 2947089. PMID 19156170.
- Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Pascone, R; Moral, P; Watson, E; Guida, V; Colomb, EB (May 2004). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509.
- "The study shows that religious conversions and the subsequent marriages between people of different lineage had a relevant impact on modern populations both in Spain, especially in the Balearic Islands, and in Portugal", The religious conversions of Jews and Muslims have had a profound impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula Archived 21 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Elena Bosch, 2008
- Pereira, Luisa; Cunha, Carla; Alves, Cintia; Amorim, Antonio (2005). "African Female Heritage in Iberia: A Reassessment of mtDNA Lineage Distribution in Present Times". Human Biology. 77 (2): 213–29. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0041. PMID 16201138.
- Plaza, S.; Calafell, F; Helal, A; Bouzerna, N; Lefranc, G; Bertranpetit, J; Comas, D (2003). "Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean". Annals of Human Genetics. 67 (Pt 4): 312–28. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00039.x. PMID 12914566.
- González, AM; Brehm, A; Pérez, JA; Maca-Meyer, N; Flores, C; Cabrera, VM (Apr 2003). "Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 120 (4): 391–404. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10168. ISSN 0002-9483. PMID 12627534.
- Alvarez L, Santos C, Ramos A, Pratdesaba R, Francalacci P, Aluja MP (February 2010). "Mitochondrial DNA patterns in the Iberian Northern plateau: Population dynamics and substructure of the Zamora province". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 142 (4): 531–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21252. PMID 20127843.
- Casas MJ, Hagelberg E, Fregel R, Larruga JM, González AM (December 2006). "Human mitochondrial DNA diversity in an archaeological site in al-Andalus: genetic impact of migrations from North Africa in medieval Spain". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 131 (4): 539–51. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20463. PMID 16685727.
- Pereira, V. N.; Gomes, V. N.; Amorim, A. N.; Gusmão, L.; João Prata, M. (September–October 2010). "Genetic characterization of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity". American Journal of Human Biology. 22 (5): 588–595. doi:10.1002/ajhb.21049. PMID 20737604.
- Brehm A.; Pereira L.; Kivisild T.; Amorim A. (2003). "Mitochondrial portraits of the madeira and açores archipelagos witness different genetic pools of its settlers". Hum Genet. 114 (1): 77–86. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1024-3. PMID 14513360.
- Hernández, CL; Reales, G; Dugoujon, JM; Novelletto, A; Rodríguez, JN; Cuesta, P; Calderón, R (2014). "Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region". BMC Genet. 15: 11. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-11. PMC 3905667. PMID 24460736.
- Pereira, Luisa; Cunha, Carla; Alves, Cintia; Amorim, António (2005). "African Female Heritage in Iberia: A Reassessment of mtDNA Lineage Distribution in Present Times". Human Biology. 77 (2): 213–229. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0041. PMID 16201138.
- Achilli, A; Olivieri, A, Pala, M, Metspalu, E, Fornarino, S, Battaglia, V, Accetturo, M, Kutuev, I, Khusnutdinova, E, Pennarun, E, Cerutti, N, Di Gaetano, C, Crobu, F, Palli, D, Matullo, G, Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS, Cavalli-Sforza, LL, Semino, O, Villems, R, Bandelt, HJ, Piazza, A, Torroni, A (April 2007). "Mitochondrial DNA variation of modern Tuscans supports the near eastern origin of Etruscans". American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (4): 759–68. doi:10.1086/512822. PMC 1852723. PMID 17357081.
- Casas MJ, Hagelberg E, Fregel R, Larruga JM, Gonzalez AM (2006). "Human mitochondrial DNA diversity in an archaeological site in al-Andalus: genetic impact of migrations from North Africa in medieval Spain". Am J Phys Anthropol. 131 (4): 539–551. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20463. PMID 16685727.
- Alvarez L, Santos C, Ramos A, Pratdesaba R, Francalacci P, Aluja MP (Aug 2010). "Mitochondrial DNA patterns in the Iberian Northern plateau: population dynamics and substructure of the Zamora province". Am J Phys Anthropol. 142 (4): 531–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21252. PMID 20127843.
- Alvarez JC, Johnson DL, Lorente JA, Martinez-Espin E, Martinez-Gonzalez LJ, Allard M, Wilson MR, Budowle B.Characterization of human control region sequences for Spanish individuals in a forensic mtDNA data set. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2007 Nov;9(6) 293-304
- Picornell A, Gómez-Barbeito L, Tomàs C, Castro JA, Ramon MM (Sep 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA HVRI variation in Balearic populations". Am J Phys Anthropol. 128 (1): 119–30. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10423.
- Maca-Meyer, N; Arnay, M; Rando, JC; Flores, C; González, AM; Cabrera, VM; Larruga, JM (Feb 2004). "Ancient mtDNA analysis and the origin of the Guanches" (Free full text). European Journal of Human Genetics. 12 (2): 155–62. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201075. ISSN 1018-4813. PMID 14508507.
- Brehm, A; Pereira, L; Kivisild, T; Amorim, A (Dec 2003). "Mitochondrial portraits of the Madeira and Açores archipelagos witness different genetic pools of its settlers". Human Genetics. 114 (1): 77–86. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1024-3. ISSN 0340-6717. PMID 14513360.
- Fregel R, Gomes V, Gusmão L, et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893.
- Fregel; et al. (2009). "The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)". Euro J Hum Gen. 17 (10): 1314–1324. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.46. PMC 2986650. PMID 19337312.
- Pino-Yanes M, Corrales A, Basaldúa S, Hernández A, Guerra L, et al. (2011). O'Rourke D, ed. "North African Influences and Potential Bias in Case-Control Association Studies in the Spanish Population". PLoS ONE. 6 (3): e18389. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...6E8389P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018389. PMC 3068190. PMID 21479138.
- Di Gaetano, C; Cerutti, N; Crobu, F; Robino, C; Inturri, S; Gino, S; Guarrera, S; Underhill, PA; King, RJ (Jan 2009). "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (1): 91–9. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.120. ISSN 1018-4813. PMC 2985948. PMID 18685561.
- Cruciani, F.; La Fratta, R; Trombetta, B; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Colomb, EB; Dugoujon, JM; Crivellaro, F; Benincasa, T (Jun 2007). "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12" (Free full text). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (6): 1300–11. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 17351267.
- Pertovaara, Antti; Kauppila, Timo; Mecke, Ernst (1991). "An Attempted Reversal of Cocaine-Induced Analgesia by Dexamethasone". Pharmacology & Toxicology. 68 (2): 93–95. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1991.tb02042.x.
- Di Gaetano et al. 2009
- Sarno, S; Boattini, A; Carta, M; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Yao, DY; Ciani, G; Pettener, D; Luiselli, D. "An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy". PLoS ONE. 9: e96074. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...996074S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096074. PMC 4005757. PMID 24788788. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.
- Ramos-Luisa et al. (2009)
- Gibert M, Reviron D, Mercier P, Chiaroni J, Boetsch G (Sep 2000). "HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 polymorphisms in southern France and genetic relationships with other Mediterranean populations". Hum Immunol. 61 (9): 930–6. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(00)00158-0. PMID 11053637.
- See the remarks of genetic genealogist Robert Tarín for example. We can add 6.1% (8 out of 132) in Cuba[unreliable source?]
- Sener, S. F.; Imperato, JP; Chmiel, J; Fremgen, A; Sylvester, J (Jan 1989). "The Use of Cancer Registry Data to Study Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level as an Indicator of Survival in Colorectal Cancer" (Free full text). CA – A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 39 (1): 50–7. doi:10.3322/canjclin.39.1.50. ISSN 0007-9235. PMID 2492877.
- Silva, DA; Carvalho, E; Costa, G; Tavares, L; Amorim, A; Gusmão, L (Nov 2006). "Y-chromosome genetic variation in Rio De Janeiro population". American Journal of Human Biology. 18 (6): 829–37. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20567. ISSN 1042-0533. PMID 17039481.
- Paracchini, S; Pearce, CL; Kolonel, LN; Altshuler, D; Henderson, BE; Tyler-Smith, C (Nov 2003). "A Y chromosomal influence on prostate cancer risk: the multi-ethnic cohort study". Journal of Medical Genetics. 40 (11): 815–9. doi:10.1136/jmg.40.11.815. ISSN 0022-2593. PMC 1735314. PMID 14627670.
- Rosa Fregel, Verónica Gomes, Leonor Gusmão, Ana M González , Vicente M Cabrera1 , António Amorim, Jose M Larruga et al. (2009) Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:181 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181
- Flores, C; Maca-Meyer, N; Larruga, JM; Cabrera, VM; Karadsheh, N; Gonzalez, AM (2005). "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan". Journal of Human Genetics. 50 (9): 435–41. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4. ISSN 1434-5161. PMID 16142507.
- The African roots of Latin Christianity by Henri Teissier, Regional Bishop of North Africa