Magic: The Gathering rules
Magic: The Gathering is a game with detailed and, at times, complex rules that govern play.
Beginning and ending the game
Each player uses their own deck to play the game. In most formats, a deck must have a minimum of 60 cards; there is no maximum deck size, but a player must be able to shuffle their deck without assistance. Some gameplay formats have exceptions or additional limitations to the above rules. In tournaments, players may be allowed the use of a sideboard containing up to 15 cards. Sideboard cards can be swapped for cards in the main deck in between games against the same opponent.
At the beginning of a game, each player shuffles his or her deck. Players then decide who will start, using any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin, for example). Each player then draws seven cards from his or her deck, otherwise known as a library, in order to form his or her starting hand. In turn order, each player may then decide to mulligan; that player shuffles his or her hand and library together and draws a new hand of seven cards. A player can do this as many times as they wish. They then put a card on the bottom of their library for each time they took a mulligan. In multiplayer games, players can mulligan for free one time, drawing seven cards again without penalty. Any further mulligans are penalized as normal.
A player wins the game by eliminating all opponents. Players typically begin the game with 20 life and lose when any of the following conditions are met:
- That player has 0 or negative life
- That player is required to draw a card but has no cards left in his or her library
- That player has 10 or more poison counters (although cards that apply poison are not printed frequently)
- That player has taken at least 21 combat damage from a “commander” (in commander formats)
- That player concedes
- Specific cards may also dictate (or prevent) other ways of winning or losing the game
At any given time, every card is located in one of the following "zones":
Library: The portion of the player's deck that is kept face down and is normally in random order (shuffled). When drawing a card, it is always the top card of the library. This is often erroneously referred to as a player's deck. However, the rules of Magic state that all cards in play (on the battlefield), in a player's hand, in the graveyard, exiled by any means, and even in the sideboard technically make up the player's "deck".
Hand: A player's hand of cards that can be played. They are kept hidden from other players. If a player has more than seven cards in hand at the end of his or her turn, any extras must be discarded.
Battlefield: The zone where permanents (see Types of cards) are placed and stay until otherwise removed. Unlike other zones, the battlefield is shared by all players.
Graveyard: A player's discard pile. When a card on the battlefield is destroyed, a card is discarded from hand, or after a single-use card is used (such as an instant or sorcery card), it is put in its owner's graveyard. These cards are face up, and can be examined by any player at any time.
The stack: This is the place for spells and abilities that have been cast or played, but have not yet resolved. While there are any spells or abilities on the stack, no player may play any spells that are not instants or allowed to be played as instants. This zone is also shared by all players. See the stack. Playing a land does not use the stack.
Exile: Cards that have been exiled by specific effects are put here. Unless a card says otherwise, cards in this zone are face-up. Comparatively few cards and abilities affect cards in the exile zone.
Command: Used mainly in some variant formats of play, cards that have a special status or abilities within the game are kept here. Examples are the "scheme" cards used in Archenemy or "plane" cards used for a Planechase game. Cards in the Command Zone can be affected by virtually nothing that affects cards in the other zones.
Tapping and untapping
Some spells or abilities require the player to tap a permanent as part of their cost. To indicate that a card in play has been tapped, it is turned sideways. An ability or spell that requires tapping cannot be used if the permanent is already tapped. Furthermore, a tapped creature cannot be declared as an attacker or blocker.
Instead of a cost, tapping can also be the effect of a spell or ability. In such a case, it makes no difference if that permanent was already tapped. A creature that attacks also gets tapped, unless it has vigilance, but a defending creature does not. Unless stated otherwise, tapping does not stop continuous abilities (e.g. enchantments or equipments) or triggered abilities from taking effect, nor does it disallow the use of abilities that do not require tapping.
At the beginning of each player's turn, that player untaps all cards he or she controls (unless otherwise stated by a card's effect) and can be tapped again as normal.
When a player uses an ability that produces mana, that mana is put in his or her "mana pool". There are five colors of mana: white, blue, black, red and green. Mana can also be colorless.
Mana in the mana pool can be used to pay costs. For example, a player plays a Swamp, then taps that swamp to add 1 black mana to their mana pool. Then, they use that mana to cast Dark Ritual. Dark Ritual adds 3 black mana to that player's mana pool. They then use two black mana to cast Night's Whisper, which costs 1 generic and 1 black mana (1B). The player has now used two of the three black mana in their mana pool. The one left over is "floating", meaning it can be used any time during the remainder of the phase. Any floating mana left over when a player proceeds to the next phase is depleted.
Mana costs and colors
Most cards other than lands have a mana cost. This is the amount of mana that must be spent to cast that card as a spell. Each mana symbol in the top right corner of the card represents one mana of that color that must be paid. A number in a gray circle next to the mana symbols represents how much additional generic mana must be paid; this additional mana can be of any color or colorless. For example, the cards Underworld Dreams, Hypnotic Specter, Warpath Ghoul and Whispersilk Cloak all cost three mana. However, the first card requires three black mana, while the last can be paid for with three mana of any color or combination of colors. The middle two cards require two and one mana, respectively, that must be black; the remainder can be any color. Note that the first three cards are black, but Whispersilk Cloak is colorless.
Some cards may require their owner to pay mana of two or more colors. These cards are multicolored. Some multicolored cards also use hybrid mana, which can be paid with one of two different colors. For example, the card Golgari Guildmage can be cast by spending either two black, two green, or one black and one green mana. Some cards have costs which can be paid with any color of mana, but are cheaper when a color requirement is met. For example, Beseech the Queen costs either three black mana, two black and two other, one black and four other, or six mana of any color. In all cases, a card's color is determined by the mana symbols in its cost, and not by the specific mana used to cast it. Additionally, some cards have Phyrexian mana in their costs. Phyrexian mana can be paid with either one mana of that color or with 2 life.
There are four general categories of abilities:
Spell abilities are abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving. Any text on an instant or sorcery spell is a spell ability unless it's an activated ability, a triggered ability, or a static ability that fits the criteria described in rule 112.6.
Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]" A player may activate such an ability whenever he or she has priority. Doing so puts it on the stack, where it remains until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities".
Triggered abilities have a trigger condition and an effect. They are written as "[Trigger condition], [effect]", and begin with the word "when", "whenever", or "at". Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability is put on the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities".
Static abilities are written as statements. They're simply true, and do not use the stack. Static abilities create continuous effects which are active while the permanent with the ability is on the battlefield and has the ability, or while the object with the ability is in the appropriate zone. See rule 604, "Handling Static Abilities".
Types of cards
All objects that remain on the battlefield are called permanents. Types of permanents include lands, creatures, enchantments, artifacts, and planeswalkers. In contrast, sorceries and instants go to the graveyard immediately after they are used.
Land cards tap to produce mana that is used to cast spells and activate abilities. They cost no mana to play; however, a player may play no more than one land per turn, and only during the main phases of his or her own turn. There are six types of basic lands (Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, Forest, and Wastes), one for each color (plus Wastes for colorless). These lands can each be tapped to produce one mana of the appropriate color. Other lands are non-basic and may produce other combinations or amounts of mana, or may have other abilities. Lands are not spells and cannot be countered. Playing a land does not use the stack and therefore occurs immediately, with no way for any player to stop it. Players are allowed to have any number of basic lands in a deck, but nonbasic lands follow the usual restriction of four copies of any one card per deck.
Creatures represent people or beasts that are summoned to the battlefield to attack opposing creatures or players and defend their controller from the attacks of enemy creatures. They normally cannot attack or use an ability with the "tap symbol" on the first turn they enter the battlefield. This is known as "summoning sickness". A creature with summoning sickness can block opposing creatures. Creatures have two values that represent their strength in combat, printed on the lower right-hand corner of the card. The first number is the creature's power, the amount of damage it deals in combat. The second number is its toughness; if it receives that much damage in a single turn, the creature is destroyed and placed in the graveyard.
Creatures usually have at least one creature type, located after the word "creature" in the type line. Creature types are simply markers and have no inherent abilities; for example, having the Bird type does not automatically give a creature the "flying" ability. Some non-creature cards have the "Tribal" type, which allows them to have creature types without being creatures themselves.
Enchantments represent persistent magical effects; they are spells that remain on the battlefield and alter some aspect of the game.
Some enchantments are attached to other cards on the battlefield (often creatures); these are known as Auras. They describe what they can be attached to in their "Enchant <something>" ability. For example, an Aura with "Enchant green creature" can only be attached to a green creature. If the card an Aura is attached to leaves the battlefield, or stops matching the Enchant ability, the Aura goes to the graveyard.
Early in Magic, there was a subset of enchantments known as "World Enchantments" that affected all players equally (for example, forcing them to play with their top card of their library revealed). In addition, only one World Enchantment could be in play at a time. Such enchantments no longer need to carry the "World" designations. Later, Tribal Enchantments (Enchantments with creature types) were introduced, as were Curses, enchantments that targeted one player specifically.
Artifacts represent magical items, animated constructs, pieces of equipment, or other objects and devices. Like enchantments, artifacts remain on the battlefield until something removes them. Many artifacts are also creatures; artifact creatures may attack and block as other creatures, and are affected by things that affect creatures.
Some artifacts are Equipment. Equipment cards enter the battlefield just like any other artifact, but may be attached to creatures using their Equip ability. This ability may only be used at the same time a player would be able to play a sorcery (i.e. only during the main phases of the player who controls it). The player who controls the Equipment pays the Equip cost and attaches it to a creature he or she also controls, unattaching it from any creature it was already attached to. In this way, the Equipment may be "unequipped" from a creature by paying the Equip cost and moving it to another creature. However, it may not be "unequipped" by choosing no creature; if for any reason the Equip ability cannot move the Equipment, it remains attached to its current creature. Like Auras, if control of the equipped creature changes, control of the Equipment does not change, nor is it unequipped. Unlike Auras, if an equipped creature is destroyed or otherwise leaves the battlefield, the Equipment stays on the battlefield unattached to anything; its controller can still attach it to a different creature by activating the Equip ability again. A player can only equip equipment to creatures controlled by that player.
Planeswalkers are extremely powerful spellcasters that can be called upon for aid. According to Magic lore, the player is a "planeswalker", a wizard of extraordinary power who can travel ("walk") between different realms or universes ("planes"); as such, planeswalker cards are meant to represent scaled-down versions of other players, with their decks represented by the card's abilities, and originally were designed to move through a roster of effects without player control, as though they had a mind of their own. Each planeswalker has a planeswalker type, which is a truncated version of his or her name. Only one version of a planeswalker card may be on the battlefield at one time. If two or more copies of the same planeswalker card are on the battlefield, their owner chooses one and the other is put into the owner's graveyards, though the rule was changed in Magic 2014 allowing two or more planeswalkers with the same type to exist on the battlefield if not controlled by the same player. Starting with Ixalan, all planeswalkers past, present, and future gained the supertype legendary and became subject to the "legend rule". Thus, if a player controls more than one legendary planeswalker with the same name, that player chooses one and puts the other into their owner's graveyard.
Planeswalkers' abilities are based on their loyalty, which is tracked with counters. The number printed in the lower right corner indicates how many loyalty counters the planeswalker enters the battlefield with. Planeswalkers' loyalty abilities each have a positive or negative loyalty cost; this is how many counters must be added (if positive) or removed (if negative) to activate that ability. Abilities with negative loyalty costs may only be activated if there are enough loyalty counters to remove. Regardless of the loyalty costs, a single planeswalker may only use one loyalty ability once per turn, and only on its controller's turn during his or her main phases.
Note that planeswalkers are neither creatures nor players, so most spells and abilities cannot target them directly. There are, however, two ways to deal damage to a planeswalker. Additionally, if a player attacks an opponent who controls a planeswalker, the player may declare any or all of the attacking creatures to be attacking the planeswalker instead. Those creatures may be blocked normally, but if not blocked deal damage to the planeswalker instead of the player. Whenever damage is dealt to a planeswalker, that many loyalty counters are removed from it. A planeswalker with no loyalty counters, either through use of its abilities or through damage, is put into the player's graveyard.
Sorceries and instants
Sorceries and instants both represent one-shot or short-term magical spells. They never enter the battlefield. Instead, they take effect and then are immediately put into their owner's graveyard.
Sorceries and instants differ only in when they can be cast. Sorceries may only be cast during the player's own main phases, and only when the stack is empty. Instants, on the other hand, can be cast at any time, including during other players' turns and while another spell or ability is waiting to resolve (see timing and the stack).
In sets released prior to 1999, a third type of one-shot spell card existed called Interrupts. Interrupts functioned similar to instants but altered how the stack was resolved. Interrupts received an errata which stated that, from that point forward, interrupts were treated exactly the same as instants.
Parts of a turn
The beginning phase is composed of three parts, or "steps". The first thing a player does is untap all cards he or she controls in the "untap step". Then, any abilities that trigger on the "upkeep step" happen, starting with the player of the current turn. These often include cards that require mana payments every turn. Then the player draws a card in the "draw step". In two-player games, the player who takes the first turn does not draw a card for that turn.
No player receives priority during the untap step, meaning that no cards or abilities can be played at that time. During the upkeep and draw steps, however, players can cast instants and activate abilities as normal.
First main phase
The main phase occurs immediately after the draw phase. During the main phase, a player may play any card from his or her hand unless that card specifies otherwise, and as long as he or she has the mana to pay its casting cost. This means creature, planeswalker, sorcery, instant, land, enchantment, and artifact cards are all acceptable to play. This is a player's chance to bring something onto the field.
Usually, players will start their main phase by playing a land. Then, as long as they have the mana to pay the casting cost, they will play any number of cards from their hand, reading the card's name so that other players may hear.
Once a player is ready to attack, he or she may end their main phase by declaring that the combat phase has started, or by simply attacking with their creatures.
The combat phase is split into four steps. It represents a point in the magical duel where the active player sends his or her creatures to attack the opposing player, in the hopes of doing damage to the player or the player's creatures. Aside from instants, activated abilities, and spells that are specifically noted as being able to be played at any time (e.g., creatures with flash), players may not cast spells during combat. Multiple creatures may attack at the same time, but the turn player may only declare their list of attackers once.
Beginning of combat
No specific actions take place at the beginning of combat step. This step mainly exists to allow players to cast spells and activate abilities that may alter how combat progresses. As the most common example, only untapped creatures may attack, so the defending player may cast instants or activate abilities that will tap a creature, preventing it from attacking.
The player whose turn it is declares which creatures he or she controls will attack. In most cases, creatures that are tapped, or that entered the battlefield this turn (i.e., creatures with summoning sickness) may not attack. Attacking causes a creature to become tapped. Both players are given a chance to cast instants and activate abilities after attackers have been declared.
After the attacking player declares attackers, the defending player chooses which creatures he or she will block with. A creature must be untapped in order for it to block. Unlike attacking, the act of blocking does not cause the blocking creatures to tap, and creatures with summoning sickness can block. Each creature can only block a single attacker, but the defending player may choose to block an attacking creature with more than one creature. Both players are given a chance to cast instants and activate abilities after blockers have been declared. If the blocker decides to combine defenses, the attacker gets to decide how attack points are distributed between the combined cards.
End of combat
Like the beginning of combat, nothing normally happens during this phase. When the end of combat step finishes, all cards are no longer in combat. Then the phase ends.
Second main phase
After the combat phase there is another main phase. The second main phase is identical to the first, except a player can only put down a land if that player did not place a land in the first main phase.
The ending phase has two steps: "end step" and "cleanup". During the end step, abilities that trigger "at the beginning of the end step" go on the stack. This is the last chance players have to cast instants or activate abilities this turn.
During the cleanup step, the active player discards down to his or her maximum hand size (usually 7 (seven)), then simultaneously, all damage marked on permanents is removed and all "until end of turn" and "this turn" effects end. The game then checks for any state based actions that need to be performed or if any triggered abilities are waiting to be put on to the stack, if there are, all state based actions are performed and then all triggered abilities are put on to the stack and the active player gets priority. once the stack is empty and all players pass priority, a new cleanup step begins. If there are no triggered abilities put onto the stack during the cleanup step, no player receives priority during the cleanup step, so no spells can be cast and no activated abilities can be activated.
Timing and the stack
The most versatile aspect of Magic is that after most spells and abilities are cast or activated, but before they actually take effect ("resolve"), all players get a chance to "respond" to them. This means they can cast a different spell or activate another ability that will resolve first, often either invalidating or reinforcing the effect of the first spell. The mechanism that accomplishes this is called "the stack". It is where spells and abilities go to wait for any responses that may get played.
Spells that are permanents that end up on the battlefield; sorcery spells; and abilities that say "activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery" cannot be cast or activated as responses. They can only be cast or activated when the stack is empty, only on the turn of whoever casts or activates them, and only in a main phase. In contrast, activated abilities, instant spells, and spells that have the ability flash can be played on anybody's turn and in most steps of the game, go on the stack "on top of" anything that is already there, and will resolve first. Many players refer to this difference as "speed", but that is a misleading term, because neither is "faster" than the other; the only difference is when they can be played.
Playing lands, most abilities that produce mana, and certain other special actions do not use the stack; they bypass the rules below and take effect immediately.
When a player casts a spell or activates an ability, it does not immediately take effect. Instead, it is placed on the stack. That player then receives priority again, which gives him or her a chance to respond to it with spells or abilities. Each new spell or ability is put on top of the stack in turn, with the newest on top and the oldest at the bottom. A player with priority can add as many spells or abilities to the stack as he or she can pay for, but is not required to; if a player declines to respond to the latest spell or ability, he or she "passes priority" to the next player in turn order.
When all players have passed priority in succession, the top-most spell or ability on the stack resolves. If it was a sorcery, instant, or ability, the player carries out the instructions; if it would create a permanent, it enters the battlefield. Every time a spell or ability finishes resolving, players (starting with the player whose turn it is) can once again add more to the stack; if they don't, the new top-most spell or ability will resolve.
When the stack is empty, the player whose turn it is gets priority first. If all players pass priority while the stack is empty, the game proceeds to the next step or phase of the turn.
Tom is attacking Norman with a Hill Giant, a 3/3 creature (meaning it has 3 power and 3 toughness). Norman chooses to block with his Grizzly Bears, a weaker 2/2 creature. If nothing else happened, the Hill Giant would deal 3 damage to the Grizzly Bears and kill them, while the Bears would deal 2 damage to the Giant, making Hill Giant "the winner".
However, Norman decides to cast his Giant Growth spell to give +3/+3 to his Grizzly Bears before combat damage is dealt. He taps a Forest to pay for the spell, and puts Giant Growth on the stack. Tom, who does not want to give the Grizzly Bears a chance to grow to 5/5 and kill his Hill Giant, responds by casting Shock targeting the Grizzly Bears. He taps one Mountain to pay for the spell, and puts Shock on the stack on top of Giant Growth. If Norman had no other spells, then Tom's Shock would resolve first and deal 2 damage to the Grizzly Bears, killing them. His Giant Growth would then go to the graveyard with no effect because the Bears would no longer be on the battlefield and would thus be an illegal target. Fortunately for Norman, he has another spell to cast. He taps a Plains and casts Mending Hands targeting his Grizzly Bears. Now Mending Hands is on top of the stack, with Shock and then Giant Growth beneath it.
Since both players are out of spells to cast, the top spell on the stack resolves. Mending Hands creates a "damage prevention shield" that will prevent up to 4 points of damage to Norman's Bears, and is put into Norman's graveyard after it resolves. Neither player chooses to cast anything else at this point, so Tom's Shock resolves. It attempts to deal 2 damage to Grizzly Bears, but Norman's Mending Hands prevents the damage, and Shock is put into Tom's graveyard. Finally, Norman's Giant Growth resolves and makes Grizzly Bears a 5/5 creature until end of turn. Giant Growth then goes to Norman's graveyard.
Once combat damage is dealt, the now 5/5 Grizzly Bears deal 5 damage to the Hill Giant and easily kills it. Hill Giant attempts to deal 3 damage to the Grizzly Bears, but the remainder of Norman's damage prevention shield prevents a further 2 damage (totaling 4 damage) and Grizzly Bears only takes 1 damage.
When Tom's turn ends, the single point of damage is removed from the Grizzly Bears, and the Giant Growth effect wears off at the same time. As Norman's turn begins, his Grizzly Bears are undamaged and 2/2.
Certain spells (and abilities) allow a player to counter other spells (or abilities). These spells must be cast while the spells they will affect are still on the stack. If a spell is countered, it is moved from the stack to its owner's graveyard when counterspell resolves. It does not resolve, and has no effect unless the card states otherwise. If the spell would create a permanent, it never enters the battlefield. Some spells state that they cannot be countered.
There is one other way for a spell to be "countered". If the spell targets something (such as Giant Growth or Shock), then the target must be legal both when the spell is cast and when it resolves. A spell can't be cast without a legal target; if the target becomes illegal while the spell is on the stack, then the spell is countered by the game rules (for having an illegal target) just before it would start to resolve. If a spell is countered this way, then no part of the spell — even a non-targeting part of the spell's effect — takes place. This is referred to as 'Countered Upon Resolution' (formerly "Fizzling").
Countered upon resolution
When certain spells and abilities allow a player to target other spells, abilities, or permanents, if the spell or ability is responded to in a way that makes the targeted spell, ability, or permanent illegal, the targeting spell will be countered upon resolution (this used to be referred to as "fizzling") and no effects of the countered spell will resolve.
If a spell has multiple targets, then all of them must be legal for it to be cast, and all must be made illegal for the spell to be countered. For example, the card Reckless Spite destroys two target nonblack creatures, but its controller will lose 5 life. If there is only one legal target for Reckless Spite, then it cannot be cast. If it is initially cast on two legal targets, but one legal target becomes an illegal target before Reckless Spite resolves (for example, if an instant is cast that grants shroud to that creature) the other will still be destroyed and Reckless Spite's caster will lose 5 life. If it is initially cast on two legal targets, and both targets are both made illegal targets before Reckless Spite resolves, then the entire spell is countered.
Some cards have abilities that are not fully explained on the card. These are known as "keyword" abilities, and consist of a word or phrase whose meaning is defined by the rules. Keyword abilities are usually given reminder text in the set in which they are introduced. There are over forty such abilities. In most cases, multiple instances of the same keyword on an object have no additional effect.
Keywords can be classified into two different types: Evergreen or Mechanics. Some common evergreen keywords are Flying (Creature can only be blocked by creatures with Flying or Reach), Indestructible (Creature cannot be destroyed by damage or other means), Trample (Excess damage dealt beyond the toughness of blocking creatures is dealt to defending player or planeswalkers), or Lifelink (Attacking player gains life equal to damage dealt). The mechanics however are not as common due to them rotating out in various formats. In spite of this some of them have gained popularity. These being: Flashback (recast the spell from your graveyard, then exile it), Cycling (Pay cost and discard the card to draw a card), Storm (The spell is repeated for the number of spells cast in that turn), Madness (If the spell is discarded pay the cost and cast it).
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