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Magical girls (魔法 少女 mahō shōjo, also known as mahou shoujo or majokko)[not verified in body] is a subgenre of Japanese fantasy anime and manga which feature girls who use magic. Although the genre has origins in Japan, it has been used as a motif outside Japan in Western works such as Miraculous Ladybug, Star vs. the Forces of Evil, Steven Universe, Winx Club and W.I.T.C.H..
Anime and manga
Manga and anime historians regard the Princess Knight manga, released in 1953, as the prototype for the magical girl genre.:77 Himitsu no Akko-chan, serialized nine years later (1962) in Ribon, is generally accepted to be the earliest magical girl manga.:8 Sally the Witch, adapted from the manga of the same name, is regarded by historians as the first magical girl anime.:78 Sally the Witch was inspired by the Japanese dub of the television series Bewitched.
Mahōtsukai Chappy (1972) and Majokko Megu-chan (1974–1975) popularized the term "majokko" (little witch) as a name for the genre. Megu-chan has been noted for its portrayal of multiple magical girls and the friendship between girls. Due to the women's lib movement in Japan, magical girls began displaying a "certain coquettishness" in the 1970s.
In the 1980s, Magical Princess Minky Momo (1982) and Creamy Mami, the Magic Angel (1983–1984) showed girls transforming into a "grown-up image of themselves". This has been linked to the increasing prominence of women at this time (such as politician Doi Takako, the girl band Princess Princess and pop idol Seiko Matsuda) and the passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act in 1985.
Kumiko Saito argues that magical girl anime is best understood as "twenty-five-minute advertisements for toy merchandise", highlighting the high production costs and the involvement of Bandai in Sailor Moon and Precure. She acknowledges that despite this and the childish plots, magical girl anime discuss gender roles and identities.
The Sailor Moon manga and anime are considered to have revitalized the genre in the 1990s and paved the way for later successful titles.:199 A key feature of the heroines of Sailor Moon is that their transformations make them look more feminine, as well as make them stronger. The romantic relationship between Usagi Tsukino and Mamoru Chiba and Usagi's care for her future daughter, Chibiusa are seen as points of difference between Sailor Moon and "typical Western superheroines". Another notable example is Cardcaptor Sakura, with its manga and subsequent animated series being highly popular in and outside Japan.
After 2003, magical girl anime marketed to male audiences such as Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha became a prolific trend alongside the traditional female-oriented works.[unreliable source][examples needed] The magical girl genre earned renewed popularity in the 2010s with the advent of Puella Magi Madoka Magica, whose mature themes and darker approach earned acclaim from viewers and critics outside its target audience.
Magical "boy" works
After 2010, there was a notable increase in series portraying "magical boys" in protagonist roles instead of the traditional supporting roles. Cute High Earth Defense Club Love! is a 2015 television magical boy anime series created by Kurari Umatani and produced by Diomedéa, which parodies tropes and cliches common to magical girl anime. In Is This a Zombie?, a zombie is resurrected by a necromancer after being killed by a serial killer, inadvertently gains "magical girl" powers, and is forced to become a "magical boy" (and thereby crossdress) in the process.[unreliable source?] In Shugo Chara!, released in 2006, half of the series' main characters are males that possess the same powers as their female counterparts.
In non-Japanese works
The Italian-animated series Winx Club uses a magical girl concept for its main characters, including transformations for each character.[unreliable source] In 2014, LoliRock debuted as a French anime-influenced animation series of the genre, and contains many references to Japanese magical girl franchises. Miraculous Ladybug, another French series, blends magical girl conventions with modern superhero action and adventure storytelling. Ragazze dell’Olimpo (Girls of Olympus), an Italian series by Elena Kedros, portrays a trio of magical girls who are reincarnations of the Olympian goddesses.
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It is also thanks to Sailor Moon that the following ten years saw the rise of the magical girl, a genre that had always been around but rarely saw such success. In the aftermath of Sailor Moon came Cardcaptor Sakura, Shugo Chara, Pretty Cure and the like. The genre even reached around the globe to other nations of animation, such as France’s W.I.T.C.H. novels and Italy’s popular animated series Winx Club.
- "Lolirock Arrives At Long Last to US". Bsckids.com. 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
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- Todesco, Bertrand (September 4, 2015). "Back to 2011! The creation of LoliRock - Part 1: Iris Genesis". Retrieved June 13, 2016 – via Tumblr.
- Anders, Ella (July 2, 2015). "Part Magical Girl, Part Superhero; Ladybug Arrives State-Side in Fall". BSC Kids. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Collins, Elle (December 3, 2015). "Teen French Heroes Ladybug & Cat Noir Arrive On Nickelodeon". Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
The influence of the Magical Girl genre is inescapable; when Marinette’s mother is captured in a bubble and carried off into the sky, apparently along with every adult in Paris, Marinette transforms into Ladybug in a series of twirls and poses, just as Sailor Moon and other magical girls always do. She even has the guidance of some kind of talking ladybug creature, fulfilling another Magical Girl trope.
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- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". ASPAC: Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Martinez, D.P. (1998). The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture (Reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521631289.