Magic in fiction
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Magic often serves as a plot device and has long been a component of fiction, from the days of Homer and Apuleius, down through the tales of the Holy Grail and King Arthur to more contemporary authors such as J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Ursula K. Le Guin, Robert Jordan, Terry Brooks, J.K. Rowling, Mercedes Lackey and Derek Landy.
- 1 Plot function
- 2 Historical beliefs
- 3 Fictional magic
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Within a work of fantasy, magics helps advance the plot, often providing power for the hero of the story and/or power for those who oppose him/her. The use of magic frequently manifests itself in a transformation of the character, if not the world.:143
Historically, witches like the Weird Sisters in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, wizards such as Prospero in The Tempest or characters like Doctor Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's play of the same name were widely considered to be real.:1027 Contemporary authors tend to treat magic as an imaginary idea, opting to world-build with a blank slate where the laws of reality do not carry as much weight.:1027
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Fictional magic may sometimes be inspired by non-fictional beliefs and practices, but it may also come as an invention of the writer. Even when the writer uses non-fictional beliefs and practices, the effect, strength, and rules of the magic will often depend on what the writer requires to move the plot forward. Fictional magic may or may not include a detailed magic system, but when the author does not bother to systematise the magic or create rules, it is more likely that magic will be used simply at the author's convenience, rather than as a necessary plot element.
In any given fantasy magical system, the magical ability of the character is limited. Limitations can add conflict to the story and prevent characters from becoming all-powerful with magic.:616 Fantasy writers use a variety of techniques to limit the amount of magic in a story, such as limiting the amount of spells a character has, restricting a character's magic to the use of a specific object, limiting magic to the use of certain materials and making the materials hard to find, or restricting the amount of magic a character can use due to negative consequences of using it.
How characters acquire magic
Authors introduce magic into their stories, and to their characters, in varying ways. Although there is great variation in how spontaneously magic occurs, how difficult it is to wield, and all the other rules that accompany magic, there are a handful of methods for introducing magic that can be found in many fictional works.
Magic as an innate talent
In many fantasy works, writers depict magic as an innate talent, equivalent to perfect pitch,:616 and there is wide variation on how spontaneously magical abilities develop for a person or other being with such a talent. Characters with talents that occur spontaneously usually require training in order to control their abilities. Those who use such spontaneously generated powers are usually not called magicians or similar titles, since those terms are often reserved for characters who have dedicated their life learning to wield magic.
Magic acquired through studying
Some works treat magic as a force that is acquired through studying books and tomes, aquired simply by learning an equation or memorizing a story. Works which feature this concept often include a school where magic is taught as a main setting.
Magic bestowed by another
Magic may also be gained by having it bestowed upon one character by another, such as a pact with a devil or with other spirits, a characteristic common in folklore. In some cases, the demon may only provide the means for the would-be wizard to learn magic, or the pact may be for the devil to do the magic on the wizard's behalf, forcing the wizard to compel it to act. Sword and sorcery heroes are depicted as fighting against this type of wizard, along with crazed cults where gods or demons give power to their followers.
Magic via enchanted objects
In some works, such as fairy tales, magic items either endow the main characters with magical powers or have magical powers themselves. They are often used as plot devices or MacGuffins to drive the plot of a story.[page needed] Such items may be created by magicians or powerful beings, often in the distant past, but aren't always possible to create at the present time of the story. Other fictional magical objects may have no explained past.
Wands and staves are often featured in fantasy works in the hands of wizards. Italian fairy tales put wands into the hands of the powerful fairies by the late Middle Ages and the concept was transmitted to modern fantasy.
Magic divided into separate areas
Magic via words, names, or language
Some works feature magic that is performed through using words to cast spells. While many works use this method without offering an explanation for it, others do offer an explanation,:134:167-168 which differs from one work to another.
Some works feature magic that is tied to a certain area, such as an enchanted forest or an ancient battlefield. Such places are usually the homes of powerful magical beings. In these works, magic can only be accessed and performed in the area in question and runs out when all of the magic in the area is used up.
- Magician (fantasy)
- Magic (Discworld), magic in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series.
- Magic (Earthsea), magic in the Earthsea series.
- Magic (Harry Potter), magic in the Harry Potter series.
- Magic in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien.
- One Power in the works of Robert Jordan.
- Master of the Five Magics in the works of Lyndon Hardy.
- Magic (gaming), magic in video and role-playing games.
- Kidō, magic in the Bleach anime and manga series.
- Magic in the Bartimaeus trilogy (Jonathan Stroud's series).
- Magic of Dungeons & Dragons
- The Will and the Word (The Belgariad)
- The Force (Star Wars), a magic-like concept in the Star Wars universe.
- Martin, Philip (2002). The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest: How to Write Fantasy Stories of Lasting Value (1st ed.). Waukesha, Wisconsin: Writer Books. ISBN 0871161958.
- Attebery, Brian (1980). The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253356652.
- Clute, John; Grant, John; Ashley, Mike; Hartwell, David G.; Westfahl, Gary (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312198698.
- "The Limits of Magic". Victorianweb.org. Archived from the original on 2004-08-23. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- "2001: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy (1st ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. pp. 47–49. ISBN 0898794161.
- Briggs, Katharine (1976). An Encyclopedia of Fairies: Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. p. 279. ISBN 039473467X.
- Thompson, Stith (1977). The Folktale. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520035379.
- Frye, Northrop (1971). Anatomy of Criticism; Four Essays (2nd ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0691012989.
- "Italian Fairies by Raffaella Benvenuto: Journal of Mythic Arts, Summer/Autumn, 2006, Endicott Studio". Endicott-studio.com. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- Bonser, Wilfrid (1 January 1925). "118. The Significance of Colour in Ancient and Mediaeval Magic: With Some Modern Comparisons.". Man. 25: 194–198. doi:10.2307/2840849. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Lawrence Watt-Evans, "Watt-Evans' Laws of Fantasy", Starlog
- Patricia C. Wrede, "Magic and Magicians", Fantasy Worldbuilding Questions
- Anders, C.J. (2011) "The Rules of Magic, According to the Greatest Fantasy Sagas of All Time" io9.com (includes 7x51 chart)